National Education Association
The National Education Association is the largest labor union and professional interest group in the United States. It represents public school teachers and other support personnel and staffers at colleges and universities, retired educators, college students preparing to become teachers; the NEA has just under 3 million members and is headquartered in Washington, D. C; the NEA had a budget of more than $341 million for the 2012–2013 fiscal year. Lily Eskelsen García is the NEA's current president; the stated mission of the NEA is "to advocate for education professionals and to unite our members and the nation to fulfill the promise of public education to prepare every student to succeed in a diverse and interdependent world."The NEA on the conservative side of U. S. politics, by the 1970s emerged as a factor in modern liberalism. While the NEA has a stated position of "non-partisan", it supports the Democratic Party. Conservatives and parents' rights groups have criticized the NEA's liberal positions.
State affiliates of the NEA lobby state legislators for funding, seek to influence education policy, file legal actions. At the national level, the NEA lobbies the United States Congress and federal agencies and is active in the nominating process for Democratic candidates. From 1989 through the 2014 election cycle, the NEA spent over $92 million on political campaign contributions, 97% of which went to Democrats; the NEA has a membership of just under 3 million people. The NEA is incorporated as a Trade union in most; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. It is not a member of the AFL–CIO, but is part of Education International, the global federation of teachers' unions. NEA members set the union's policies through the Representative Assembly; the RA, a delegation comprising elected representatives from each local and state affiliate, coalitions of student members and retired members, other segments of the united education profession—is the primary legislative and policy-making body of the NEA.
As of 2014, the executive officers of the NEA are Lily Eskelsen García, Rebecca Pringle, Princess Moss. These three posts are elected by the Representative Assembly; the Board of Directors and Executive Committee are responsible for the general policies and interests of the NEA. The Board of Directors consists of one director from each state affiliate, six directors for the retired members, three directors for the student members; the board includes at-large representatives of ethnic minorities, classroom teachers in higher education, active members employed in educational support positions. The NEA was founded in Philadelphia in 1857 as the National Teachers Association. Zalmon Richards was elected the NTA's first president and presided over the organization's first annual meeting in 1858; the NTA became the National Education Association in 1870 when it merged with the American Normal School Association, the National Association of School Superintendents, the Central College Association. The union was chartered by Congress in 1906.
NEA merged with the American Teachers Association, the black teachers association founded as the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools, in 1966. In 1998, a tentative merger agreement was reached between NEA and American Federation of Teachers negotiators, but ratification failed soundly in the NEA's Representative Assembly meeting in New Orleans in early July 1998. However, five NEA state affiliates have merged with their AFT counterparts. Mergers occurred in Florida. North Dakota United formed in 2013. Before the 1960s, only a small portion of public school teachers were unionized; that began to change in 1959, when Wisconsin became the first state to pass a collective bargaining law for public employees. Over the next 20 years, most other states adopted similar laws; the NEA reported a membership of 766,000 in 1961. In the 1960s, the NEA's demographics were changing; this was due to the merger with ATA and the decision to become a true labor union, among other factors. In 1967, the NEA elected Braulio Alonso.
In 1968, NEA elected Elizabeth Duncan Koontz. In 2006, the NEA and the AFL–CIO announced that, for the first time, stand-alone NEA locals as well as those that had merged with the AFT would be allowed to join state and local labor federations affiliated with the AFL-CIO. In 2007, at the 150th anniversary of its founding, NEA membership had grown to 3.2 million. However, by July 2012, USA Today reported that NEA had lost more than 100,000 members since 2010. C. Louise Boehringer, in 1913 she spoke at their convention in San Francisco Della Prell Darknell Campbell William George Carr, Executive Director of the NEA from 1952 to 1967 Sabra R. Greenhalgh, life member of the NEA, elected a delegate to represent northern California at the annual convention in Columbus, Ohio, in 1931 Kate Wetzel Jameson, member Vesta C. Muehleisen, member Caroline Haven Ober, member Mary Yost, vice-president of the Western Division of Department of Deans of Women For most of the 20th century, the NEA represented the public school administration in small towns and rural areas.
The state organizations played a major role in policy formation for the NEA. After 1957, the NEA reoriented itself to represent the teachers in those district
How the Grinch Stole Christmas!
