Levi Strauss & Co.
Levi Strauss & Co. is an American clothing company known worldwide for its Levi's brand of denim jeans. It was founded in May 1853 when German-Jewish immigrant Levi Strauss came from Buttenheim, Bavaria, to San Francisco, California to open a west coast branch of his brothers' New York dry goods business. Today's Levi's are made overseas, there is only one line of jeans made in the US, in Greensboro, NC; the company's corporate headquarters is located in the Levi's Plaza in San Francisco. Levi Strauss started the business at the 90 Sacramento Street address in San Francisco and moved the location to 62 Sacramento Street. In 1858, the company was listed as Strauss, Levi importers clothing etc. 63 & 65 Sacramento St. in the San Francisco Directory with Strauss serving as its sales manager and his brother-in-law, David Stern, as its manager. Jacob Davis, a Latvian Jewish immigrant, was a Reno, Nevada tailor who purchased bolts of cloth made from denim from Levi Strauss & Co.'s wholesale house. After one of Davis' customers kept purchasing cloth to reinforce torn pants, he had an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain, such as on the pocket corners and at the base of the button fly.
Davis did not have the required money to purchase a patent, so he wrote to Strauss suggesting that they go into business together. After Levi accepted Jacob's offer, on May 20, 1873, the two men received U. S. Patent 139,121 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office; the patented rivet was incorporated into the company's jean design and advertisements. Contrary to an advertising campaign suggesting that Levi Strauss sold his first jeans to gold miners during the California Gold Rush, the manufacturing of denim overalls only began in the 1870s; the company created their first pair of Levi's 501 Jeans in the 1890s. Modern jeans began to appear in the 1920s, but sales were confined to the working people of the western United States, such as cowboys and railroad workers. Levi’s jeans were first introduced to the East during the dude ranch craze of the 1930s, when vacationing Easterners returned home with tales of the hard-wearing pants with rivets. Another boost came in World War II, when blue jeans were declared an essential commodity and were sold only to people engaged in defense work.
Between the 1950s and 1980s, Levi's jeans became popular among a wide range of youth subcultures, including greasers, mods and hippies. Levi's popular shrink-to-fit 501s were sold in a unique sizing arrangement; the company still produces these unshrunk, uniquely sized jeans, they are still Levi's number one selling product. Although popular lore holds that the original design remains unaltered, this is not the case: the crotch rivet and waist cinch were removed during World War II to conform to War Production Board requirements to conserve metal, was not replaced after the war. Additionally, the back pocket rivets, covered in denim since 1937, were removed in the 1950s due to complaints they scratched furniture. From the early 1960s through the mid-1970s, Levi Strauss experienced significant growth in its business as the more casual look of the 1960s and 1970s ushered in the "blue jeans craze" and served as a catalyst for the brand. Levi's, under the leadership of Walter Haas, Peter Haas Sr. Paul Glasco and George P. Simpkins Sr. expanded the firm's clothing line by adding new fashions and models, including stone-washed jeans through the acquisition of Great Western Garment Company, a Canadian clothing manufacturer acquired by Levi's.
The acquisition led to the introduction of the modern "stone washing" technique, still in use by Levi Strauss. Simpkins is credited with the company's record-paced expansion of its manufacturing capacity from 16 plants to more than 63 plants in the United States from 1964 to 1974 and 23 overseas. Levi's' expansion under Simpkins was accomplished without a single unionized employee as a result of Levi's' and the Haas family's strong stance on human rights and Simpkins' use of "pay for performance" manufacturing from the sewing machine operator level up; as a result, Levi's' plants were voted the highest performing, best organized and cleanest textile facilities of their time. From a company with fifteen salespeople, two plants, no business east of the Mississippi in 1946, the organization grew in thirty years to include a sales force of more than 22,000, with 50 plants and offices in 35 countries. In the 1980s, The company closed around 60 of its manufacturing plants because of financial difficulties and strong competition from competitors.
The Dockers brand, launched in 1986 and, sold through department store chains, helped the company grow through the mid-1990s, as denim sales began to fade. Dockers were led by CEO Jorge Bardina. Levi Strauss attempted to sell the Dockers division in 2004 to relieve part of the company's $2.6 billion outstanding debt. By the 1990s, Levi's faced competition from other brands and cheaper products from overseas, began accelerating the pace of its US factory-closures and its use of offshore subcontracting agreements. In 1991, Levi Strauss became implicated in a scandal involving pants made in the Northern Mariana Islands: some 3% of Levi's jeans sold annually with the Made in the USA label were shown to have been made by Chinese laborers under what the United States Department of Labor called "slavelike" conditions; as of 2016, most Levi's jeans are made outside the US, though a few of th
Sober (Tool song)
"Sober" is a song by American rock band Tool. The song was released as Undertow. Tool guitarist Adam Jones has stated in an interview that the song is about a friend of the band whose artistic expression only comes out when he is under the influence. "A lot of people give him shit for that," Jones explains. "If you become addicted and a junkie, that's your fault." "Sober" is one of the earliest songs composed by Maynard James Keenan, with roots dating back to a 1987 live performance in which the song was called "Burn About Out". The song contains some lyrics from the first verse of "Sober", with the same basic melody, although the melody is faster and has an instrumental chorus; the song was recorded by MJK with Tool for the first time in mid-1991 on a demo tape titled 72826. A video for "Sober" was made in 1993, it was directed by Fred Stuhr. It was filmed using stop-motion animation, with the characters' models designed by Adam Jones, it was the first of Tool's videos to be made in stop motion, the earlier promo video for "Hush" being live action.
