St. Andrews, New Brunswick
Saint Andrews is a town in Charlotte County, New Brunswick, Canada. It is sometimes referred to in tourism marketing by its unofficial nickname "St. Andrews By-the-Sea", it is known as "Qonasqamkuk" by the Peskotomuhkati Nation. Saint Andrews is located at the southern tip of a triangular-shaped peninsula extending into Passamaquoddy Bay at the western edge of Charlotte County, it is the shire town of the county. The town's street grid, laid out by Charles Morris about 1783, is oriented toward the waterfront, which faces Saint Andrews Harbour and the Western Channel, formed by Navy Island. Saint Andrews Harbour is situated at the mouth of the St. Croix River and the town sits on the river's east bank at its discharge point into the bay; the town is directly opposite the community of Robbinston, Maine, 2 kilometres to the west across the river mouth. In addition to Navy Island, Ministers Island is another island in Passamaquoddy Bay, adjacent to the town on its eastern boundary. Despite its proximity to the Canada–United States border, the nearest border crossings are 30 km away at St. Stephen or via a ferry service at Deer Island.
This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Saint Andrews has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps. Previous to the establishment of European settlers in New Brunswick, the people of the Peskotomuhkati settled the Saint Andrews peninsula and used the southern point as meeting place. "Qonasqamkuk", as Saint Andrews is known to the Peskotomuhkati Nation, is referred to as the place of "the ancient fireplace". In recent years site is locally known as "Indian Point". Saint Andrews was founded in 1783 by United Empire Loyalists, including John Dunn of Staten Island, New York, named in honour of St Andrews, Scotland; the town is well preserved, with many original buildings still in place. There are many layers of history visible starting from the late 18th century, including the town's well-known formal grid street layout and many historic buildings.
Many of the commercial buildings on Water Street date from the 19th century. Between 1820 and 1860, the port of Saint Andrews was used extensively during the Irish Migration; the Irish were first quarantined at Hospital Island, situated a few kilometers in Passamaquoddy Bay. By the 1851 Census, more than 50% of the town's population had been born in Ireland; the town's first seaside hotel, the Argyll, opened in 1881 followed in 1889 by The Algonquin, a resort situated on a hill overlooking the town, making Saint Andrews Canada's first seaside resort community. The old-fashioned Argyll burned down in 1892 and was never rebuilt and the Algonquin burned in 1914 but was rebuilt one year later, it remains an iconic symbol of the town. Important attractions include The Algonquin Hotel, Kingsbrae Horticultural Garden, The Ross Memorial Museum, the Saint Andrews Biological Station, the Huntsman Marine Aquarium, The Sheriff Andrews' House, Minister's Island, whale watching, fine art and craft galleries, many shops and small inns and the charming seaside setting.
Saint Andrews is the birthplace of Thomas Storrow Brown, a businessman, an officer of the 1837 Rebellion and Victorian artist Edward Mitchell Bannister. The town was, continues to be a home to noted summer citizens, including steel magnate Sir James Dunn, Fathers of Confederation Samuel Leonard Tilley and Charles Tupper, William Cornelius Van Horne, General Manager and President of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Ministers Island is named after a loyalist Anglican priest, Rev. Samuel Andrews, who settled the island in 1786, but the island is most famous as the summer home of Sir William Van Horne, general manager and visionary of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Located about a five-minute drive from downtown Saint Andrews, what is an island at high tide becomes a peninsula as waters drop toward low tide; the bar, which appears with the receding tide, allows access starting at the end of the Bar Road with crossing times changing daily with the tidal cycles. Tours are available on the island May through October, to see the stone house where Rev. Andrews and his family lived, one of the largest livestock barns in North America, the old windmill that used to power the island.
Hikers, photographers and others are free to explore the many trails on the Island. The aquarium has various exhibits, including a touch pool with sea urchins and sea anemones. There is a pair of harbour seals and Snorkel; the Huntsman Marine Science Centre is a part of the aquarium and hosts a number of educational courses, from grade school up to university level courses. St. Andrews Biological Station adjoins the center. Saint Andrews is the shire town of Charlotte County and hosts the Charlotte County Court House, built in 1840 and designed by architect Thomas Berry; the court house is a National Historic Site of Canada and one of the longest operating courthouses in Canada, as it continues to be used for the Court of Queen's Bench of New Brunswick. It is a beautiful example of Gothic Revival architecture and is available for touring through the Charlotte County Gaol, situated next to the courthouse; the Gaol was built of large blocks of local granite in 1832 and continued to be used as such until 1979, despite its archaic construction.
