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Barton Springs salamander

The Barton Springs salamander is an endangered lungless salamander. It is endemic to United States, it was first found in Barton Springs in Austin, but is now known from other localities in the nearby Travis and Hays Counties. Barton Springs salamanders are average-sized and have mottled coloration varying from darkish purple to light yellow. Amphibian species worldwide have been in decline due to climate change including but not limited to: increased UV radiation, change in precipitation, various pathogen outbreaks. However, habitat destruction and pollution on a local scale have resulted from land and watershed urbanization; these changes, in turn, among others, water quality and biological community composition of rivers and water systems in the surrounding environment. The wide effects of contamination and degradation on these water systems make analyzing their specific sources difficult since the interactions of factors and overlapping effects may occur. Nonetheless, it is important to study these consequences so that future impact on this and other species may be reduced.

Dissolved oxygen is required at specific levels to maintain healthy aquatic life. To do this, "national ambient water quality criteria" have been set by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and measurements have been made since 1969, albeit inconsistently. Hypoxia, a state of reduced oxygen, may hinder embryonic and fetal development as well as decrease oxygen consumption in adults. Apart from prenatal developments, physiological responses may arise from a lack of oxygen; some of the known responses include "Increases in heart rate and buccal pumping, behavioral hypothermia, gill hypertrophy". Since this species is an obligately aquatic neotene, retains its gills through its adult life, it must absorb oxygen through its gills or skin. However, the method in which it performs this absorption has yet to be determined. One study found that when presented with a low DO level, this salamander increases its body movement, they theorized two explanations for this reaction: low and high DO levels may be found close, therefore movement will allow this species to migrate to a higher DO environment, the physical movement causes a decrease between boundary layers adjacent to skin and gills, which allows for greater flow of oxygen.

Much of the Barton Springs salamander's life history remains unknown at this time. It appears that they feed on small aquatic crustaceans, but can supplement their diet with other items, such as earthworms. In addition, aquatic vegetation has been shown to be a critical component to the salamander's habitat; the species epithet is an acronym for "Save Our Springs Ordinance" although it is if erroneously believed to refer to SOS Alliance, a local preservation group combined with a Latin genitive plural ending. Despite inhabiting an urban area, E. sosorum was not described until 1993. It was put on the federal List of Threatened and Endangered Species in 1997; the salamander's listing prevented the City of Austin from cleaning the Barton Springs Pool as it had for 70 years—with bleach. As a result, the City of Austin applied for and was issued an Incidental Take Permit under Section 10 of the Endangered Species Act by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1998; the permit has a term of 15 years and allows incidental taking of salamanders during pool cleaning and maintenance.

As a mitigation measure, the City offered to direct 10% of revenue generated through pool entry fees into a conservation fund, used for research and habitat enhancement. Chippindale, P. T.. H. Price. J.. M.. "Phylogenetic relationships of central Texas hemidactyliine plethodontid salamanders, genus Eurycea, a taxonomic revision of the group". Herpetological Monographs. 14: 1–80. Doi:10.2307/1467045. Hillis, D. M.. A.. P.. T.. "A new species of subterranean blind salamander from Austin, a systematic revision of central Texas paedomorphic salamanders". Herpetologica. 57: 266–280. Media related to Eurycea sosorum at Wikimedia Commons Salamanders B-Roll Video published by austintexasgov Data related to Eurycea sosorum at Wikispecies

Hilda Gobbi

Hilda Gobbi was an award-winning Hungarian actress, known for her portrayals of elderly women. One of her most beloved performances was as Aunt Szabo in the radio soap opera The Szabo Family. A resistance member during World War II, she attempted to facilitate the reconstruction of the National Theatre by sponsoring a fundraising drive. Committed to her craft, she founded the Árpád Horváth Actor's College, a home to care for elderly actors named after Mari Jászai, a second actor's home named after Árpád Ódry, the Gizi Bajor Actor's Museum, bequeathed her Patkó Villa to the National Theater for the purposes of creating a theater. Hilda Emília Gizella Gobbi was born on 6 June 1913 in Budapest, which at the time was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, to German-born and the Italian Hussar-turned industrialist, Ede Gobbi, her paternal grandfather was Alois Gobbi, a noted violinist, who would become the conductor of the National Conservatory. When she was a child, her family was well-to-do, as her father ran a paper-towel factory, but they became impoverished due to his gambling and spending money on other women.