How the Grinch Stole Christmas! is a children's story by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel written in rhymed verse with illustrations by the author, it follows the Grinch, a grouchy, solitary creature who attempts to put an end to Christmas by stealing Christmas-themed items from the homes of the nearby town Whoville on Christmas Eve. The story was published as a book by Random House in 1957, at the same time in an issue of Redbook; the book criticizes the commercialization of Christmas. Based on a 2007 online poll, the National Education Association named it one of its "Teachers' Top 100 Books for Children". In 2012, it was ranked number 61 among the "Top 100 Picture Books" in a survey published by School Library Journal – the fourth of five Dr. Seuss books on the list; the book has been adapted as a 1966 animated TV film starring Boris Karloff, a 2000 live-action feature film starring Jim Carrey, a 2018 computer-animated film starring Benedict Cumberbatch. The Grinch is a bitter, cave-dwelling creature with a heart "two sizes too small", living as a hermit on the snowy Mount Crumpit, a steep high mountain just north of the town of Whoville, home of the merry and warm-hearted Whos.
His only companion is Max. From his cave, the Grinch can hear the noisy Christmas festivities. Continuously annoyed, he devises a wicked scheme to steal their presents and food for their Christmas feast, he crudely disguises himself as Santa Claus, forces Max, disguised as a reindeer, to drag a sleigh down the mountain towards Whoville. Once at Whoville, the Grinch slides down the chimney of one house and steals all of the Whos' Christmas presents, the Christmas tree, the log for their fire, he is interrupted in his burglary by Cindy Lou, a little Who girl, but concocts a crafty lie to effect his escape from her home. After stealing from one house, he does the same thing to all the other houses in the village of Whoville. After spending all night stealing stuff from the houses of Whoville, the Grinch travels back to the top of Mount Crumpit, intending to dump all of the Christmas stuff into the abyss; as dawn arrives, the Grinch expects the people in Whoville to let out bitter and sorrowful cries, but is confused to hear them singing a joyous Christmas song instead.
He is puzzled until it dawns on him that "maybe Christmas means a little bit more" than just presents and feasting. The Grinch's shrunken heart grows three sizes; the reformed and liberated Grinch returns to the village to give back all of the Whos' Christmas stuff and participate in their Christmas feast. The Grinch first appeared in a 32-line illustrated poem by Dr. Seuss called "The Hoobub and the Grinch,", published in the May 1955 edition of Redbook magazine. Dr. Seuss began work on How the Grinch Stole Christmas! A couple of years around the beginning of 1957, he had completed The Cat in the Hat and was in the midst of founding Beginner Books with Phyllis and Bennett Cerf and his wife, Helen Palmer Geisel. Helen, who had ongoing medical problems and had suffered a small stroke in April 1957 acted as an unofficial editor, as she had with previous Dr. Seuss books. Dr. Seuss wrote the book and was finished with it within a few weeks. Biographers Judith and Neil Morgan wrote, "It was the easiest book of his career to write, except for its conclusion."
According to Dr. Seuss: I got hung up getting the Grinch out of the mess. I got into a situation where I sounded like a second-rate preacher or some biblical truism... In desperation... without making any statement whatever, I showed the Grinch and the Whos together at the table, made a pun of the Grinch carving the'roast beast.'... I had gone through thousands of religious choices, after three months it came out like that. By mid-May 1957, the book was in the mail to the Random House offices in New York. In June, Dr. Seuss and Helen took a month-long vacation to Hawaii, where he checked and returned the book's galley proof; the book debuted in December 1957, in both a book version published by Random House and in an issue of Redbook. Dr. Seuss dedicated the book to Theodor "Teddy" Owens, the one-year-old son of his niece, Peggy Owens. M. S. Libby, writing in the New York Herald Tribune, compared the book favorably to Dr. Seuss's earlier works: "His peculiar and original genius in line and word is always the same, yet, so rich are the variations he plays on his themes, always fresh and amusing."
