Clark Calvin Griffith, nicknamed "The Old Fox", was an American Major League Baseball pitcher and team owner. He began his MLB playing career with the St. Louis Browns, Boston Reds, Chicago Colts/Orphans, he served as player-manager for the Chicago White Stockings and New York Highlanders. He retired as a player after the 1907 season, remaining manager of the Highlanders in 1908, he managed the Cincinnati Reds and Washington Senators, making some appearances as a player with both teams. He owned the Senators from 1920 until his death in 1955. Sometimes known for being a thrifty executive, Griffith is remembered for attracting talented players from the National League to play for the Senators when the American League was in its infancy. Griffith was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1946. Griffith was born in Missouri, to Isaiah and Sarah Anne Griffith, his parents were of Welsh ancestry. They had lived in Illinois prior to Clark Griffith's birth; the family took a covered wagon west toward the Oklahoma Territory.
Along the way, the family encountered hungry and disenchanted people returning from the Oklahoma Territory, so they decided to settle in Missouri. Griffith grew up with five siblings, four of them older; when Griffith was a small child, his father was killed in a hunting accident when fellow hunters mistook him for a deer. Sarah Griffith struggled to raise her children as a widow, but Clark Griffith said that his neighbors in Missouri had been helpful to his mother, planting crops for her and the children. Fearing a malaria epidemic, sweeping through the area, the Griffith family moved to Bloomington, Illinois. A childhood incident taught him about the money side to baseball, Griffith recalled; when he was 13, he and a few other young boys had raised $1.25 to buy a baseball. They sent one of the boys 12 miles on horseback to make the purchase; the ball burst on the second time. Griffith found out that the boy who purchased the ball only spent a quarter, keeping the leftover dollar. At the age of seventeen, Griffith had made ten dollars pitching in a local baseball game in Hoopeston, Illinois.
Griffith entered the American Association in 1891, pitching 226 1⁄3 innings and winning 14 games for the St. Louis Browns and Boston Reds, he began the following season with the Chicago Colts. In 1893, the pitchers box was moved back. Following that change, offensive numbers increased across baseball and many pitchers had to adjust their approaches. Cap Anson was the player-manager of the Colts during Griffith's tenure and he utilized a rotation of only three starting pitchers. Just before Griffith's arrival on the team, pitcher Bill Hutchinson had thrown more than 600 innings in a single season for Anson, which may have contributed to a decline in Hutchinson's career. Griffith tried a new pitch to increase his longevity. By modifying the grip of a curveball, he threw a pitch similar to the screwball that Christy Mathewson had developed, he often scuffed balls with his spikes or rubbed them in the grass. In 1894, Griffith began a string of six consecutive seasons with 20 or more victories, compiling a 21–14 record and 4.92 earned run average.
Griffith lowered his ERA over the following years to a low of 1.88 in 1898, the lowest mark in the league. When Ban Johnson, a longtime friend, announced plans to form the American League, Griffith was one of the ringleaders in getting National League players to jump ship. Using the cover of his post as vice president of the League Protective Players' Association, Griffith persuaded 39 players to sign on with the new league for the 1901 season. Griffith himself signed on with the Chicago White Stockings as player-manager, he won 20 games for the final time in his career and led the White Stockings to the first AL pennant with an 83–53 record. At Johnson's suggestion, Griffith left Chicago in 1903 to take over as manager of the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders had just moved from Baltimore, Johnson knew that for the league to be successful, it needed a strong franchise in the nation's biggest city. Griffith retired as a player in 1907, though he made brief appearances as a player for the Reds and Senators.
After a falling-out with the Highlanders' ownership, Griffith was fired during the 1908 season. The team had started strong, but the team's pitching faltered as the season progressed and Griffith was criticized for trading away Jimmy Williams in exchange for a disappointing prospect. Griffith returned to the National League as manager of the Cincinnati Reds in 1909. In 1912, again at Johnson's suggestion, he returned to the American League as manager of the Washington Senators; when Griffith took over as manager of the Senators, he bought a 10 percent interest in the team. At the time, the franchise had little going for it other than star pitcher Walter Johnson. In the American League's first 12 years, the Senators had never had a winning record or finished higher than sixth. To entertain the fans, Griffith hired Nick Altrock as a first base coach in his first season with Washington. Described as a "natural buffoon", Altrock engaged in lighthearted fun while coaching first base, he wrestled with himself, copied the motions of the pitcher and made the fans laugh with other antics.