Whereas all four band members could be seen at all times during the previous clip and without instruments, "Sober" shows only brief flashes of them and playing. A live-action clay figure is shown vibrating violently; the video's protagonist is a small, humanoid being, who lives and sleeps in an abandoned mansion, in a rusty room sparsely decorated with a table, a chair, a bed with no mattress and a curtain as a blanket. He happens to stumble upon a wooden box, its contents are kept hidden for the majority of the video's duration, but it seems whatever it is has had adverse mind altering effects – there are repeated shots of the humanoid levitating in his chair, his head and arm vibrating wildly. While experiencing these effects, the figure ventures through his living quarters and its many corridors; the climax provides a barrage of imagery and revelations: a figure attached to a wall behind a translucent screen, a sentry of sorts wielding a mobile, robotic cannon and an organic substance flowing through a pipe found in the house.
At the end, the box is empty to determine its meaning. Tool Maynard James Keenan – vocals Adam Jones – guitar Paul D'Amour – bass Danny Carey – drums In August 2006, Kirk Hammett, lead guitarist of Metallica, joined Tool on stage while performing and jammed together with the band at a show in Hawaii. In January 2007, at the Big Day Out music festival in Auckland, New Zealand, System of a Down frontman Serj Tankian collaborated with Tool for an improvisational version of the song. Staind released a live acoustic cover version of the song on their 2006 compilation The Singles: 1996–2006. In an episode of Beavis and Butt-head, the eponymous duo provide commentary on the video, they give an otherwise positive review of the video. British electronica duo Orbital sampled the song in "Tootled", from their DVD album The Altogether
A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. A bass drum is cylindrical with the drum's diameter much greater than the drum's depth. There is a struck head at both ends of the cylinder; the heads may be made of calf plastic. There is a means of adjusting the tension either by threaded taps or by strings. Bass drums are built in a variety of sizes, but size has little to do with the volume produced by the drum; the size chosen being based on convenience and aesthetics. Bass drums are used in several musical genres. Three major types of bass drums can be distinguished; the type seen or heard in orchestral, ensemble or concert band music is the orchestral, or concert bass drum. It is the largest drum of the orchestra; the kick drum. It is struck with a beater attached to a pedal seen on drum kits; the pitched bass drum used in marching bands and drum corps, is tuned to a specific pitch and is played in a set of three to six drums. In many forms of music, the bass drum is used to keep time.
The bass drum makes a low, boom sound. In marches it is used to project tempo. A basic beat for rock and roll has the bass drum played on the first and third beats of a bars of common time, with the snare drum on the second and fourth beats, called back beats. In jazz, the bass drum can vary from entirely being a timekeeping medium to being a melodic voice in conjunction with the other parts of the set. Bass drums have many synonyms and translations, such as gran cassa, grosse caisse, Grosse Trommel, bombo; the earliest known predecessor to the bass drum was the Turkish davul, a cylindrical drum that featured two thin heads. The heads were stretched over hoops and attached to a narrow shell. To play this instrument, a person would strike the right side of the davul with a large wooden stick, while the left side would be struck with a rod; when struck, the davul produced a sound much deeper than that of the other drums in existence. Because of this unique tone, davuls were used extensively in war and combat, where a deep and percussive sound was needed to ensure that the forces were marching in proper step with one another.
The military bands of the Ottoman Janissaries in the 18th century were one of the first groups to utilize davuls in their music. Davuls were ideal for use as military instruments because of the unique way in which they could be carried; the Ottoman janissaries, for example, hung their davuls at their breasts with thick straps. This made it easier for the soldiers to carry their instruments from battle to battle; this practice does not seem to be limited to just the Ottoman Empire, however. The davul, was used extensively in non-military music. For example, davuls were a major aspect of Turkish folk dances. In Ottoman society and shawm players would perform together in groups called davul-zurnas, or drum and shawm circles. Long drumsAt its peak, the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Caucuses down to northern Africa and parts of the middle east; this long reach meant that many aspects of Ottoman culture, including the davul and other janissary instruments, were introduced to other parts of the world.
