The Standardbred is an American horse breed best known for its ability in harness racing, where members of the breed compete at either a trot or pace. Developed in North America, the Standardbred is recognized worldwide, the breed can trace its bloodlines to 18th-century England, they are well-built horses with good dispositions. In addition to harness racing, the Standardbred is used for a variety of equestrian activities — including horse shows and pleasure riding — in the midwestern and eastern United States, southern Ontario. In the 17th century, the first trotting races were held in the Americas in fields on horses under saddle. However, by the mid-18th century, trotting races were held on official courses, with the horses in harness. Breeds that have contributed foundation stock to the Standardbred breed included the Narragansett Pacer, Canadian Pacer, Norfolk Trotter and Morgan; the foundation bloodlines of the Standardbred trace to a Thoroughbred foaled in England in 1780 named Messenger.
He was a gray stallion imported to the United States in 1788. He sired a number of flat racing horses, but was best known for his great-grandson, Hambletonian 10 known as Rysdyk's Hambletonian, foaled in 1849 and considered the foundation sire of the breed and from whom all Standardbreds descend. Hambletonian 10 was out of a dam with Norfolk Trotter breeding, the mare and foal were purchased by William Rysdyk, a farm hand from New York state, who raced the colt as a three-year-old against other horses; the horse went on to sire 1,331 offspring. Another influential sire was the Thoroughbred Diomed, born in 1777; when the sport started to gain popularity, more selective breeding was done to produce the faster harness trotter. The Standardbred breed registry was formed in United States in 1879 by the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders; the name arose due to the "standard" required of breeding stock, to be able to trot or pace a mile within a certain time limit. Every Standardbred had to be able to trot a mile in 30 seconds.
Today, many Standardbreds are faster than this original standard, with several pacing the mile within 1 min, 50 sec, trotters only a few seconds slower than pacers. Different bloodlines are found in trotters than in pacers, though both can trace their heritage back to Hambletonian 10. Standardbreds tend to be longer bodied than the Thoroughbred, they are of more placid dispositions, as suits horses whose races involve more strategy and more changes of speed than do Thoroughbred races. Standardbreds are considered easy-to-train horses, they are a bit heavier in build than Thoroughbreds, but have refined, solid legs and powerful shoulders and hindquarters. Standardbreds have a wide range of heights, from 14 to 17 hands, although most are between 15 and 16 hands, they are most bay, brown or black, although other colors such as chestnut are seen. Gray and roan are found; the Standardbred weighs between 800 and 1,000 pounds. Their heads are refined and straight with broad foreheads, large nostrils, shallow mouths.
The typical Standardbred body is long, with the withers being well defined, with strong shoulders and the muscles being long and heavy, which helps with the long strides. The neck of the Standardbred is muscular and should be arched, with a length of medium to long, their legs are muscular and solid, with very tough and durable hooves. Individual Standardbreds tend to either pace. Trotters' preferred racing gait is the trot; the pace is a two-beat lateral gait. However, the breed is able to perform other horse gaits, including the canter, though this gait is penalized in harness racing; the breed's trotting and pacing ability is linked to a single-point mutation in gene DMRT3, expressed in the I6 subdivision of spinal cord neurons. The point mutation causes early termination of the gene by coding for a stop codon, thus altering the function of this transcription factor. Standardbreds are known for their skill in harness racing, being the fastest trotting horses in the world; because of their speed, Standardbreds are used to upgrade other breeds of harness racers around the world, such as the Orlov Trotter and French Trotter.
In Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, races are held for both trotters and pacers. In continental Europe, all harness races are conducted between trotters. Major races for North American trotters include the Peter Haughton Memorial for two-year-olds, the World Trotting Derby, Yonkers Trot and Kentucky Futurity for three-year-olds; the Hambletonian is sometimes referred to as the "Kentucky Derby of Harness Racing". The Trotting Triple Crown is made up of the Yonkers Trot, Hambletonian Stakes, Kentucky Futurity; some of the major pacing races in North America include the Woodrow Wilson and Metro Stake for two-year-olds, the Little Brown Jug, Meadowlands Pace, North America Cup and the Adios Pace for three-year-olds. The Little Brown Jug, the Messenger Stakes, the Cane Pace comprise the Pacing Triple Crown. Major races in Australia and New Zealand include the New Zealand Trotting Cup, the Miracle Mile Pace and the Inter Dominion series. In 1968, New Zealand-bred Cardigan Bay became the first Standardbred
A racino is a combined race track and casino. In some cases, the gambling is limited to slot machines, but many locations are beginning to include table games such as blackjack and roulette. In 2003, Joe Bob Briggs described the economic motivation of race track owners to convert into racinos: Horse racing and dog racing have been in a slow decline for 20 years now....the only tracks that have thrived are the ones that have slot machines. In many cases their live handle has continued to decline, but their revenues have shot up so fast that they're able to offer the biggest purses and thereby attract the best horses. Tracks like Delaware Park and West Virginia's Mountaineer Park, once considered places where local degenerates bet on broken-down nags in claiming races, are now among the wealthiest tracks around, with the best races. Fabled tracks like Pimlico, on the other hand, sometimes have trouble making ends meet. USA Today noted in a June 2003 article that receipts from slot machines are divided about evenly in four ways: Payment of the operating costs and payouts to lucky gamblers, State taxes, Prize money offered to jockeys and horse owners, Profit for the racino operator.
As of 2013, racinos are legal in ten U. S. states: Delaware, Maine, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, West Virginia. The first racino in Pennsylvania opened in November 2006. West Virginia pioneered the concept when MTR Gaming Group was allowed to introduce video lottery terminals to the venue now known as Mountaineer Casino and Resort in Chester. Delaware, Rhode Island, West Virginia, three of the members of the Multi-State Lottery Association, jointly ran a progressive VLT game, Ca$hola, from 2006 to July 2011. While VLTs were somewhat successful, a November 2003 article from the Global Gaming Insider noted the real financial success story was the introduction of reel spinning slot machines in Iowa: In 1994, Iowa voters authorized reel spinning slot machines at Iowa racetracks. Polk County, the owner of a brand new, bankrupt horse track, Prairie Meadows, spent $26 million to convert the clubhouse into a casino and install 1,100 slot machines; the racino opened for business on April 1, 1995.
Reel-spinning slots proved to be much more popular than video poker. In the twelve months ended March 31, 1996 machine revenues totaled $119.3 million, enabling Polk County to pay off the $27 million bond issue that paid for the clubhouse casino conversion and retire the track's initial $38.8 million bond issue 17 years early. As the racino had increased revenues, horse racing purses increased six-fold, which attracted better horses to the racetrack and helped to develop horse breeding in Iowa; the Global Gaming Insider article noted that the creation of the racino has led to consolidation in the ownership of racetracks, with Magna Entertainment Corporation and Churchill Downs Incorporated the largest. In November 2004, Florida voters amended their state constitution to allow slot machines at parimutuel facilities. In Bangor, Maine, a $131 million complex is under construction that will house, among other things, a gaming floor featuring up to 1,500 slot machines, a seven-story hotel, a four-level parking garage.
The new racino is slated to open in the summer of 2008. In Biddeford, Maine on November 2, 2010 by a vote of 59%-41% approved a referendum to relocate Scarborough Downs to Biddeford with a new Harness Racing Track/Racino Complex with Slot Machines, an Entertainment Complex and a 200 room Hotel; the plan is to have most if not all of the complex open sometime in 2012. Maine voters approved the Oxford County Maine casino on Nov 2, 2010 the indications are that the Bangor Maine Racino and the relocated Scarborough Downs Racino facility could have table games as well. There are two racino-like facilities in Arkansas; the Oaklawn Jockey Club Racing Track, a horse track, is in Hot Springs. Southland Park, a greyhound track, is in West Memphis. Dictionary entry tracing the term back to 1995 Gambling drives passion for ponies, A June 2003 article from USA Today Argument Over VLTs at Tracks Heats Up, a December 2003 article from the Detroit News
Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Caesars Entertainment Corporation is an American gaming corporation based in Paradise, Nevada that owns and operates over 50 casinos and hotels, seven golf courses under several brands. In 2013, it was the fourth-largest gaming company in the world, with annual revenues of $8.6 billion. Caesars is a public company, majority-owned by a group of private equity firms led by Apollo Global Management and TPG Capital. Caesars's largest operating unit filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on January 15, 2015; the company's background can be traced to October 29, 1937, when Bill Harrah opened a small bingo parlor in Reno, Nevada, a predecessor to Harrah's Reno. In 1955, he expanded to Stateline, Nevada, on the south shore of Lake Tahoe, where he would open Harrah's Lake Tahoe. Harrah's Inc. made its initial public offering in 1971. In 1972, it was listed on the American Stock Exchange and in 1973, Harrah's became the first casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Bill Harrah died on June 30, 1978 of complications from aortic aneurysm and cardiac surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
In February 1980, Holiday Inn acquired. Liquidation of Harrah's collection of 7,000 antique automobiles returned the full purchase price of the company to Holiday Inn. Holiday Inn at the time had interests in two casinos: the under-construction Holiday Inn Marina Casino in Atlantic City, a 40 percent stake in the Holiday Casino, adjacent to the Holiday Inn hotel on the Las Vegas Strip. In July 1987, Bill's Casino Lake Tahoe opened. Harrah's Laughlin opened in August 1988; the company now known as Caesars Entertainment was formed in 1990 as The Promus Companies. To effect the sale of the Holiday Inn hotel business to Bass PLC, Promus was created as a corporate spin-off, holding Harrah's, Embassy Suites, Homewood Suites, Hampton Inn; the next year, the company's headquarters moved from Reno to Memphis, TennesseeIn April 1992, the Holiday Casino was rebranded as Harrah's Las Vegas. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw a rapid increase in gambling markets with the growth of Indian gaming and legalization of riverboat casinos.
In 1993 and 1994, the company opened Harrah's Joliet, Harrah's Vicksburg, Harrah's Tunica, Harrah's Black Hawk, Harrah's Central City, Harrah's Shreveport, Harrah's North Kansas City, Harrah's Ak-Chin. In 1995, Promus decided to spin off its non-gaming hotel businesses, in part because they had been undervalued by investors due to perception of the company as a risky gaming stock. Promus Hotel Corp. was established, holding Embassy Suites, Hampton Inn, Homewood Suites, while the parent company, holding 16 casinos, was renamed as Harrah's Entertainment. Harrah's continued its expansion over the next ten years, opening Harrah's Skagit Valley, Harrah's Sky City, Harrah's St. Louis-Riverport, Harrah's Cherokee, Harrah's Prairie Band, Harrah's New Orleans, Harrah's Rincon, acquiring the Southern Belle Casino, Inc. the Rio All Suite Hotel and Casino, Players International, Harveys Casino Resorts, Louisiana Downs, Horseshoe Gaming, the World Series of Poker. In 1997, Harrah's launched its Total Gold loyalty program, developed at a cost of $20 million.
It was the first gaming company to offer a systemwide comps program, allowing points earned at one casino to be redeemed for goods and services at any of the company's other casinos. The system would be credited as a major driver of Harrah's growth over the coming years. Harvard Business School professor Gary Loveman joined Harrah's as chief operating officer in 1998, would go on to serve as chief executive officer from 2003 to 2015. In 1999, the company moved its headquarters from Memphis to Las Vegas. Harrah's made its largest single expansion in 2005, when it acquired Caesars Entertainment, Inc. for $10.4 billion. Negotiations were spurred on by news of a merger agreement between MGM Mirage and Mandalay Resort Group; the two companies sold several properties ahead of the merger to assuage antitrust concerns, including Harrah's East Chicago and Harrah's Mardi Gras. The acquisition increased Harrah's portfolio to 40 casinos, plus four cruise ship casinos; the deal furthered Harrah's goal of gaining a larger presence on the Las Vegas Strip, where Caesars owned four casinos, improved its ability to market to high rollers.
Harrah's began to push for a larger international presence in 2005, announcing joint venture agreements to build casinos in Spain and the Bahamas, applying for a license to build a major resort in Singapore, though none of these projects would come to fruition. Harrah's acquired London Clubs International in 2006, the Macau Orient Golf club in 2007. From 2005 to 2010, the company consolidated control of a long stretch of the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, acquiring the Bourbon Street, Imperial Palace, Barbary Coast, Planet Hollywood casinos, along with large tracts of land behind the Strip properties. In 2005 and 2006, Harrah's closed its Lake Charles casino due to damage from Hurricane Rita, sold the Flamingo Laughlin, sold Grand Casino Gulfport. Loveman at some point sought advice from private equity tycoon David Bonderman about the possibility of spinning off ownership of Harrah's real estate as a separate real estate investment trust, hoping to attain the higher price-to-earnings ratios at which hotel companies traded, compared to gaming companies.
