The Tideway is the part of the River Thames in England, subject to tides. This stretch of water is downstream from Teddington Lock and in its widest definition is just under 160 kilometres long; the Tideway includes the Thames Gateway and the Pool of London. Depending on the time of year, the river tide rises and falls twice a day by up to 7 m and, due to the need to overcome the outflow of fresh water from the Thames Basin, it takes longer to subside than it does to flow in. London Bridge is used as the basis for published tide tables giving the times of high tide. High tide reaches Putney about 30 minutes later. Low-lying banks of London have been defended against natural vulnerability to flooding by storm surges; the threat has increased due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level, caused by the slow'tilting' of Britain due to post-glacial rebound and the gradual rise in sea levels due to climate change. The Thames Barrier was constructed across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat.
The Tideway is managed by the Port of London Authority and is referred to as the Port of London. The upstream limit of its authority is marked by an obelisk just short of Teddington Lock; the PLA is responsible for one lock on the Thames: Richmond Lock. In London, the Thames is policed by the Thames Division, the river police arm of London’s Metropolitan Police. Essex Police and Kent Police have responsibilities for the rest of the Tideway. 21st century criminal investigations have included the Roberto Torso in the Thames cases. The London Fire Brigade has a fire boat on the river; as a result of the Marchioness disaster in 1989 when 51 people died, the Government asked the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, the Port of London Authority and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution to work together to set up a dedicated Search and Rescue service for the tidal River Thames. As a result, there are four lifeboat stations on the Thames, at: Teddington, Chiswick Pier, Tower Pier and Gravesend; the river is navigable to large ocean-going ships as far as the Pool of London at London Bridge and is the United Kingdom's second largest port by tonnage.
Today, little commercial traffic passes above the Thames Barrier, central London sees only the occasional visiting cruise ship or warship moored alongside HMS Belfast, a few smaller aggregate or refuse vessels, operating from wharves in the west of London. Most trade is handled by the Port of Tilbury, ro-ro ferry terminals at Dagenham and Dartford, petroleum products handling facilities at Purfleet and Canvey Island. There is a speed limit of 8 knots west of Wandsworth Bridge and in tributary creeks, except for authorised vehicles, 12 knots between Wandsworth Bridge and Margaretness; the tidal river is used for leisure navigation. In London sections there are many sightseeing tours in tourist boats past riverside attractions such as the Houses of Parliament and the Tower of London, as well as regular riverboat services provided by London River Services; this section is not suitable for sporting activity because of the strong stream through the bridges. Rowing has a significant presence upstream of Putney Bridge, while sailing takes place in the same area and along the coasts of the Estuary.
The annual Great River Race for traditional rowed craft takes place over the stretch from Greenwich to Ham. Thames meander challenges along the length of the Thames from Lechlade pass through the London sections and finish well downstream, for example at Gravesend Pier; the Grand Union Canal joins the river at Brentford, with a branch – the Regent's Canal – joining at Limehouse Basin. The other part of the canal network still connecting on the Tideway is the River Lea Navigation. Narrow low-lying belts beside the tidal section of the Thames flood at spring tides, supporting brackish plants. One such example is at Chiswick Lane South, where the river, as pictured, overflows this road a few times per year.. Although water quality has improved over the last 40 years and efforts to clean up the Tideway have led to the reintroduction of marine life and birds, the environment of the Tideway is still poor. Heavier rainfall in London causes overflows from pipes on the river banks from the standard type of sewer in the capital, the combined sewer.
Around 39,000,000 m3 or 39 million tonnes of untreated sewage mixed with rainwater are released into the Tideway each year from sewage treatment works and combined sewer overflows, averaging 106,849 m3 per day or 106,849 tonnes per day. These CSOs can cause the deaths of marine health hazards for river users; the Thames Tideway Scheme, under construction, aims to divert most of the overflow from sewers into a tunnel under the river. The Thames Estuary is bordered by the coast and the low-lying lands upstream between the mouth of the River Stour on the Essex/Suffolk border and The Swale in north Kent, it is now designated the Greater Thames Estuary and is one of the largest inlets on the coast of Great Britain. The water can rise by 4 metres moving at a speed of 8 miles per hour; the estuary extends into London near Tower Bridge, can be divided into the Outer Estuary up to the Swale at the west end of the Isle of Sheppey, the Inner Estuary, designated the Thames Gateway above this point. The shore of the Outer Estuary consists of saltmarshes and mudflats, but there are man-made embankments along much of the route.