For a time, the couple separated and Gobbi and her mother were homeless. Gobbi attended the Erzsébet Szilágyi Gymnasium and attended the Putnoki School of Economics for Women's Higher Education. Going on to university, she enrolled in botany classes at the Pázmány Péter Catholic University, worked in the university's botanical garden. To continue her education, Gobbi was able to secure loans and enter the National Theater Academy as a scholarship student, attending from 1932 to 1935. Upon completing her studies at the Academy, Gobbi was contracted with the National Theater in 1935 and began participating in many productions, she was a featured artist in the productions of the Vasas Trade Union. Gobbi's first film role was in The Borrowed Castle and the following year, she filmed The Lady Is a Bit Cracked, in which she played an eccentric madwoman. In her younger days as an actress, Gobbi earned her reputation by playing older women. During the Nazi occupation of Hungary, Gobbi worked with the Resistance.

Her father created forged documents to exempt men from military service. Gobbi was politically active and a member of the communist party until 1956, when she left over ideological differences. Remembering her early struggles and time of homelessness, Gobbi had a strong social conscience and was involved in creating many organizations to assist actors. In 1947, she founded the Árpád Horváth Actor's College to give aspiring actors a home and place to study. Horváth was an early theater director; the following year, she created the Mari Jászai Actress Home and in 1949, established the Ódry Árpád Actors Home, to provide a homes to care for elderly performers. During her early years of struggling, Gizi Bajor, who served as a mentor, had once given her shoes. After the actress's untimely death, Gobbi purchased Bajor's villa and created a museum named in her honor to feature Hungarian performers in 1952. Besides Bajor, there are rooms at the museum dedicated to Emília Márkus. After the 1959 theatrical season ended, Gobbi quit the National Theater and began working in 1960 at the József Attila Theatre.

At a time when homosexuality was illegal, Gobbi was open about her lesbian orientation dressing in men's clothing. After Hédi Temessy divorced her husband, she began a relationship with Gobbi and they lived together from the late 1950s to 1960s in a home in Buda. Homosexuality was classified as a mental illness. After Gobbi and Temessy ended their relationship, Gobbi became the partner of the writer, Erzsébet Galgóczi. In 1971, she rejoined the National Theater and remained here until 1982. In that year, she moved to the József Katona Theater; when she received a monetary prize for her 70th birthday in 1983, Gobbi offered the entire prize money to refurbish the National Theater. She launched a nationwide fundraising drive which garnered collections of 3.3 billion forints, but the theater was never constructed and there were accusations of governmental misuse of the funds. Gobbi performed on film and stage, in a career which spanned over fifty years, she did not shy away from performing characters who were complex.

She performed in a wide range of productions from comedy to tragedy, was noted for her humor and caricatures, creating many memorable roles. Some of her most noted performances were as Gertrude in József Katona's Bánk bán, her role as Aunt Szabó in the Hungarian radio soap opera, The Szabó Family, was one of her most popular performances, as was the performance in Mickey Magnate in which she played an aristocratic old woman, a kleptomaniac. In 1982, Gobbi published her autobiography, Közben--, released by Szépirodalmi Kiadó. Awarded numerous honors for her performance, Gobbi received the: "Wolf Ratko Prize, the Kossuth Prize, Artist of Merit, Outstanding Artist, the Labor Merit Gold Grade, SZOT Prize, Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary, a