Kirkus Reviews wrote, "Youngsters will be in transports over the goofy gaiety of Dr. Seuss's first book about a villain." The reviewer called the Grinch "easily the best Christmas-cad since Scrooge." Ellen Lewis Buell, in her review in The New York Times, praised the book's handling of its moral, as well as its illustrations and verse. She wrote: Even if you prefer Dr. Seuss in a purely antic mood, you must admit that if there's a moral to be pointed out, no one can do it more gaily; the reader is swept along by the ebullient rhymes and the weirdly zany pictures until he is limp with relief when the Grinch reforms and, like the latter, mellow with good feelings. The review for The Saturday Review of Literature stated: "The inimitable Dr. Seuss has brought off a fresh triumph in his new picture book... The verse is as lively and the pages are as bright and colorful as anyone could wish." The reviewer suggested that parents and older siblings reading the book to young children would enjoy its moral and humor.
Charlotte Jackson of the San Francisco Chronicle called the book "wonderful fantasy, in the true Dr. Seuss manner, with pictures in the Christmas colors." Some writers, including Dr. Seuss himself, have made a connection between the Dr. Seuss. In the story, the Gr
The King's Stilts
The King's Stilts is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss, published in 1939 by Random House. Unlike many Dr. Seuss books, it is narrated in prose rather than verse; the King's Stilts tells the story of King Birtram of Binn, who dedicates himself to safeguarding his kingdom, which lives in a precarious existence. It is surrounded by water, held back from flooding the land by a ring of dike trees, which are in turn subject to attack from flocks of nizzards. To protect the kingdom, a legion of Patrol Cats is organized to keep the nizzards at bay, King Birtram sees to their care personally; when not attending to his royal duties, the King enjoys himself with a rigorous cavorting on his personal red stilts, which distresses his minister Lord Droon. When Droon manipulates the King's page boy Eric to steal and hide the stilts, the King grows depressed and begins to neglect his duties; as a result, the Patrol Cats become less vigilant, soon the nizzards make headway in eating away the dike trees.
Seeing the results of his actions, Eric resolves to return the stilts to the King and succeeds in doing so despite Lord Droon's efforts to stop him. King Birtram summons the energy to mobilize the Patrol Cats to fight off the nizzards and save the kingdom. Lord Droon is imprisoned and forced to eat nizzard every day while Eric is rewarded with his own pair of red stilts, joining the King on his outings; the King's Stilts was published in 1939, as Geisel's second book for Random House and his fourth book overall. Although it was more successful than his previous book, The Seven Lady Godivas, its sales were still a disappointment: 4,648 copies were sold in 1939 and 394 in 1940. Cohen, Charles; the Seuss, the Whole Seuss and Nothing But the Seuss: A Visual Biography of Theodor Seuss Geisel. Random House Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0-375-82248-8. OCLC 53075980
A picture book combines visual and verbal narratives in a book format, most aimed at young children. The images in picture books use a range of media such as oil paints, acrylics and pencil, among others. Two of the earliest books with something like the format picture books still retain now were Heinrich Hoffmann's Struwwelpeter from 1845 and Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit from 1902; some of the best-known picture books are Robert McCloskey's Make Way for Ducklings, Dr. Seuss' The Cat In The Hat, Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are; the Caldecott Medal and Kate Greenaway Medal are awarded annually for illustrations in children's literature. From the mid-1960s several children's literature awards include a category for picture books. Picture books are most aimed at young children, while some may have basic language designed to help children develop their reading skills, most are written with vocabulary a child can understand but not read. For this reason, picture books tend to have two functions in the lives of children: they are first read to young children by adults, children read them themselves once they begin learning to read.
Some picture books are published with content aimed at older children or adults. Tibet: Through the Red Box, by Peter Sis, is one example of a picture book aimed at an adult audience. There are several subgenres among picture books, including alphabet books, concept books, counting books, early readers, calendar books, nursery rhymes, toy books. Board books - picture books published on a hard cardboard - are intended for small children to use and play with. Another category is movable books, such as pop-up books, which employ paper engineering to make parts of the page pop up or stand up when pages are opened; the Wheels on the Bus, by Paul O. Zelinsky, is one example of a bestseller pop-up picture book. Orbis Pictus from 1658 by John Amos Comenius was the earliest illustrated book for children, it is illustrated by woodcuts. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book from 1744 by John Newbery was the earliest illustrated storybook marketed as pleasure reading in English. In Japan, kibyoshi were picture books from the 18th century, are seen as a precursor to manga.