Behind these, the land is used for grazing. Parts of the Outer Estuary are on a major shipping route; the Gateway is some 70 kilometres long, stretching from the Isle of Sheppey to Westferry in Tower Hamlets
Jean-Marc Barr is a French American film actor and director. Barr was born to an American father working in the US Armed Forces, he is fluent in both English. Barr was born in West Germany where his father was stationed, lived an itinerant childhood, his family moved to France in 1968 to California in 1974. Barr's parents wished for him to join the armed forces, but he was unwilling to follow in his father's footsteps, he studied philosophy at the University of California, Los Angeles, the Paris Conservatoire and the Sorbonne. He moved to London to pursue an education in drama at the Guildhall School of Drama. Barr began working in theatre in France in 1986. After finding work in television, film, he was cast in the tremendously successful The Big Blue. Luc Besson cast him in the role of French diver Jacques Mayol, alongside Rosanna Arquette and Jean Reno; the Big Blue was the most financially successful film in France in the 1980s. In 1991, Barr starred in Danish director Lars von Trier's Europa, marking the beginning of a long friendship as well as a significant professional relationship.
He went on to appear in von Trier’s Breaking the Waves, Dancer in the Dark, Manderlay, The Boss of It All and Nymphomaniac. In 2005 he starred in the French film Coquillages. In 1999 he starred in the French cinéma du corps/cinema of the body drama film, Don't Let Me Die on a Sunday, directed by Didier Le Pêcheur. Barr's collaboration with von Trier put him on track to start directing his own work, he debuted in 1999 as a director and producer with the intimate love story Lovers. The film became the first part of a trilogy. Barr and Pascal directed the 2006 film Chacun sa nuit, where they first discovered Lizzie Brocher, Arthur Dupont and Karl E. Landler; this was followed by Sexual Chronicles of a French Family. In 1997 Barr appeared in The Scarlet Tunic, produced by Zigi Kamasa, he appeared as Hugo in The Red Siren in 2002 and played divorce lawyer Maitre Bertram in the 2003 Merchant Ivory film le Divorce. He appeared as the titular character in the video for Blur's 1996 single, "Charmless Man".
Barr played author Jack Kerouac in the 2013 film adaptation of the Beat Generation autobiographical novel Big Sur. Jean-Marc Barr on IMDb Jean-Marc Barr at AllMovie Jean-Marc Barr discography at Discogs Biography at zoom-cinema.fr Photos Jean-Marc Barr, Berlin 2001
Battle of Britain (film)
Battle of Britain is a 1969 British Second World War film directed by Guy Hamilton, produced by Harry Saltzman and S. Benjamin Fisz; the film documented the events of the Battle of Britain. The film drew many respected British actors to accept roles as key figures of the battle, including Sir Laurence Olivier as Hugh Dowding and Trevor Howard as Keith Park, it starred Michael Caine, Christopher Plummer and Robert Shaw as Squadron Leaders. The script by James Kennaway and Wilfred Greatorex was based on the book The Narrow Margin by Derek Wood and Derek Dempster; the film endeavoured to be an accurate account of the Battle of Britain, when in the summer and autumn of 1940 the British RAF inflicted a strategic defeat on the Luftwaffe and so ensured the cancellation of Operation Sea Lion – Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Britain. The film is notable for its spectacular flying sequences, in contrast with the unsatisfactory model work seen in Angels One Five, it was on a far larger scale than had been seen on film before and this made the film's production expensive.