Griffith engineered one of the biggest turnarounds in major league history, leading the Senators to second place. In nine years, his Washington teams only twice finished below fifth in the eight-team league. In 1919, Griffith joined forces with Philadelphia grain broker William Rich
Hugh Ambrose Jennings was an American professional baseball player and manager from 1891 to 1925. Jennings was a leader, both as a batter and as a shortstop, with the Baltimore Orioles teams that won National League championships in 1894, 1895, 1896. During those three seasons, Jennings had 355 runs batted in and hit.335.386, and.401. Jennings was a fiery, hard-nosed player, not afraid to be hit by a pitch to get on base. In 1896, he was hit by pitches 51 times -- a major league record. Jennings holds the career record for being hit by pitches with 287, with Craig Biggio holding the modern-day career record of 285. Jennings played on the Brooklyn Superbas teams that won National League pennants in 1899 and 1900. From 1907 to 1920, Jennings was the manager of the Detroit Tigers, where he was known for his colorful antics, hoots and his famous shouts of "Ee-Yah" from the third base coaching box. Jennings suffered a nervous breakdown in 1925, he died in 1928 and was posthumously inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1945.
Born in Pittston, Jennings was the son of Irish immigrants and Nora, who according to Jack Smiles's biography of Jennings, Ee-yah: The Life and Times of Hughie Jennings, Baseball Hall of Famer, arrived in Pittston in 1851. Jennings worked as a breaker boy in the local anthracite coal mines, he drew attention playing shortstop for a semi-professional baseball team in Lehighton, Pennsylvania in 1890. He was signed by the Louisville Colonels of the American Association in 1891, he stayed with the Colonels when they joined the National League in 1892 and was traded on June 7, 1893 to the Baltimore Orioles. Jennings played with the Orioles for parts of seven seasons and became a star during his years in Baltimore; the Baltimore Orioles teams of 1894, 1895, 1896 are regarded as one of the greatest teams of all time. The teams featured Hall of Fame manager Ned Hanlon and a lineup with six future Hall of Famers: first baseman Dan Brouthers, second baseman John McGraw, shortstop Jennings, catcher Wilbert Robinson, right fielder "Wee Willie" Keeler, left fielder Joe Kelley.
Amidst all those great players, Jennings was appointed captain in 1894, his first full season with the team. During the Orioles' championship years, Jennings had some of the best seasons by a major league shortstop. In 1895, he hit.386, scored 159 runs, collected 204 hits, knocked in 125 runs, stole 53 bases. In 1896, his performance was better, as he hit.401 with 209 hits, 121 RBIs, 70 stolen bases. The fiery Jennings was known as one of the most fearless players of his time, allowing himself to be hit by pitches more than any other player. In one game, he was hit by a pitch three times. In 1896, he was hit by pitches 51 times -- a Major League record. In just five seasons with the Orioles from 1894 to 1898, Jennings was hit by pitches an unprecedented 202 times. During one game, Jennings was hit in the head by a pitch from Amos Rusie in the 3rd inning, but managed to finish the game; as soon as the game ended, Jennings was unconscious for three days. Jennings was one of the best fielding shortstops of the era.
He putouts three times each. He had as many as 537 425 putouts in single seasons during his prime, his 425 putouts ties him with Donie Bush for the single season record for a shortstop. In 1895, he had a career-high range factor of 6.73–1.19 points higher than the league average for shortstops that year. He once handled 20 chances in a game, on another occasion had 10 assists in a game. In 1898, he threw his arm out, his career as a shortstop came to an end. After that, Jennings was forced to move to first base. In 1899, when manager Ned Hanlon moved to the Brooklyn Superbas, several of his star players, including Jennings, Joe Kelley, Willie Keeler followed. While Jennings was never the same after the injury to his arm in 1898, he contributed to Brooklyn's National League pennants in 1899 and 1900. In 1901, Jennings was traded to the Philadelphia Phillies. However, his failing arm cut his career short, as he never played in more than 82 games or hit above.272 in two seasons with the Phillies. Jennings played 6 games for the Superbas in 1903 ending his playing career, with the exception of 9 at bats during his tenure as the manager of the Detroit Tigers.