Istanbul nostalgic tramways

The Istanbul nostalgic tramways are two heritage tramlines in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. The city has two separate heritage tram systems, one on the European side, the other on the Asian side. Istanbul, the former capital of Turkey, once had a large tramway network on both the Asian and European sides; these started as horse trams but changed to electric. Many routes were built step by step, the network reached its greatest extent in 1956 with 108 million passengers in 270 cars on 56 lines, but as happened in most cities around the world, tram service in Istanbul began to close in 1956, ended in 1966. Trams returned to Istanbul with the opening of the Taksim-Tünel Nostalgia Tramway; the city is divided between Asia and Europe, while the Asian side has a heritage tram system, the European side has both a heritage tram and a modern tram system. After closing the tram network in the mid-1960s, the people of Istanbul thought this old fashioned method of smooth city traveling had been removed, transport within the city would move faster than before, but this proved false some years later.

The uncontrolled increase of petrol vehicles such as buses and private cars started choking the streets of Istanbul. Turkey suffered many of the problems of developing countries, including pollution, traffic jams, illegal migration, low literacy and rapid increase of population etc. A growing population increased the urbanization of Istanbul, with it more motor vehicles which increased air and sound pollution, traffic jams and smog; the city became slower than in the tram era. From the early 1970s, these problems increased and by the mid-1980s Istanbulians realized that lack of control of motor vehicles and the closure of the tram network were great mistakes. Due to increasing traffic jams and air pollution, Istanbul became one of the most polluted Eurasian cities during the mid-1980s, which caused not only increasing diseases of citizens, but lost tourists. Many cities around the world like Tunis, Buenos Aires etc. understood that error, like them, Istanbul planned for the return of trams. Understanding the great mistake of the closure of the tram system, the government planned to decrease pollution as soon as possible, to recover the image of Istanbul among tourists.

Looking at many cities around the world, the authorities planned to bring trams back to Istanbul. By the number of cars and buses had increased so much that starting a new tramway was not possible at that time. Instead they planned an experimental heritage tramway, mindful of the lower installation cost as tourist attraction, as a test system with the younger generations in Istanbul to see how trams would be accepted; the Authority thought to re-introduce heritage trams in Istanbul using the same type of rolling stock, running in European part until 1962, in the Asian part until 1966. The original Istanbul tram network was completely destroyed, including depots, electric power stations, etc. except for some of the rolling stock, preserved in transport museums. Using old photographs, people's memories, other sources, some rolling stock was built for the European side resembling pre-1962 European-side tram stock, including the size, interior, color scheme etc; the prototypes had been built in 1915.

Around 1990, the Istiklal Caddesi became a pedestrian zone, the tram was restored and revived in 1990, in the form of the Taksim-Tünel Nostalgia Tramway. After a 24-year absence, trams returned to Istanbul; the length of the line is 1.64 kilometers and there are 5 stops. After the Taksim-Tünel Nostalgia Tramway gained in popularity among tourists, another heritage tramway opened in 2003 on the Asian side of Istanbul, as what is now known as the T3 line. In the case of the T3 line, first-generation trams were not re-installed along the route. Instead, secondhand trams from Germany were acquired from the Jena tram system, which were built in the Berlin area or in Gotha. Trams on the T3 line run on a clockwise circular loop, following the old tram Route 20; the length of the line is 2.6 kilometers and there are 10 stops. 1961 – The last tram ran on the European side of Istanbul on 12 January 1961. The Topkapi-Eminönü line was replaced by trolleybuses on 27 May 1961. Six trams were transferred to the tram network on the Asian side.

1966 – The last tram ran on the Asian side of Istanbul on 3 October 1966, between Kadiköy and Kızıltoprak. The remaining trams were transferred to the transport museum. 1984 – Trolleybus service stopped on 16 July 1984. At this time, all electricity-driven city transport in Istanbul ended. 1990 – İstiklal Caddesi was closed to traffic. Trams returned to the European side of Istanbul as a heritage tram line, the Taksim-Tünel Nostalgia Tramway, operating on İstiklal Caddesi between Taksim and Tünel. Rolling stocks were same as the pre-1966 trams. 1992 – Opening of a separate tramline: the tram system on the European side of Istanbul was expanded to include a modern tramline, built by Yapı Merkezi. The line, now called the T1 line, operates on the same alignment where trams last ran in 1956. 2003 – Trams returned to the Asian side of Istanbul as heritage tramway, operating a circular tramway on the part of the old closed Route 20 tramway. The secondhand rolling stock was imported from Schöneiche, Germany.