In 2006, the discussions evolved toward the idea of a leveraged buyout of Harrah's by Bonderman's company, TPG Capital. Another private equity firm, Apollo Global Management, approached Loveman about a buyout, he encouraged them to collaborate with TPG. By the end of the year, an agreement was announced fo
Anderson is a city in and the county seat of Madison County, United States. It is the principal city of the Anderson, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Madison County. Anderson is the headquarters of the Church of God and home of Anderson University, affiliated with Christian denomination. Highlights of the city include the Gruenewald Historic House; the population was 56,129 at the 2010 census. This is down from 70,000 in 1970. Prior to the organization of Madison County, William Conner entered the land upon which Anderson is located. Conner sold the ground to John and Sarah Berry, who donated 32 acres of their land to Madison County on the condition that the county seat be moved from Pendleton to Anderson. John Berry laid out the first plat of Anderson on November 7, 1827. In 1828 the seat of justice was moved from Pendleton to Anderson; the city is named for Chief William "Adam" Anderson, whose mother was a Delaware Indian and whose father was of Swedish descent. Chief Anderson's Indian name was Kikthawenund meaning "creaking boughs".
The Delaware village was known as Anderson's Town, though the Moravian Missionaries called it "The Heathen Town Four Miles Away." Anderson was known as Andersonton before being formally organized as Anderson. Introduction of internal improvements by the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act caused a growth in the population in 1837. In December, 1838, Anderson was incorporated as a town with 350 inhabitants; the Central Canal, a branch of the Wabash and Erie Canal, was planned to come through Anderson. Work continued on the canal during 1838 and the beginning of 1839, but work on the canal was soon suspended by the state following the Panic of 1837; the town again became a sleepy village until 1849. Many new commercial ventures located around the Courthouse Square; this incorporation was short-lived and Anderson once again went back to village status in 1852. However, with the completion of the Indianapolis Bellefontaine Railroad, as well as their station in 1852, Anderson burst to life; the third incorporation of Anderson as a town occurred on June 9, 1853.
The population continued to increase. On August 28, 1865, with a population was nearly 1,300 people, Anderson was incorporated as a city. Between 1853 and the late 19th century, twenty industries of various sizes located there. On March 31, 1887, natural gas was discovered in Anderson; as the Indiana Gas Boom began, this discovery led new businesses that could use natural gas, such as glass-making, to move to the city. Anderson grew to such proportions that a Cincinnati newspaper editor labeled the city "The Pittsburgh on White River." Other appellations were "Queen City of the Gas Belt" and "Puncture Proof City." In 1897 the Interurban Railroad was born in Anderson. Charles Henry, a large stock holder, coined the term "Interurban" in 1893, it continued to operate until 1941. The year 1912 spelled disaster for Anderson: the natural gas ran out, due to the residents squandering their resources; the city left its gas powered lights on day and night, there are stories of a pocket of natural gas being lit in the river and burning for a prolonged period for the spectacle of it.
The result of the loss of natural gas was. The whole city slowed down; the Commercial Club was the forerunner of the present chamber of commerce. This club persuaded the Remy brothers to stay in others to locate there. For decades, Delco Remy and Guide Lamp, during World War II built the M3, M3a1 submachine gun and the liberator pistol for the allies, were the top two employers in the city. From 1913 through the 1950s, the Ward-Stilson Company was one of the country's largest producers of uniforms, regalia and props for the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows and dozens of other U. S. fraternal organizations. The Church of God of Anderson located its world headquarters in Anderson in 1905. Anderson Bible School was opened in 1917, this was separated from Gospel Trumpet in 1925. At the same time, it became known as Seminary. In 1925, the name was changed to Anderson College and to Anderson University in 1988. Over the years, 17 different types of automobiles were manufactured in Anderson with the Lambert family among the city's leaders in its development and Buckeye Gasoline Buggy the Lambert product.