While playing for the Orioles in the 1890s, Jennings and John McGraw both attended classes at St. Bonaventure University. After the 1899 season, Jennings was accepted to Cornell Law School, he managed the Cornell University baseball team while studying law and concluded that he was well-suited to being a manager. While at Cornell, he joined the Phi Delta Theta fraternity chapter there. Jennings continued as a scholar-athlete until the spring of 1904, when he left campus early to manage the Orioles. Though he never finished his law degree at Cornell, Jennings passed the Maryland bar exam in 1905 and started a law practice, he continued to work at his law practice during the off-seasons through the remainder of his baseball career. In 1907, Jennings was hired as manager of a talented Detroit Tigers team that included future Hall of Famers Ty Cobb and Sam Crawford. Jennings led the Tigers to three consecutive American League pennants, in 1907–1908-1909. However, Jennings' teams lost the 1907 and 1908 World Series to the "Tinker to Evers to Chance" Chicago Cubs and the 1909 Series to Honus Wagner's Pittsburgh Pirates.
Jennings continued to manage the Tigers through the 1920 season, though his teams never won anoth
Owen Joseph "Donie" Bush was an American professional baseball player, team owner, scout. He was active in professional baseball from 1905 until his death in 1972. Bush was the starting shortstop for the Detroit Tigers from 1908 to 1921 and an infielder for the Washington Senators from 1921 to 1923, he was recognized as one of the best defensive shortstops of the dead-ball era. He had more putouts and total chances than any other shortstop of the era, his 1914 totals of 425 putouts and 969 chances are still American League records for shortstops, he led the American League in assists by a shortstop on five occasions and holds the major league record with nine triple plays. As a batter, Bush did not hit for high batting average but was among the major league leaders in drawing bases on balls, sacrifice hits, stolen bases, runs scored. At the time of his retirement in 1923, Bush's 1,158 bases on balls ranked second in major league history, his 337 sacrifice hits still ranks fifth in major league history, his 1909 total of 52 sacrifice hits is the fourth highest in major league history.
He ranked among the American League leaders in stolen bases ten times, during the decade from 1910 to 1919, the only players to score more runs than Bush were Ty Cobb, Eddie Collins, Tris Speaker. Bush served as a manager in professional baseball for the Washington Senators, Indianapolis Indians, Pittsburgh Pirates, Chicago White Sox, Cincinnati Reds, Minneapolis Millers, Louisville Colonels, his 1927 Pittsburgh Pirates won the National League pennant and lost to the 1927 Yankees in the World Series. Bush was a co-owner of the Louisville Colonels and Indianapolis Indians, president of the Indians, a scout for the Boston Red Sox, he was given the title "King of Baseball" during Major League Baseball's 1963 winter meetings. He was known as "Mr. Baseball" in Indianapolis and was an inaugural inductee of the Indiana Baseball Hall of Fame. Bush was born in 1887 in Indiana, he raised on the east side of Indianapolis. His father died when Bush was a child, at the time of the 1900 United States Census, Bush was living with his mother and two older siblings in Center Township, near or in Indianapolis.
Bush was one of the best defensive shortstops of the dead-ball era. He collected more putouts and total chances than any other shortstop of the era, his 1914 total of 425 putouts is still the Major League record for shortstops, his 1914 total of 969 chances is still the American League record. He led the American League in assists by a shortstop on five occasions: 1909, 1911, 1912, 1914, 1915. Bush holds the Major League record for most career triple plays with nine. Bush's triple plays came on May 4, 1910, April 24, 1911, May 20, 1911, September 9, 1911, April 6, 1912, August 23, 1917, August 14, 1919, May 18, 1921, September 14, 1921; as a batter, Bush ranked among the American League leaders in bases on balls 12 straight years, from 1909 through 1920, led the league five times. His career high was 118 bases on balls in 1915. During the decade from 1910 to 1919, no Major League player had more bases on balls than Bush. At the time of his retirement in 1923, Bush had 1,158 walks, second best in Major League history trailing only Eddie Collins.
