The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Hoorn is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on the Markermeer, 35 kilometres north of Amsterdam, acquired city rights in 1357. Hoorn had a population of 72,707 in 2017; the area of the municipality is 53.25 km2 of which 33.00 km2 consists of water the Markermeer. The municipality consists of the following villages and/or districts: Blokker, Hoorn and parts of Bangert and De Hulk. Cape Horn, the most southerly point of the Americas, was named after the town by Willem Schouten, who navigated the cape in 1616; the Hoorn Islands of the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania are named after this city. The origin of the name Hoorn in old spelling Hoern or Hoirne, is surrounded in myths. Hoorn's name, according to Old Frisian legends, is derived from the stepson of King Redbad, called Hornus. Another story about the origin of the name is that it is derived from a sign depicting a post horn in an early 14th-century hanging outside one of the establishments situated on the Roode Steen Square.
A third version says. The author of the'Origo Civitatis Hornensis' assumes. Damphoorn is the medieval name for a weed that could be made into whistles, which grew in abundance in the area outside the dykes of Hoorn. Chronicler Velius rejects this statement because there are no old historical entries that Hoorn was called Damphoorn, he wrote: The name was from the start Hoorn: not derived from the weed Damphoorn, as the current sentiment holds. Velius rejects the assertion that the name's origin is Dampter Horn: a neighbourhood of the village Dampten, which flooded and had fallen into disuse; the name is most derived from Hornicwed, a name, popping up in early mediaeval documents. The medieval meaning of hornic is ` corner', with wedor being the medieval word for water. Many places and neighbourhoods in the Netherlands are called today, Heurne and Horn. Hornicwed would therefore refer to the location of a corner on the coastline: the location of Hoorn at the Zuiderzee. We see hornic in the meaning of'corner' reflected in another municipality in the mediaeval County of Holland: Uithoorn, meaning uithoek, which refers to a certain occupied area at some distance.
It is sometimes argued that hornic refers to a corner in a dike, but this raises doubts: the coast of the Zuiderzee was farther away from Hoorn compared to the present day: the Westfriese Omringdijk ran, originating from the West, in a straight line to Schardam and in front of this dyke there were low-lying tracts of land, where the village of Dampten was located according to Velius. This area was flooded after 1391, following the abandonment of the old dyke. A new dyke was built farther inland, resulting in a bay, now the Hoornse Hop. Hoorn was in existence then. Founded in 716, Hoorn grew to become a major harbour town. During Holland's'Golden Age', Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company and a prosperous centre of trade; the Hoorn fleet returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies, where he "founded" the city of Batavia in 1619.
He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. In 1618 Willem Bontekoe undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC, his story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren. In 1616, the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America, he named it Kaap Hoorn in honour of his home town. Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century; the prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. Following Napoleonic occupation, there was a period during which the town turned its back on the sea, it developed to become the market for the entire West Frisian agricultural region. Stallholders and shopkeepers devoted themselves to trading in dairy produce and seeds.
When the railway and metalled roads came to Hoorn in the late nineteenth century, the town took its rightful place as a conveniently located and accessible centre in the network of towns and villages which make up the province of Noord-Holland. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk, or Great Enclosing Dyke, was completed, Hoorn was no longer a seaport; the years after the Second World War saw a period of renewed growth. At the centre of a flourishing horticultural region, Hoorn developed an varied economy. During the 1960s, Hoorn was designated an'overflow' city to relieve pressure on the overcrowded Randstad region. Thousands of people swapped their cramped little apartment
Hoorn is a village on Terschelling in the province of Friesland, the Netherlands. It had a population of around 465 in January 2017. Municipality guide Terschelling 2005-2006