Examples of 18th-century Japanese picture books include works such as Santō Kyōden's Shiji no yukikai. The German children's books Struwwelpeter from 1845 by Heinrich Hoffmann, Max and Moritz from 1865 by Wilhelm Busch, were among the earliest examples of modern picturebook design. Collections of Fairy tales from early nineteenth century, like those by the Brothers Grimm or Hans Christian Andersen were sparsely illustrated, but beginning in the middle of the century, collections were published with images by illustrators like Gustave Doré, Fedor Flinzer, George Cruikshank, Vilhelm Pedersen, Ivan Bilibin and John Bauer. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. Ford and Lancelot Speed. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, illustrated by John Tenniel in 1866 was one of the first successful entertainment books for children. Toy books were introduced in the latter half of the 19th century, small paper bound books with art dominating the text.
These had a larger proportion of pictures to words than earlier books, many of their pictures were in color. The best of these were illustrated by the triumvirate of English illustrators Randolph Caldecott, Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway whose association with colour printer and wood engraver Edmund Evans produced books of great quality. In the late 19th and early 20th century a small number of American and British artists made their living illustrating children's books, like Rose O'Neill, Arthur Rackham, Cicely Mary Barker, Willy Pogany, Edmund Dulac, W. Heath Robinson, Howard Pyle, or Charles Robinson; these illustrated books had eight to twelve pages of illustrated pictures or plates accompanying a classic children's storybook. Beatrix Potter's The Tale of Peter Rabbit was published in 1902 to immediate success. Peter Rabbit was Potter's first of many The Tale of... including The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin, The Tale of Benjamin Bunny, The Tale of Tom Kitten, The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck, to name but a few which were published in the years leading up to 1910.
Swedish author Elsa Beskow wrote and illustrated some forty children's stories and picture books between 1897–1952. Andrew Lang's twelve Fairy Books published between 1889 and 1910 were illustrated by among others Henry J. Ford and Lancelot Speed. In the US, illustrated stories for children appeared in magazines like Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping and Woman's Home Companion, intended for mothers to read to their children; some cheap periodicals appealing to the juvenile reader started to appear in the early twentieth century with uncredited illustrations. Helen Bannerman's Little Black Sambo was published in 1899, went through numerous printings and versions during the first decade of the twentieth century, it was part of a series of small-format books called The Dumpy Books for Children, published by British publisher Grant Richards between 1897 and 1904. L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was published in 1900, Baum created a number of other successful Oz-oriented books in the period from 1904 to 1920.
Frank Baum wanted to create a modern-day fairy tale. In 1910, American illustrator and author Rose O'Neill's first children's book was published, The Kewpies and Dottie Darling. More books in the Kewpie series follo
Scrambled Eggs Super!
Scrambled Eggs Super! is a 1953 book by American children's author Dr. Seuss, it tells of a boy named Peter T. Hooper, who makes scrambled eggs prepared from eggs of various exotic birds. At the beginning of the story, Peter T. Hooper brags to a girl, Liz, in his mother's kitchen about how good of a cook he is, he tells the story of how, when he became fed up with the taste of regular scrambled eggs using hen's eggs, he decided to scramble eggs from other birds. He tells of how he travelled great distances and discovered a variety of exotic birds and their eggs, he explains his criteria for choosing some eggs, because of their sweetness, avoiding others. He takes the eggs home but decides that he still needs more, he calls on the help of some friends he knows from around the world, including a "fellow named Ali". After each bird Peter finds he states the phrase..."Scrambled Eggs Super Dee Dooper Dee Booper Special Deluxe a la Peter T. Hooper". Ruth C. Barlow of the Christian Science Monitor called it a "gay extravaganza".