Bush collected 337 sacrifice hits in his career, ranking him fifth on the all-time Major League leader list. He led the league with 52 sacrifice hits in 1909 and hit another 48 in 1920. In 1920, Baseball Magazine rated Bush among the top ten players in Major League Baseball over the past decade in the categories of "waiters", "run-getters", "base-stealers". Bush was one of the shortest players in the Major Leagues at five feet, six inches and weighed between 130 and 140 pounds. Bush once said, "I used to tell'em it ain't how big you are, it's, but whenever another team had an uncommonly small player, I'd compare heights. Always turned out he was an inch taller than me."Bush's nickname, "Donie", was bestowed on him as a result of a comment by Detroit teammate Ed Killian in 1909. Bush explained, "One day after I had struck out, I asked Eddie Killian what kind of ball I swung at and missed. Killian said. I never learned what a donie ball was, but the Tigers started calling me Donie and the name just stuck."
Career statistics Bush began his professional baseball career in 1905 playing for the Sault Ste. Marie Soo in the Copper Country Soo League. In 1906, he played portions of the season for the Zanesville Moguls in the Ohio–Pennsylvania League and the Saginaw Wa-was of the Southern Michigan League. In early August 1906, he was acquired by the Dayton Veterans of the Central League, he appeared in 58 games for Dayton, compiling a. 158 batting average with 156 assists. In 1907, he played for the South Bend Greens in the Central League, he appeared in 127 games, compiling a. 279 batting average with seven triples. Baseball Magazine noted that, while playing in South Bend, Bush earned "the reputation of being the fastest, best all-around shortstop the Central League had seen." At the end of the 1907 season, after
History of the Washington Senators (1901–1960)
The Washington Senators baseball team was one of the American League's eight charter franchises. Now known as the Minnesota Twins, the club was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1901 as the Washington Senators. In 1905, the team changed its official name to the Washington Nationals; the name "Nationals" appeared on the uniforms for only two seasons, was replaced with the "W" logo for the next 52 years. However, the names "Senators", "Nationals" and shorter "Nats" were used interchangeably by fans and media for the next sixty years. For a time, from 1911 to 1933, the Senators were one of the more successful franchises in Major League Baseball; the team's rosters included Baseball Hall of Fame members Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Joe Cronin, Bucky Harris, Heinie Manush and one of the greatest players and pitchers of all time, Walter Johnson. But the Senators are remembered more for their many years of mediocrity and futility, including six last-place finishes in the 1940s and 1950s. Joe Judge, Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer, Roy Sievers and Eddie Yost were other notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success.
When the American League declared itself a major league in 1901, the new league moved the previous minor league circuit Western League's Kansas City franchise to Washington, a city, abandoned by the older National League a year earlier. The new Washington club, like the old one, was called the "Senators"; the Senators began their history as a losing team, at times so inept that San Francisco Chronicle columnist Charley Dryden famously joked, "Washington: First in war, first in peace, last in the American League," a play on the famous line in Henry Lee III's eulogy for President George Washington as "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen". The 1904 Senators lost 113 games, the next season the team's owners, trying for a fresh start, changed the team's name to the "Nationals". However, the "Senators" name remained used by fans and journalists — in fact, the two names were used interchangeably — although "Nats" remained the team's nickname; the Senators name was restored in 1956.
The club continued to lose, despite the addition of a talented 19-year-old pitcher named Walter Johnson in 1907. Raised in rural Kansas, Johnson was a tall, lanky man with long arms who, using a leisurely windup and unusual sidearm delivery, threw the ball faster than anyone had seen. Johnson's breakout year was 1910, when he struck out 313 batters, posted an earned-run average of 1.36 and won 25 games for a losing ball club. Over his 21-year Hall of Fame career, nicknamed the "Big Train", won 417 games and struck out 3,508 batters, a major-league record that stood for more than 50 years. In 1911, the Senators' wooden ballpark burned to the ground, they replaced it with a modern concrete-and-steel structure on the same location. First called National Park, it was renamed Griffith Stadium, after the man, named Washington manager in 1912 and whose name became synonymous with the ball club: Clark Griffith. A star pitcher with the National League's Chicago Colts in the 1890s, Griffith jumped to the AL in 1901 and became a successful manager with the Chicago White Sox and New York Highlanders.