During the Battle of France in June 1940, RAF pilots evacuate a small airfield in advance of the German Blitzkrieg. The pilots, along with British and French military, leave just as German aircraft arrive and execute a heavy strafing attack. RAF Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding, realising that an imminent invasion of Great Britain will require every available aircraft and airman to counter it, stops additional aircraft being deployed to France so that they are available to defend Britain. In the next dramatic scene, French civilians watch in grim despair as a convoy of German troops marches into France and takes control. At the deserted beaches of Dunkirk, the BBC reports British Prime Minister Winston Churchill's declaration that "what General Weygand called the'Battle of France' is over, the Battle of Britain is about to begin". Luftwaffe Inspector-General Field Marshal Milch arrives to inspect a large German airfield in captured France. Hundreds of Heinkel bomber aircraft are stationed under Luftwaffe General Kesselring's command.
Luftwaffe commanders are stunned when the Führer informs them that the British are not their "natural enemy" and delays their attack while attempting a diplomatic settlement. In neutral Switzerland, the German ambassador, Baron von Richter proposes new peace terms to his British counterpart, Sir David Kelly, stating that continuing to fight the "masters" of Europe is hopeless. Kelly's brave retort, "Don't threaten or dictate to us until you're marching up Whitehall... and then we won't listen", is followed by a private comment to his wife that von Richter is correct. In England, commanders celebrate their good fortune, using the delay to build up their strength and continually train their pilots and ground controllers; the wait ends when Luftwaffe pilots receive orders to move to the front, where troops are preparing for a sea-borne invasion. The campaign begins with the Luftwaffe launching an early morning assault on "Eagle Day"; the plan is to destroy the RAF on the ground before they have time to launch their Spitfire and Hurricane fighters.
Eagle Day proves successful, with attacks on British radar installations by Stuka dive bombers. Two radar stations are put out of action and a number of British airfields are damaged or destroyed but British losses are light. A grueling battle of attrition ensues, with the RAF airfields under repeated attack while inflicting heavy, but non-critical, damage on the attacking forces. Adding to the RAF's problems is a battle between the commanding officers of 11 Group, Keith Park, 12 Group, Trafford Leigh-Mallory. 12 Group is tasked with protecting 11 Group's airfields while 11 Group meets the enemy, but in raid after raid 12 Group aircraft are nowhere to be seen. Called to meet Dowding, Leigh-Mallory explains that the "Big Wing" tactic takes time for form up, while Park complains that the tactic is not working. Dowding ends the debate noting a critical shortage of pilots, wearily remarking, "We're fighting for survival, losing." The turning point occurs when a squadron of German bombers becomes lost in bad weather at night and drops bombs on London.
In retaliation, the RAF attacks Berlin. Though the damage is negligible, an enraged Adolf Hitler publicly orders. Hermann Göring arrives in France to command the attack, confident that the end of the battle nears, their first attack skirts the RAF, who are still defending their airfields to the south, they bomb unopposed. Night time attacks follow and London burns. Meanwhile, to supplement Commonwealth forces, the RAF has been forming units of foreign pilots who have escaped German-occupied countries. While on a training flight, a Free Polish squadron accidentally runs into an unescorted flight of German bombers. Ignoring the commands of their British training officer, they peel off one by one and shoot down several of the bombers with unorthodox aggressive tactics. Park rewards them by elevating them to operational status, leading Dowding to do the same for the Canadian and Czech squadrons as well. While discussing the day's events and Dowding examine the German switch to London. Given a respite, Park notes that he will be able to repair his airfields and bring his squadrons back to full strength.
Dowding adds that 12 Group units north of London are now all within range, while enemy fighters are at the extreme edge of their own range. He concludes that "turning on London could be the German's biggest blunder." The next German daytime raid is met by a massive response.