In Africa, the indigenous population took the basic idea of the davul – that is, a two-headed cylindrical drum that produces a deep sound when struck – and both increased the size of the drum and changed the material from which it was made, leading to the development of the long drum. The long drum can be made a variety of different ways but is most constructed from a hollowed out tree trunk; this is vastly different from the davul, made from a thick shell. Long drums were 2 meters in length and 50 centimetres in diameter, much larger than the Turkish drums on which they were based; the indigenous population believed that the tree from which the long drum was made had to be in perfect shape. Once an appropriate tree was selected and the basic frame for the long drum was constructed, the Africans took cow hides and soaked them in boiling hot water, in order to stretch them out. Although the long drum was an improvement on the davul, both drums were played in a similar fashion. Two distinct sticks were used on the two distinct sides of the drum itself.
A notable difference between the two is that long drums, unlike davuls, were used for religious purposes. Gong drumsAs the use of the long drum began to spread across Europe, many composers and musicians started looking for deeper tones that could be used in compositions; as a result of this demand, a narrow-shelled, single-headed drum called the gong drum was introduced in Britain during the 19th century. This drum, 70-100 centimetres in diameter and deep-shelled, was similar to the long drum in both size and construction; when struck, the gong drum produced a deep sound with a rich resonance. However, the immense size of the drum, coupled with the fact that there was not a second head to help balance the sound, meant that gong drums tended to produce a sound with a definite pitch; as a result, they fell out of favour with many composers, as it became nearly impossible to incorporate them in an orchestra in any meaningful way. Orchestral bass drums and drum kitsB
Billy Howerdel is the founding member, singer-songwriter, producer for the bands A Perfect Circle and Ashes Divide. He has recorded four acclaimed studio albums with the former, in 2008, Ashes Divide released their debut album, Keep Telling Myself It's Alright. Howerdel was born in New Jersey, he attended high school at West Milford High School in New Jersey. He played some sports but took an interest in a television production class and was active in an extracurricular audio program; this program gave Howerdel the foundation for his post-high school audio technician pursuits and led to his high-profile guitar technician positions. Stephen Porcello, the high school teacher, the adviser for this program took Howerdel into New York City and helped him select his first electric guitar. Howerdel cites attending a Pink Floyd concert as a youngster as the catalyst for wanting to be involved in music, he spent several years sound engineering for New Jersey bands and further worked as a guitar technician for numerous others, which before forming A Perfect Circle included Faith No More, David Bowie, The Smashing Pumpkins, Nine Inch Nails, Guns N' Roses, Tool.
Howerdel functioned as a guitar technician for Tool during the tour and recording of Ænima, working with Maynard James Keenan, whom he met in 1992. During this time, Howerdel played Keenan some of his songs, Keenan offered his vocals if Howerdel decided to form a band. Despite considering a female singer, Howerdel would accept Keenan's offer. In 1999, Howerdel founded A Perfect Circle, invited Keenan to join. Howerdel is actively involved in his new solo project, Ashes Divide. Howerdel handled nearly all the instruments in the studio for the release, except the drums for which he recruited session musician Josh Freese; the first single, "The Stone", gained some radio play, the band toured for the album throughout 2008. Howerdel has played live with the band Abandoned Pools. In 2005, he wrote and recorded music for the video game Jak X: Combat Racing, which features remixes of Howerdel's songs by Danny Lohner and Dean Menta, musicians Josh Freese and Troy Van Leeuwen of Queens of the Stone Age, Atom Willard of Angels And Airwaves, Joey Castillo of Queens of the Stone Age, ex-A Perfect Circle bassist Paz Lenchantin, Wes Borland of Limp Bizkit worked on the Guns N' Roses album Chinese Democracy the song "There Was A Time".
In a 2008 interview Howerdel said he did not take drugs, drank only and practiced Transcendental Meditation. Guitars – Gibson Les Pauls, predominantly a 1991 Les Paul Classic given to him by Trent Reznor. Plays Ernie Ball strings, with Dunlop 1.0mm Nylon picks. Tom Anderson Pickups. H3+ Bridge H1- neck Cabinets – VHT Straight Cabinet / 4x12 Effects – Axe-FX Pedalboard: Voodoo Labs Ground Control Pro Tuner – Korg DTR-1 Rack Tuner Amp – Naked Amp by Dave Friedman of Rack SystemsBilly has replaced his previous effects rig with an Axe-FX II made by Fractal Audio, he is using Naked amps made by Dave Friedman of Rack Systems. A detailed gear diagram of Howerdel's 2004 A Perfect Circle guitar rig is well-documented. 2000 – A Perfect Circle – Mer de Noms 2003 – A Perfect Circle – Thirteenth Step 2004 – A Perfect Circle – Emotive 2008 – Ashes Divide – Keep Telling Myself It's Alright 2008 – Guns N' Roses – Chinese Democracy 2009 – A Perfect Circle – Deep Cuts 2009 – Sweethead – Sweethead 2018 – A Perfect Circle - Eat the Elephant Billy Howerdel's New Solo Project KNAC.