Walter Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place. In 1912, the Senators improved as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place behind the Boston Red Sox; the Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place, this time to the Philadelphia Athletics. Starting in 1916, the Senators settled back into mediocrity. Griffith, frustrated with the owners' penny-pinching, bought a controlling interest in the team in 1920 and stepped down as field manager a year to focus on his duties as team president. In 1924, Griffith named 27-year-old second baseman Bucky Harris player-manager. Led by the hitting of Goose Goslin and Sam Rice, a solid pitching staff headlined by the 36-year-old Johnson, the Senators captured their first American League pennant, two games ahead of Babe Ruth and the New York Yankees.
The Senators faced John McGraw's favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series. Despite Johnson losing both of his starts, the Senators kept pace to tie the Series at three games apiece and force Game 7; the Senators trailed the Giants 3-1 in the eighth inning of Game 7, when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play. In the ninth inning with the game tied, 3–3, Harris brought in an aging Johnson to pitch on just one day of rest – he had been the losing pitcher in Game 5. Johnson held. In the bottom of the twelfth inning, Muddy Ruel hit a high foul ball near home plate; the Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective face mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat. On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head.
It was the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington
Fenton is a city in St. Louis County, United States and a suburb of St. Louis; the population was 4,022 at the 2010 census. Due to its proximity to fertile land and the Meramec River, the Fenton area has been inhabited for over 900 years; the earliest proof of ancient dwellers was excavated from the "Fenton Mounds", two conical, earthen burial mounds located near the southwestern border of Fenton. Diagnostic pottery shards from the mounds indicate they date from the Mississippian times, A. D. 1050 - 1400. In 2001, the mounds were leveled for construction of a Wal-Mart Supercenter; the Fenton territory was occupied by early settlers in the 1770s. William Lindsay Long founded the city of Fenton on March 23, 1818; the original eight square block area is now referred to as "Old Towne Fenton". The city remained unincorporated for the next 130 years. Garrett Hitzert was the city's first mayor after incorporation in 1948, his leadership helped build the foundation that much of the city's ongoing prosperity has been based on.
He conceived of Fenton's expansive commercial business and industrial district, a centerpiece of the city's fiscal success. Fenton is located at 38°31′41″N 90°26′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.38 square miles, of which 6.05 square miles is land and 0.33 square miles is water. The topography of the Fenton area is predominantly rolling hills; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,022 people, 1,549 households, 1,176 families residing in the city. The population density was 664.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,611 housing units at an average density of 266.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.5% White, 0.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. There were 1,549 households of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.1% were non-families.
19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 46.7 years. 21.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,360 people, 1,587 households, 1,239 families residing in the city; the population density was 710.7 people per square mile. There were 1,631 housing units at an average density of 265.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.98% White, 0.39% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.94% Asian, 0.18% from other races, 0.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.80% of the population. There were 1,587 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.7% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families.
18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 29.1% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $74,708, the median income for a family was $80,536. Males had a median income of $56,425 versus $34,514 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,658. About 0.6% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.8% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Major corporations in the city include Tacony Corporation, Nooter Corporation—makers of industrial equipment, UniGroup—owners of United Van Lines and Mayflower Transit, Wolff Shoe and the Fabick Tractor Company—a large Caterpillar construction equipment dealer.
Joyce Meyer Ministries is based near Fenton, just outside the city limits in Jefferson County. Retail Technology Group, a major national Point-Of-Sale supplier, is based in Fenton; the former Chrysler North and South assembly plants were located on North Highway Drive in Fenton. In their years, the South plant assembled Chrysler minivans such as the Chrysler Town & Country and the Dodge Grand Caravan, while the North plant assembled the Dodge Ram truck; the South plant ceased operations in 2008, while the North plant shut down for good in July 2009. In 2013 the site was considered as a possible location for a new stadium for the St. Louis Rams if renovations to the Edward Jones Dome did not materialize. In 2014 a local St. Louis real estate developer purchased the empty 300 acre lot to develop 240 acres of offices and industrial buildings, with the remaining 60 acres designated for retail use; the immediate Fenton area is home to some of the most prestigious youth soccer clubs in the nation. The St. Louis Soccer Park abuts.