Many other inventions were perfected in Anderson including: the gas regulator, the stamp vending machine, clothes presser, "Irish Mail" handcars, flower car for funeral homes, Sisson choke, the vulcanizing process to retread tires. Like most other industrial cities in Indiana and the Rust Belt as a whole, Anderson suffered tremendously from deindustrialization in the 1970s and 1980s. For example, nearly 22,000 people were employed by General Motors in the 1970s. Anderson has since struggled with higher rates of unemployment. Anderson is located at 40°06′00″N 85°40′53″W; the city of Anderson is located in parts of six townships: Anderson, Richland, Lafayette and Fall Creek. According to the 2010 census, Anderson has a total area of 41.479 square miles, of which 41.37 square miles is land and 0.109 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, there were people and families residing in the city; the population density was 1,356.8 inhabitants per s
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Glossary of North American horse racing
Glossary of North American horse racing: Additional glossaries at: Glossary of Australian and New Zealand punting Glossary of equestrian terms Parimutuel betting#Parimutuel bet types Advance-deposit wagering Advance-deposit wagering is a form of horse race gambling in which the bettor must fund his or her account before being allowed to place bets. ADW is conducted online or by phone. Allowance race A race for which entries are restricted to horses meeting certain earnings or other race criteria; the track operator's designated official establishes specific conditions that determine what weights are to be carried by any competing horse based on factors from the horse's previous performances including races won and/or earnings. Allowances Adjustments in weight "allowed" in a race. Examples are those granted because an apprentice is riding, for three-year-olds running against older horses, or for female horses running against male horses. Sometimes the conditions of a particular race allow weight allowances for other reasons.
Allowance optional claiming See Optional claiming Also eligible A horse entered in a race, not allowed to start because the field is too large, an also-eligible horse is allowed to enter if other horses are scratched prior to a set deadline. Apprentice A young jockey, sometimes called a "bug,", still in training. An apprentice is required to ride a given number of winners in a specified period of time before completing his or her apprenticeship. Backside Also sometimes called the backstretch, an area with restricted access behind the track, where the stables and residential living areas for staff are located. Backstretch The straightway on the farther side of an elliptical or oval racecourse, it runs parallel to the grandstand and the homestretch where the finish line is located. Refers to the stabling area adjacent to the racetrack. Bearing In When a horse does not run straight on the course. There are many causes, including fatigue, reaction to being whipped, or the rider's inability to control the horse.
Black type In a sales catalogue, black type is boldface print and indicates a stakes winner if the name is in all caps, or a stakes-placed runner if in upper and lower mixed case letters. Blanket finish A finish "so close that a blanket would cover all the contestants involved." Bled When a horse bleeds from the nostrils either during the running of a race, or when returning to be unsaddled. May explain a poor effort See also: Furosemide. Blinkers A hood designed with partial cups behind the horse's eyes that limit a horse's rear vision and some side vision, depending on design. Blinkers may prevent a horse from ducking away from other horses. Bloodstock agent People who specialize in buying and selling horses on behalf of clients and offer advice on purchasing horses. See also: Pinhooking Blue hen A mare who produces many high quality offspring who have a significant impact on the breed. Book 1) The list of mares that a stallion will breed in a given breeding season. A full book is when the maximum number of mares the stallion is deemed able to breed has been reached.
2) A jockey's riding commitments for races. An agent is the person who manages and books the races a jockey is to ride. Bounce A horse that runs a poor race directly following a career-best or near-best performance. Break or broke To leave the starting gate in the initial strides of a race. Break maiden When a horse wins a race for the first time in its career. Breather Allowing a horse to slow or to run easy for a short distance in a race for the purpose of conserving the horse's stamina or allowing the horse to regain his strength. Breeze 1. To win easily. 2. A timed workout. Broke down A horse that has a serious leg problem during a race where he is limping or cannot put a limb on the ground, resulting in either being removed from the track in a horse ambulance or, in the worst cases, euthanized. Bullet or bullet work The best workout time at a track on a given day at a specific distance; the past performance listings indicate this work by a printer's "bullet" in front of that particular workout time.
Butazolidin or bute See Phenylbutazone, below. Chalk The horse who runs a particular race at the lowest win odds; the horse with the second-lowest win. If all the races run so far have been won by horses with low win odds today's results so far are called "Chalky." A bettor who places wagers on favorites is called a "Chalk Player." Chart A detailed list of statistics about a race. The chart lists the position of each horse at various points of the race, the margin between horses, plus the odds for the race, each horse's sex, weight carried and trainer; the chart describes the purse, race conditions, the prices paid for various winning bets, winning times and so on. Chute An extension to a straightaway on either the homestretch or the backstretch used for establishing a distance to eliminate the need to begin the race on a turn. Circle the field When a horse is forced to go wide around other horses in order to move into a winning position. Claiming race Race in which any competing horse is subject to be purchased for a preset price.