William T. Ogden House

William T. Ogden House is a historic Neo-Classical Georgian style brick mansion located on 3 acres in Stirling, Canada. Construction of the house was finished in 1919 by William T. Ogden; the house has been a rooming house, pool hall and a dance studio, in 1934 it became a temporary school for grades 1 through 4 due after the local school was affected by fire. This home is mentioned in village records as thought to be haunted as far back as the 1950s; every Halloween, the owners conduct Stirling Haunted Mansion tours, making it the largest haunted house in Southern Alberta. The Santa Claus Mansion event is held there each December in conjunction with a Christmas lights tour. A 16-inch gauge mini railroad, the Lost Frontier Mini-Railway, winds its way around the estate. William T. Ogden was another of the first to come to Canada to settle, he arrived in 1899; this house was the second to be built. His first house was smaller than the one; the house was well built, costing $15,000. The walls are about twelve inches thick and consist of two layers with a space the width of a brick between them to provide insulation.

Foundation walls are thicker to prevent seepage of water into the basement when flood irrigation was taking place around the house. The house had many conveniences not enjoyed by other homes in the community, it was lit by electricity, powered by twelve batteries, which were recharged by a motor, it was centrally heated by radiators and a coal-fired furnace, had hot and cold running water, pumped from a large cistern beside the house into a storage tank in the basement. The rooms were large and spacious, the ceilings 10' high, a wide staircase led to a large hall on the upper floor, with seven rooms leading off of it; the house was and still is a dominant landmark in the community. While the house retains much of its integrity the exterior, the same cannot be said for the site upon which it sits, it is a large house that did not, still does not, conform with the community in which it is located. For this reason, it is a distinctive landmark that impresses locals and visitors alike and raises many questions as to the reason for its construction.

William T. Ogden was one of the Mormon pioneers who arrived in Southern Alberta in 1899 to help build the St. Mary River Irrigation Canal, he designed the house himself, based on his memories of the architecture of the southern states where he served his mission and met his first wife. Together with an architect friend, Bent Rolfson, of Raymond, they drew up the plans, with only "day labour" help built the house over a period of years, completing it in 1919. Ogden was a prominent member of the Stirling community. After his death in 1930, the house fell into disrepair, it was used for classes for Grades 1 to 4 while the Stirling School was being reconstructed after a fire. It was used a pool hall, became an apartment house, a rooming house for "displaced persons" following World War II. Over the past thirty years it has been owned by individuals. List of attractions and landmarks in Stirling, Alberta Stirling, Alberta Stirling's Haunted Mansion Stirling Historical Society-Ogden House Maps of historic sites in Stirling Ogden House - Alberta Register of Historic Places

1930 Nevada Wolf Pack football team

The 1930 Nevada Wolf Pack football team was an American football team that represented the University of Nevada in the Far Western Conference during the 1930 college football season. In their second season under head coach George Philbrook, the team compiled a 2–4–2 record, outscored opponents by a total of 77 to 73, finished in second place in the conference; the following individuals played for the 1930 Nevada team: Bill Backer - halfback Dick Barthels Drury - fullback Chester Elliott - halfback John Griffin - tackle Lloyd Guffrey Jack Hill - halfback Kell - guard/tackle Lefebvre - halfback Art Levy - end/quarterback Walt Linehan Bob Madriaga - guard McGarraghan - guard Matt Mohorovich - center Hank Rampoldi - tackle/end Risley - quarterback/halfback Wally Rusk - guard Neil Scott - end Clem Sultenfuss - halfback Olie Thies - tackle Jack Walther - center Willard Weaver - end Harold Willard Milton Young - quarterback