It hosts multiple semi-professional soccer matches. St. Louis Soccer Park is home to SLSG, a soccer academy coached by Scott Gallagher. In 2012, the U18 team from SLSG played a match against the US Soccer U18 team
The Cleveland Indians are an American professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Indians compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League Central division. Since 1994, they have played at Progressive Field; the team's spring training facility is at Goodyear Ballpark in Arizona. Since their establishment as a major league franchise in 1901, the Indians have won two World Series championships: in 1920 and 1948, along with 10 Central Division titles and six American League pennants; the Indians' current World Series championship drought is the longest active drought. The name "Indians" originated from a request by club owner Charles Somers to baseball writers to choose a new name to replace "Cleveland Naps" following the departure of Nap Lajoie after the 1914 season; the name referenced the nickname "Indians", applied to the Cleveland Spiders baseball club during the time when Louis Sockalexis, a Native American, played in Cleveland. Common nicknames for the Indians include the "Tribe" and the "Wahoos", the latter being a reference to their former logo, Chief Wahoo.
The team's mascot is named "Slider." The franchise originated in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1894 as the Grand Rapids Rustlers, a minor league team that competed in the Western League. The team relocated to Cleveland in 1900 and changed its name to the Cleveland Lake Shores; the Western League itself changed its name to the American League while continuing its minor league status. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the major league incarnation of the club was founded in Cleveland in 1901. Called the Cleveland Bluebirds, the team played in League Park until moving permanently to Cleveland Stadium in 1946. At the end of the 2018 season, they had a regular season franchise record of 9,384–8,968. From August 24 to September 14, 2017, the Indians won 22 consecutive games, the longest winning streak in American League history. "In 1857 baseball games were a daily spectacle in Cleveland's Public Squares. City authorities tried to find an ordinance forbidding it, to the joy of the crowd, they were unsuccessful.
– Harold Seymour" 1865–1868 Forest Citys of Cleveland 1869–1872 Forest Citys of Cleveland From 1865 to 1868 Forest Citys was an amateur ball club. During the 1869 season, Cleveland was among several cities which established professional baseball teams following the success of the 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, the first professional team. In the newspapers before and after 1870, the team was called the Forest Citys, in the same generic way that the team from Chicago was sometimes called The Chicagos. In 1871 the Forest Citys joined the new National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league. Two of the league's western clubs went out of business during the first season and the Chicago Fire left that city's White Stockings impoverished, unable to field a team again until 1874. Cleveland was thus the year the club folded. Cleveland played their full schedule to July 19 followed by two games versus Boston in mid-August and disbanded at the end of the season. 1879–1881 Cleveland Forest Citys 1882–1884 Cleveland BluesIn 1876, the National League supplanted the NA as the major professional league.
Cleveland were not among its charter members, but by 1879 the league was looking for new entries and the city gained an NL team. The Cleveland Forest Citys baseball team was re-created; the National League required distinct colors for the 1882 season, so the Cleveland Forest Citys became the Cleveland Blues. They had a mediocre record for six seasons and were ruined by a trade war with the Union Association in 1884, when its three best players jumped to the UA after being offered higher salaries. Cleveland Blues merged with the St. Louis Maroons UA team in 1885. 1887–1899 Cleveland Spiders — nickname "Blues"Cleveland went without major league baseball for two seasons until gaining a team in the American Association in 1887. After the AA's Allegheny club jumped to the NL Cleveland followed suit in 1889, as the AA began to crumble; the Cleveland ball club, named the Spiders became a power in the league. The next year the Spiders moved into League Park, which would serve as the home of Cleveland professional baseball for the next 55 years.
Led by native Ohioan Cy Young, the Spiders became a contender in the mid-1890s, when they played in the Temple Cup Series twice, winning it in 1895. The team began to fade after this success, was dealt a severe blow under the ownership of the Robison brothers Prior to the 1899 season, Frank Robison, the Spiders owner, bought the St. Louis Browns, thus owning two clubs at the same time; the Browns were renamed the "Perfectos", restocked with Cleveland talent. Just weeks before the season opener, most of the better Spiders players were transferred to St. Louis, including three future Hall of Famers: Cy Young, Jesse Burkett and Bobby Wallace; the roster maneuvers failed to create a powerhouse Perfectos team, as St. Louis finished fifth in both 1899 and 1900; the Spiders were left with a minor league lineup, began to lose games at a record pace. Drawing no fans at home, they ended up playing most of their season on the road, became known as "The Wanderers." The team ended the season in 12th place, 84 games out of first place, with an all-time worst record of 20-134.