Heerde is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands. Compared to the rest of the Netherlands, Heerde is religious, as are many of the towns and cities in the Veluwe region. Heerde Hoorn Veessen Vorchten Wapenveld The municipal council consists of 17 seats, which have been divided as follows since 2014: CU-SGP - 4 seats CDA - 4 seats Municipal Interest Farmers Party Heerde - 3 seats VVD - 2 seats PvdA - 2 seats D66-GL - 2 seats The municipality has five amateur soccer clubs: vv Heerde, SEH, WZC Wapenveld, vv Wapenveld and Vevo. Dutch Topographic map of the municipality of Heerde, June 2015. Jacco Eltingh, tennis player Gerard van Velde, speed skater Toine Rorije, football player Marijke Abels, artist. One of her sculptures appears at the roundabout of the A50 junction in Heerde. Media related to Heerde at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Jordanus Hoorn was a painter and drawing teacher from the Northern Netherlands. Hoorn was died in Amersfoort. According to the RKD he was the son of a cloth merchant who became a pupil of the landscape painter Gerrit Toorenburgh and who worked in Haarlem 1772-1795, including a period as drawing master for the Tekenschool voor Kunstambachten. In 1795 under French rule, he returned to Amersfoort, his pupils were Jan van Ravenswaay, Jan Apeldoorn, Christiaan Wilhelmus Moorrees. Jordanus Hoorn on Artnet
Bellingwedde was a municipality with a population of 8,892 in the province Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands. Bellingwedde was established in 1968, when the municipalities of Wedde had merged, it contained the villages Bellingwolde, Oudeschans, Veelerveen and Wedde. After 50 year, Bellingwedde was disestablished in 2018, when the municipalities of Bellingwedde and Vlagtwedde had merged into Westerwolde; the name Bellingwedde is a portmanteau of Bellingwolde and Wedde, which are the names of the two municipalities that were merged in 1968 to form Bellingwedde. At the time, three names were being considered for the new municipality: Bellingewedde as proposed by the province of Groningen, Bellingwolde-Wedde as proposed by the municipal council of Bellingwolde, Bellingwedde as proposed by the municipal council of Wedde; the province selected the last option, also accepted by the municipal council of Bellingwolde. On 1 September 1968, the municipality Bellingwedde was formed by merging the municipalities of Bellingwolde and Wedde.
Henk Eijsink of the Labour Party, the last mayor of Bellingwolde and acting mayor of Wedde, became the first mayor of Bellingwedde in 1968–1970. He was followed by Jurjen Jan Hoeksema, Engbert Drenth, Erik Triemstra, Janneke Snijder-Hazelhoff; the municipality has merged with Vlagtwedde into the new municipality of Westerwolde on 1 January 2018. Bellingwedde is located at 53°7′N 7°9′E in the east of the province of Groningen, in the northeast of the Netherlands on the border with Germany, it is in the north of the region of Westerwolde. Bellingwedde is bordered by the Dutch municipalities of Oldambt, Pekela and Vlagtwedde, by the German municipalities of Rhede and Bunde; the nearest city is Winschoten. The municipality contains the villages Bellingwolde, Oudeschans, Veelerveen and Wedde, it contains the hamlets Den Ham, Klein-Ulsda and Wedderveer. The north border of the municipality follows the river Pekel Aa; the river Westerwoldse Aa crosses the east of Bellingwedde from south to north. The canal B.
L. Tijdenskanaal, that unites the Mussel-Aa-kanaal and the Ruiten-Aa-kanaal in the south, crosses the west of Bellingwedde from south to north. A municipal government in the Netherlands consists of the executive college of the mayor and aldermen and the elected municipal council; the municipal building is located at the Hoofdweg in Wedde. Janneke Snijder-Hazelhoff of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy has been the appointed mayor of Bellingwedde since 2013; the municipal council consists of 13 elected members. In the 2014 municipal elections the turnout in Bellingwedde was 57.57% with 4,191 valid votes. The Socialist Party got the most votes, followed by the Labour Party, the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. A coalition was formed between the Labour Party, the Christian Democratic Appeal, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. All three parties have one alderman in the college of mayor and aldermen: Bart Huizing, Lea van der Tuin, Wim't Mannetje.
Although the Socialist Party got the most electoral votes, it is not part of the coalition. Bellingwedde is twinned with Rhede in Germany since 1979 and Nowogród Bobrzański in Poland since 2004. Since 1968, when the municipality was established, Bellingwedde had a population between 8,561 and 9,748. In 2015, it had a population of 9,154 and a population density of 84/km2. Two villages have a state protected village area, Oudeschans since 1991 and Bellingwolde since 2009. There are two museums in Bellingwedde. Museum de Oude Wolden in Bellingwolde is a regional museum about the art and history of Oldambt and Westerwolde, it has temporary exhibitions and a permanent exhibition with paintings of Lodewijk Bruckman from the municipal collection of Bellingwedde. Vestingmuseum Oudeschans in Oudeschans is a history museum about the fortification of Oudeschans, it has a collection of archaeological findings from the 18th century on display. There are five windmills in the municipality: De Korenbloem in Vriescheloo, Niemans Molen in Veelerveen, Spinnenkop Wedderveer in Wedderveer, Veldkamps Meuln in Bellingwolde, Weddermarke in Wedde.