COM – Interview with Billy Howerdel billyhowerdel.com – Official website of Billy Howerdel
"Vicarious" is a song by American rock band Tool. The song is the first single released from their fourth full-length studio album 10,000 Days. Debuting on Maynard's 42nd birthday, April 17, 2006 on commercial radio, the seven-minute song debuted on the Billboard Alternative Songs and Mainstream Rock Tracks charts both at number two, it received a nomination for Best Hard Rock Performance at the 49th Annual Grammy Awards. The song features a 5/4 riff and describes the vicarious thrill the public receives from living through others in the media eye. In the June 12, 2008 issue of Rolling Stone magazine, the song was ranked number 100 on the list of top 100 guitar songs of all time; the song is a playable track in Guitar Hero World Tour. The DVD released on December 18, 2007 contains an extended version of the much-delayed video counterpart for the song; the video is made through use of CGI, making it Tool's second full CGI video, as opposed to stop-motion animation, which the band has used in their past videos.
The video was co-directed by guitarist Adam Jones and artist Alex Grey and features creative input from Chet Zar. Included on the DVD are short documentaries on the making of the video and on Jones's previous work in film and television, commentaries on the video from comedian David Cross. Maynard James Keenan — vocals Adam Jones — guitar Justin Chancellor — bass Danny Carey — drums
Salival is a live and video album, released as a limited edition box set in CD/VHS and CD/DVD formats in 2000 by American rock band Tool. It includes a 56-page book of stills from their music videos; the live track "You Lied" is a cover of a song by bass player Justin Chancellor's previous band Peach. The cover of Led Zeppelin's "No Quarter" was planned to be used for the soundtrack of Private Parts, but Tool subsequently decided against allowing it to be used, leading to criticism from Howard Stern, who had endorsed the band. Salival is the second and final official Tool release to feature a substantial amount of live material; the tracks were recorded from several different shows prior to Salival's release in 2000. Candidates for most of the recordings are the 1998 summer tour, though the San Diego recording could be "Third Eye," "Pushit" or "Merkaba" from spring 1997. Live versions of the Ænima tracks "Pushit" and "Third Eye" appear on this album plus a live version of the Opiate song "Part of Me".
The live instrumental song "Merkaba" was an intro for "Sober" when played live, however no tracks from Undertow properly appear here in live form. The name "Merkaba" or Merkabah translating to "Mer-Light", "Ka-Spirit", "Ba-Body" is the divine light vehicle used by ascended masters to connect with and reach those in tune with the higher realms. A reference to the Merkabah school of Jewish mysticsm as it relates to new age meditation. "Message to Harry Manback II", "No Quarter", "LAMC" were recorded during the sessions for Ænima though they were re-recorded before being released on Salival. As with other releases, there were rumors during the Salival period. Most notably, the band was said to be breaking up. Maynard James Keenan said, "we mentioned some song titles and some dickhead went out and reserved all of the.com and.org names." The album is packaged in a black box sized 8.25x6.75x2" featuring the "Salival man" with outstretched arms. It is contained within a translucent slipcase; the front of the book included with the package has a small glossy square on its front.
Upon initial release, the package came with two stickers on the cover. The other sticker, a Parental Advisory, would be the fourth and last one to appear on a Tool release; the audio CD portion of the album is contained within a disc tray at the back of the 56-page book, which has similar dimensions to and is only larger than a standard CD jewel case. The first pressings of Salival contain typographical errors, as well as the VHS edition having red tape. Editions do not have these typos; the following typos are found in the CD booklet. Aloke Dutta and Paul D'Amour's names are misspelled as Paul D'Mour. "Stinkfist" is listed as "Stink Fist." "Message to Harry Manback II" is spelled "Messege to Harry Manback II." The playing order of the videos on the VHS are listed in reverse chronological order. The track ordering of "Merkaba" and "You Lied" is incorrect. A typographical error made it into VHS Version 61422-31158-2R. All tracks written by Maynard James Keenan, Adam Jones, Danny Carey and Justin Chancellor, unless otherwise noted.
Maynard James Keenan – vocals Adam Jones – guitar Justin Chancellor – bass guitar, backing vocals Danny Carey – drums Buzz Osborne – additional guitar David Bottrill – keyboards Vince DeFranco – synthesizer Aloke Dutta – acoustic tabla Salival at Metacritic Salival at Discogs Salival at MusicBrainz