Following the 1899 season, the National League disbanded four teams, including the Cleveland franchise. The disastrous 1899 season would be a step toward a new future for Cleveland fans
South Bend, Indiana
South Bend is a city in and the county seat of St. Joseph County, United States, on the St. Joseph River near its southernmost bend, from which it derives its name; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total of 101,168 residents. It is the fourth-largest city in Indiana, serving as the economic and cultural hub of Northern Indiana; the ranked University of Notre Dame is located just to the north in unincorporated Notre Dame, Indiana and is an integral contributor to the region's economy. The area was settled in the early 19th century by fur traders and was established as a city in 1865; the St. Joseph River shaped South Bend's economy through the mid-20th century. River access assisted heavy industrial development such as that of the Studebaker Corporation, the Oliver Chilled Plow Company, other large corporations; the population of South Bend declined after 1960, when it had a peak population of 132,445. This was chiefly due to migration to suburban areas as well as the demise of Studebaker and other heavy industry.
Today, the largest industries in South Bend are health care, small business, tourism. Remaining large corporations include Crowe Horwath, AM General; the city population has started to grow for the first time in nearly fifty years. The old Studebaker plant and surrounding area, now called Ignition Park, is being redeveloped as a technology center to attract new industry; the city has been featured in national news coverage for Mayor Pete Buttigieg, who has achieved recognition for his various economic development projects within the city, his position as the youngest mayor to be elected in a city of more than 100,000 residents, his essay in which he came out as the first gay executive in the state of Indiana. The city attracted further attention when Mayor Buttigieg announced he will run for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 presidential election; the St. Joseph Valley was long occupied by Native Americans. One of the earliest known groups to occupy what would become northern Indiana was the Miami tribe.
The Potawatomi moved into the region, utilizing the rich food and natural resources found along the river. The Potawatomi occupied this region of Indiana until most of them were forcibly removed in the 1840s; the South Bend area was so popular because its portage was the shortest overland route from the St. Joseph River to the Kankakee River; this route was used for centuries, first by the Native Americans by French explorers and traders. The French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the first white European to set foot in what is now South Bend, used this portage between the St. Joseph River and the Kankakee River in December 1679; the first permanent white settlers of South Bend were fur traders who established trading posts in the area. In 1820, Pierre Frieschutz Navarre arrived, representing the American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor, he settled near. Alexis Coquillard, another agent of the AFC, established a trading post known as the Big St. Joseph Station. In 1827, Lathrop Minor Taylor established a post for Samuel Hanna and Company, in whose records the name St. Joseph's, Indiana was used.
By 1829, the town was growing, with Taylor emerging as leaders. They applied for a post office. Taylor was appointed postmaster, the post office was designated as Southold, Allen County, Indiana; the following year, the name was changed to South Bend to ease confusion, as several other communities were named Southold at the time. In 1831, South Bend was laid out as the county seat and as one of the four original townships of St. Joseph County with 128 residents. Soon after, design began on; the town was formally established in 1835 and grew. In 1856, attorney Andrew Anderson founded May Oberfell Lorber, the oldest business in St. Joseph County, he compiled a complete index of South Bend's real estate records. In 1841, Schuyler Colfax was appointed St. Joseph County deputy auditor. Colfax purchased the South Bend Free Press and turned it into the pro-Whig newspaper, the St. Joseph Valley Register, he was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1850 where he opposed the barring of African American migration to Indiana.
He joined the Republican party, like many Whigs of his day, was elected to Congress in 1855 and became Speaker of the House in 1863 under Abraham Lincoln. In 1868, he was elected Vice President under Ulysses S. Grant. Colfax was buried in the City Cemetery. During the late 1830s through the 1850s, much of South Bend's development centered on the industrial complex of factories located on the two races. Several dams were created, factories were built on each side of the river. On October 4, 1851, the first steam locomotive entered South Bend; this led to a general shift of businesses from the river toward the railroad. In 1852, Henry Studebaker set up Studebaker wagon shop becoming the world's largest wagon builder and the only one to succeed as an automobile manufacturer; the Singer Sewing Company and the Oliver Chilled Plow Company were among other companies that made manufacturing the driving force in the South Bend economy until the mid-20th century. Another important economic act was the dredging of the Kankakee River in 1884 to create farmland.
During this time period there was a great immigration of Europeans, such as Polish, Irish, German and Swedish people to South Bend because the rise of area factories. South Bend benefited f