It received positive reviews from Chicago Sunday Tribune and The New York Herald Tribune for Seuss's illustrations of the birds. Phillip Nel, in the book Dr. Seuss: American Icon, wrote that Scrambled Eggs Super! was one of Seuss's less politically oriented books
Dr. Seuss's ABC
Dr. Seuss's ABC is a 1963 children's A to Z alphabetical picture book by Dr. Seuss, it was published as part of the Random House Beginner Books series. It contains several short poems about a variety of characters, is designed to introduce basic alphabet book concepts to children. On the Biography special on Dr. Seuss, a "rejected" page from the book was revealed saying, "Big X / Little x / X...x... X / Someday, you will learn about sex." This was adapted for Living Books. This includes other books, I Can Read with My Eyes Shut! & Mr. Brown Can Moo! Can You?. Seussical Seussville Dr. Seuss's ABC
Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American children's author, political cartoonist, animator. He is known for his work writing and illustrating more than 60 books under the pen name Doctor Seuss, his work includes many of the most popular children's books of all time, selling over 600 million copies and being translated into more than 20 languages by the time of his death. Geisel adopted the name "Dr. Seuss" as an undergraduate at Dartmouth College and as a graduate student at Lincoln College, Oxford, he left Oxford in 1927 to begin his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair and various other publications. He worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for FLIT and Standard Oil, as a political cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM, he published his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street in 1937. During World War II, he took a brief hiatus from children's literature to illustrate political cartoons, he worked in the animation and film department of the United States Army where he wrote, produced or animated many productions – both live-action and animated – including Design for Death, which won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
After the war, Geisel returned to writing children's books, writing classics like If I Ran the Zoo, Horton Hears a Who!, If I Ran the Circus, The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham. He published over 60 books during his career, which have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, five feature films, a Broadway musical, four television series. Geisel won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Geisel's birthday, March 2, has been adopted as the annual date for National Read Across America Day, an initiative on reading created by the National Education Association. Geisel was born and raised in Springfield, the son of Henrietta and Theodor Robert Geisel, his father managed the family brewery and was appointed to supervise Springfield's public park system by Mayor John A. Denison after the brewery closed because of Prohibition. Mulberry Street in Springfield, made famous in his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, is near his boyhood home on Fairfield Street.
The family was of German descent, Geisel and his sister Marnie experienced anti-German prejudice from other children following the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Geisel attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1925. At Dartmouth, he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern rising to the rank of editor-in-chief. While at Dartmouth, he was caught drinking gin with nine friends in his room. At the time, the possession and consumption of alcohol was illegal under Prohibition laws, which remained in place between 1920 and 1933; as a result of this infraction, Dean Craven Laycock insisted that Geisel resign from all extracurricular activities, including the Jack-O-Lantern. To continue working on the magazine without the administration's knowledge, Geisel began signing his work with the pen name "Seuss", he was encouraged in his writing by professor of rhetoric W. Benfield Pressey, whom he described as his "big inspiration for writing" at Dartmouth. Upon graduating from Dartmouth, he entered Lincoln College, intending to earn a D.
Phil. in English literature. At Oxford, he met Helen Palmer, who encouraged him to give up becoming an English teacher in favor of pursuing drawing as a career, she recalled that "Ted's notebooks were always filled with these fabulous animals. So I set to work diverting him. Geisel left Oxford without earning a degree and returned to the United States in February 1927, where he began submitting writings and drawings to magazines, book publishers, advertising agencies. Making use of his time in Europe, he pitched a series of cartoons called Eminent Europeans to Life magazine, but the magazine passed on it, his first nationally published cartoon appeared in the July 16, 1927, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. This single $25 sale encouraged Geisel to move from Springfield to New York City; that year, Geisel accepted a job as writer and illustrator at the humor magazine Judge, he felt financially stable enough to marry Helen. His first cartoon for Judge appeared on October 22, 1927, the Geisels were married on November 29.
Geisel's first work signed "Dr. Seuss" was published in Judge about six months after he started working there. In early 1928, one of Geisel's cartoons for Judge mentioned Flit, a common bug spray at the time manufactured by Standard Oil of New Jersey. According to Geisel, the wife of an advertising executive in charge of advertising Flit saw Geisel's cartoon at a hairdresser's and urged her husband to sign him. Geisel's first Flit ad appeared on May 31, 1928, the campaign continued sporadically until 1941; the campaign's catchphrase "Quick, the Flit!" became a part of popular culture. It was used as a punch line for comedians such as Fred Allen and Jack Benny; as Geisel gained notoriety for the Flit campaign, his work was in demand and began to appear in magazines such as Life and Vanity Fair. The money Geisel earned from his advertising work and magazine submissions made him wealthier than his most successful Dartmouth classmates; the increased income allowed the Geisels to move to better quarters and to socialize in higher social circles.
They became friends with the wealthy