British Academy Film Awards
The British Academy of Film and Television Arts or BAFTA Film Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts to honour the best British and international contributions to film. The ceremonies were held at the flagship Odeon cinema in Leicester Square in London, before being held at the Royal Opera House from 2008 to 2016. Since 2017, the ceremony has been held at the Royal Albert Hall in London; the British Academy of Film and Television Arts was founded in 1947 as The British Film Academy, by David Lean, Alexander Korda, Carol Reed, Charles Laughton, Roger Manvell and others. In 1958, the Academy merged with The Guild of Television Producers and Directors to form The Society of Film and Television, which became The British Academy of Film and Television Arts in 1976; the stated charitable purpose of BAFTA is to "support and promote the art forms of the moving image, by identifying and rewarding excellence, inspiring practitioners, benefiting the public".
In addition to high-profile awards ceremonies, BAFTA runs a year-round programme of educational events, including film screenings and tribute evenings. BAFTA is supported by a membership of about 6,000 people from the film and video game industries; the Academy's awards are in the form of a theatrical mask designed by American sculptor Mitzi Cunliffe, in response to a commission from the Guild of Television Producers in 1955. The ceremony took place in April or May, but since 2001 it has been held in February in order to precede the Academy Awards. Most of the awards are open to all nationalities, though there are awards for Outstanding British Film and Outstanding Debut by a British Writer, Producer or Director. Only UK films are eligible for the categories of The British Short Film and British Short Animation awards; the Awards ceremony is delayed broadcast on British television the same evening, across the world. In the United States it is shown on BBC America, it has been broadcast in colour since 1970.
During each annual ceremony, BAFTA pauses in memoriam to pay tribute to those in the industry who have died over the past 12 months, showcasing a montage of images accompanied by music. The award ceremony is held in London. From 2000 to 2007, the ceremonies took place at the flagship Odeon cinema in Leicester Square. Between 2008 and 2016, the ceremonies took place at the Royal Opera House; the 70th Awards in 2017, subsequent ceremonies, were held at the Royal Albert Hall. Until 2012, the mobile telephone network Orange sponsored the awards. Orange's parent company, EE, took over the sponsorship of the event from 2013. BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer to Leading Film Roles BAFTA Award for Best Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best British Screenplay BAFTA Award for Best British Actor BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor BAFTA Award for Best British Actress BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actress BAFTA United Nations Award. BAFTA Fellowship The Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema Award British Academy of Film and Television Arts British Academy Television Awards Official website BAFTA Awards database Museum of Broadcast Communications: BAFTA IMDB: BAFTA
Sarah Miles is an English theatre and film actress. Her best-known films include The Servant, Ryan's Daughter and Hope and Glory. Sarah Miles was born in the small town of Essex, in south east England. Miles's parents were Clarice Vera John Miles, of a family of engineers. Through her maternal grandfather Francis Remnant, Miles claims to be the great-granddaughter of Prince Francis of Teck, thus a second cousin once removed of Queen Elizabeth II. Unable to speak until the age of nine because of a stammer and dyslexia, she attended Roedean, three other schools, but was expelled from all of them. Miles enrolled at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the age of 15. Shortly after finishing at RADA, Miles debuted as Shirley Taylor, a "husky wide-eyed nymphet" in Term of Trial, which featured Laurence Olivier. Soon afterwards, Miles had a role as Vera from Manchester in Joseph Losey's The Servant, "thrust sexual appetite into British films" according to David Thomson, she gained this time as Best Actress.
She had a "peripheral" part in Michelangelo Antonioni's Blowup. At Antonioni's death in 2007, she referred to him as "a rogue and a tyrant and a brilliant man". After acting in several plays from 1966 to 1969, Miles was cast as Rosy in the leading title role of David Lean's Ryan's Daughter, it was critically savaged, which discouraged Lean from making a film for some years, despite her performance gaining her an Oscar nomination and an Oscar win for John Mills, the film making a substantial profit. In Terence Pettigrew's biography of Trevor Howard, Miles describes the filming of Ryan's Daughter in Ireland in 1969, she recalls, "My main memory is of sitting on a hilltop in a caravan at six in the morning in the rain. There was no other member of the crew around me. I would sit there waiting for either the rain to stop or someone to arrive. Film-acting is so horrifically belittling."On 11 February 1973, while filming The Man Who Loved Cat Dancing, aspiring screenwriter David Whiting one of her lovers, was found dead in her motel room.