A claim can only be acted upon by a licensed owner or their agent. The price is set by the conditions of the race. If the horse wins prize money during the race, the money goes to the previous owner. Closer A horse that performs best
Clarksville is a town in Clark County, United States, along the Ohio River and is a part of the Louisville Metropolitan area. The population was 21,724 at the 2010 census; the town was founded in 1783 by early resident George Rogers Clark at the only seasonal rapids on the entire Ohio River, it is the oldest American town in the former Northwest Territory. The town is home to the Colgate clock, one of the largest clocks in the world and the Falls of the Ohio State Park, home to the world's largest exposed Devonian period fossil bed; the site that would become Clarksville was first used as a base of operations by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolution. In 1778 he established a post on an island at the head of the Falls of the Ohio, from which he trained his 175-man regiment for the defense to the west. After the war, Clark was granted a tract of 150,000 acres for his services in the war. In 1783, 1,000 acres were set aside for the development of Clarksville; the same year a stockade was built and settlement began.
The explorer William Clark was a younger brother of George Rogers Clark. Renowned historian Stephen Ambrose writes of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in Undaunted Courage, "When they shook hands, the Lewis and Clark Expedition began." A two-figure statue near the falls commemorates the expedition. Several localities other than Clarksville claim precedence for the start of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, most notably St. Louis, Missouri. Due to the many floods in the nineteenth century and the Indiana Canal Company's failed competition to build a canal around the Ohio Falls, the town struggled. On August 24, 1805 the Indiana Territorial Legislature authorized the construction of a canal around the Falls of the Ohio at Clarksville; the first attempt failed and the investors lost their money. Historians believe. Developers tried to build a canal in 1817 and again in 1820, but the race to build the canal was lost in 1826 when the federal government made a large grant to build the Louisville and Portland Canal.
The lack of a canal handicapped the growth of the town as the Falls of the Ohio made river transport from the city difficult. Clarksville became a popular dueling spot for Kentuckians who wanted to dodge their home state's anti-dueling laws; the most famous of these was the 1809 duel between Humphrey Marshall. There was an attempt to build a second town within Clarksville's boundaries, named Ohio Falls City, until the Indiana Supreme Court ruled that this would be illegal; the town was managed by a ten-member Board of Trustees in the charter from Virginia. The trustees were allowed to align lots along roads and sell the lots for the proceeds to benefit the town; the trustees did not have to reside in the town. This remained controversial with residents until 1889 when the board stopped meeting and was replaced by a three-member board. One member was selected by the Floyd County Commissioners, one by the Clark County Commissioners, one by residents of Clarksville. Between 1889 and 1937, the town established a five-member board elected by residents.
The historic records related to this governmental change were lost in the Ohio River flood of 1937. The Great Flood of 1937 decimated the town; the entire town was submerged beneath as much as 12 feet of water in some areas for over three weeks during January and February. With all of the old town destroyed, Clarksville was rebuilt with a new modern city plan; the post-World War II housing boom and new jobs brought growth to the city. The population increased from 2,400 in 1940 to 22,000 in 2000; the city has expanded to the north by annexing several sizable suburbs. By 1981 the State of Indiana changed statutes to convert the managing board of trustees to a council with members rather than trustees. In 1990 voters approved expansion of members of the Town Council from five to seven following the area growth. Clarksville is now the major shopping hub of Southern Indiana, with the hub area centered on Lewis and Clark Parkway and nearby Veterans Parkway. Clarksville is located at 38°18′43″N 85°46′2″W.
According to the 2010 census, Clarksville has a total area of 10.17 square miles, of which 9.97 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,724 people, 9,175 households, 5,464 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,178.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,839 housing units at an average density of 986.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.1% White, 5.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 5.7% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. There were 9,175 households of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.98.
The median age in the town was 37.3 years. 22.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.0% male and 52.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,400 people, 8,984 households, 5,561 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,120.6 people per square mile. There wer