The Wedderborg is a type of castle from the province of Groningen, in Wedde. The building has 14th, 15th, 16th-century elements and is used as a hotel and restaurant. There are no highways in Bellingwedde; the nearest highway is the A7 directly north of the municipality and, connected to Groningen in the west and Leer in the east. There are four provincial roads in the municipality. In the northwest, the N367 connects the municipality to Nieuwe Pekela; the N368 runs from northwest to southwest, connects Blijham via Wedde to Vlagtwedde, connects to the other three major roads. The N969 runs from west to southeast and connects Blijham via Bellingwolde and Rhederbrug to Rhede in Germany, and the N973 connects Wedde via Vriescheloo to Bellingwolde. There are no railways in Bellingwedde; the nearest railway stations are Winschoten and Bad Nieuweschans on the Harlingen–Nieuweschans railway just north of Bellingwedde. The railway is connected to the Groningen railway station and the rest of the Dutch railway network in the west and to th
Terschelling is a municipality and an island in the northern Netherlands, one of the West Frisian Islands. It is situated between the islands of Ameland. Wadden Islanders are known for their resourcefulness in using anything and everything that washes ashore. With few trees to use for timber, most of the farms and barns are built with masts recovered from shipwrecks; the islands are surrounded by shipwrecks, today many containers wash ashore that are blown off the decks of container ships in the North Sea. The main source of income on Terschelling is tourism. There is some agriculture. Terschelling is well known for the yearly Oerol Festival during which theatre performances are played throughout the island, making use of its landscape and nature. Terschelling can be reached by ferry from the mainland Frisian town Harlingen and from Vlieland by high-speed catamaran; the island in its current shape was formed in the Middle Ages from a sandy area called De Schelling in the west and the original island Wexalia in the east.
The name Wuxalia, or Wecsile is the medieval name of eastern Terschelling. However, this name disappeared at the end of the Middle Ages; the last appearance of the name Wexalia is in a treaty between Folkerus Reijner Popma ruler of Terschelling, with king Edward IV of England in 1482. The oldest traces of civilisation on Terschelling date from around 850, when a small wooden church was built on a hill near Seerip or Strip; this hill was used as a burial ground and is known as the "Striperkerkhof". Tensions existed between the inhabitants of West-Terschelling, with its strong orientation towards the sea, the more agriculturally oriented inhabitants of East-Terschelling. In 1612 this led to the division of the island into independent political entities, West-Terschelling and East-Terschelling. Only after the French occupation at the start of the 19th century was Terschelling again united as one entity; the Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz was born on Terschelling around 1550. In 1666 West-Terschelling was ransacked by the English.
The English fleet had planned to attack the Dutch merchant fleet, moored before the coast of Vlieland, the next island to the west. When the Dutch vessels retreated towards Terschelling, the English followed, destroyed 150 Dutch vessels, landed in the harbour of West-Terschelling; the town was burnt to the ground by the English on this occasion which would become known as "Holmes's Bonfire" after the English admiral Sir Robert Holmes. The Great Fire of London in the same year was considered by some to have been God's retribution; the next year, in 1667, the Dutch under command of De Ruyter executed a retaliatory expedition, dealt the English navy a heavy blow at the Raid on the Medway, in effect ending the Second Anglo-Dutch War. On the island of Terschelling both Dutch, the national language of the Netherlands, Frisian are spoken. Frisian dialects have dominated on the western and eastern sides of the island while a Dutch dialect called Midslands has been the main language of Midsland and the surrounding area at the center of the island.
However, the use of the three dialects is on the decline, all three are being replaced by the standard Dutch language. The island is known for being one of only two Wadden islands where cranberries grow, the other being the island of Vlieland. In 1840, a barrel of cranberries packed by sailors as an antiscorbutic, washed ashore on the island's coast, the islanders cultivated them for their own sailors; the cranberries, finding the environment favourable, established themselves on the island. Nowadays, the cranberry fields cover 48 ha; the cranberries are sold to tourists and used by the island's restaurants and bakeries. Areas in Terschelling are the following: Baaiduinen Formerum Hee Hoorn Kaard Kinnum Landerum Lies Midsland Midsland aan Zee Midsland-Noord Oosterend Seerijp West aan Zee West-Terschelling Oan Schylge, the island's anthem Official website Tourist office website