She was acquitted of culpability in his death. Miles commented: "It went on for six months. Murder? Suicide? Murder! Suicide! Murder! Suicide! And the truth came out, which I'm not going to speak about, but it wasn't me. I had saved the man from three suicide attempts, so why would I want to murder him? I can't imagine."Her performance as Anne Osborne in The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea was nominated for a Golden Globe. Interviewer Lynn Barber wrote of Miles' appearances in Hope and Glory, White Mischief, her two earliest films that she "has that Vanessa Redgrave quality of seeming to have one skin fewer than normal people, so that the emotion comes over unmuffled and bare."Filming White Mischief on location in Kenya in 1987, Miles worked for the second and last time with Trevor Howard, who had a supporting role, but was by seriously ill from alcoholism. The company wanted to fire him, but Miles was determined that Howard's distinguished film career would not end that way. In an interview with Terence Pettigrew for his biography of Howard, she describes how she gave an ultimatum to the executives, threatening to quit the production if they got rid of him.
The gamble worked. Howard was kept on, it was his last major film. She most appeared in Well at the Trafalgar Studios and the Apollo Theatre opposite Natalie Casey. Miles was married twice to the British playwright Robert Bolt, 1967–1975 and 1988–1995, he wrote and directed the film Lady Caroline Lamb, in which Miles played the eponymous heroine, wrote Ryan's Daughter, as well. After his stroke, the couple reunited and Miles cared for him. "I would be dead without her", Bolt said in 1987, "When she's away, my life takes a nosedive. When she returns, my life soars." The couple had a son, now a watch dealer. Miles stated, in 2012, that she has been drinking her own urine for over 30 years, as she feels it improves her health in a variety of ways. Sarah Miles has written the following books: A Right Royal Bastard. Pan Book. 1994. P. 368. ISBN 0-330-33142-6. 1st part of memoirs Serves Me Right. Macmillan. 1994. P. 384. ISBN 0-333-60141-6. 2nd part of memoirs Bolt from the Blue. Phoenix. 1997. P. 272. ISBN 0-7538-0229-5.
Beautiful Mourning. Orion. 1998. P. 352. ISBN 0-7528-0140-6. Sarah Miles on IMDb Interview with Sarah Miles
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Academy Award for Best Cinematography
The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular motion picture. In its first film season, 1927–28, this award was not tied to a specific film; the problem with this system became obvious the first year, since Karl Struss and Charles Rosher were nominated for their work together on Sunrise but three other films shot individually by either Rosher or Struss were listed as part of the nomination. The second year, 1929, there were no nominations at all, although the Academy has a list of unofficial titles which were under consideration by the Board of Judges. In the third year, 1930, not cinematographers, were nominated, the final award did not show the cinematographer's name. For the 1931 awards, the modern system in which individuals are nominated for a single film each was adopted in all profession-related categories. From 1939 to 1967 with the exception of 1957, there were separate awards for color and for black-and-white cinematography.
Since the only black-and-white films to win are Schindler's List and Roma. Floyd Crosby won the award for Tabu in 1931, the last silent film to win in this category. Hal Mohr won the only write-in Academy Award in 1935 for A Midsummer Night's Dream. Mohr was the first person to win for both black-and-white and color cinematography. No winners are lost, although some of the earliest nominees are lost, including The Devil Dancer, The Magic Flame, Four Devils; the Right to Love is incomplete, Sadie Thompson is incomplete and reconstructed with stills. The first nominees shot on digital video were The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and Slumdog Millionaire in 2009, with Slumdog Millionaire the first winner; the following year Avatar was the first nominee and winner to be shot on digital video. In 2018, Rachel Morrison became the first woman to receive a nomination. Prior to that it had been the last gender-neutral Academy Award category. In 2019, Alfonso Cuarón became the first winner of this category to have served as director on the film, for his film Roma.
Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers Award for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences official site The Official Academy Awards Database, listing all past nominees and winners