Saint Croix Island, Maine
Saint Croix Island, long known to locals as Dochet Island, is a small uninhabited island in Maine near the mouth of the Saint Croix River that forms part of the Canada–United States border separating Maine from New Brunswick. The island is in the heart of the traditional lands of the Passamaquoddy people who, according to oral tradition, used it to store food away from the dangers of mainland animals; the island was the site of an early attempt at French colonization by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons in 1604. In 1984 it was designated by the United States Congress as Saint Croix Island International Historic Site. There is no public access to the island, but there is a visitor contact station on the U. S. a display on the Canadian mainland opposite the island. The 6.5 acre island measures 200 yd long by 100 yd wide, is located 4 mi upstream from the mouth of the river on Passamaquoddy Bay. The Passamaquoddy Nation, who had lived around and used the island for numerous centuries before European discovery used several names for the island including Muttoneguis, Muttoneguamus and Metnegwis.
"Captain Nicola Anawan, 67 years old, said the Indians called the Magaguadavic the St. Croix, because there was a cross put up there by the French, the whole river was called St. Croix when he was a boy, did not know that the Scoudiac was called St. Croix; the two islands on this side of Devil's Head are called Muttoneguis and Aluttonegwenish, a great and little island, where was a store to deposit things." St. Croix became known as Bone Island in the 18th century after many of the graves were exposed by erosion. Twenty-three sets of remains were removed in 1969 and subsequently reburied in 2003. Analysis showed that many of them had indications of scurvy, confirming the cause of the deaths described by Champlain. One skull showed signs of having been autopsied, which Champlain wrote that he had ordered to try to discover the cause of their illness; the island was neutral territory in the War of 1812, leading it to be sometimes called Neutral Island. Named by the French, Ile Ste-Croix, the island has been called Demont's Island, Doucett Island, Docea's Island, which became Dochet Island.
French noble Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons, established a settlement on Saint Croix Island in June 1604 under the authority of Henry IV, King of France. This outpost was one of the first attempts by France at year-round colonization in the territory they called l'Acadie. Earlier attempts at Charlesbourg-Royal in 1541 by Jacques Cartier, at Sable Island in 1598 by Marquis de La Roche-Mesgouez, at Tadoussac, Quebec in 1600 by François Gravé Du Pont, had failed. Cartographer Samuel de Champlain was part of the Dugua expedition and settlement on the small river island in 1604. During the first winter there more than half the settlers had perished due to a "land-sickness" believed to be scurvy; the following spring and François Gravé Du Pont moved the settlement to a new location on the southern shore of the Bay of Fundy Champlain had found during a shoreline reconnaissance there for a more suitable site. Called Port-Royal, it became the first permanent European settlement in New France. In 1607 Champlain left for France, never to return to Acadia again.
However, In 1608, Champlain set sail in his third voyage from France to establish a settlement on a site on the Saint Lawrence River that became Québec. In October 1613, after having burned the French mission at Mount Desert Island, Samuel Argall went on to burn the old French buildings that remained on Sainte-Croix before he moved on to raid Port Royal. During a boundary dispute between Britain and the U. S. in 1797, the island was deemed to be under U. S. sovereignty by a survey of the river which determined it to be on the western side of its main channel. Canada issued a nationally circulating twenty-five cent piece in 2004 that commemorated the island and the beginnings of Acadia there; the United States Congress designated the island Saint Croix Island National Monument in 1949. The monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966, it was given its current International Historic Site designation by Congress on September 25, 1984, unique in the national park systems of both the United States and Canada.
Since 1968, the island has been managed by the National Park Service from offices at Acadia National Park, the nearest staffed U. S. national park unit, in consultation with Parks Canada, which maintains a viewing and interpretation site on the New Brunswick side of the river. Visitors are prohibited from the island to protect historical remains. A statue of Champlain and interpretive facilities on shore depict its history. In Canada, the island was first recognized in 1958 by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board as having national historic significance, it recommended creation of Dochet Island National Historic Site, but this was rejected by the government on the basis that its location fell outside national jurisdiction. A decade in 1968, the HSMB reiterated the site's significance, suggesting Parks Canada "...cooperate with the United States National Parks Service in the development of the island as an Historic Park." This was approved, today Parks Canada operates St. Croix Island International Historic Site at Bayside, Charlotte County, a site overlooking the island, similar to the U.
S. approach to the site's interpretation. The two nations cooperate on commemorative activities and promotions. Special commemorations by the two nations in 2004 marked the 400th anniversary of French settlement in North America. In 2009, the site started offering a full French translation of its U. S. website, offered by teen volunteer Olivier Fontenelle. Its Parks
Miramichi, New Brunswick
Miramichi is the largest city in northern New Brunswick, Canada. It is situated at the mouth of the Miramichi River; the Miramichi Valley is the second longest valley in New Brunswick, after the Saint John River Valley. The city of Miramichi was formed in 1995 through the forced amalgamation of two towns and Chatham, several smaller communities, including Douglastown and Nelson; the local service districts of Nordin, Chatham Head, Douglasfield. The amalgamation included portions of the former local service district of Ferry Road-Russellville and portions of Chatham Parish, Glenelg Parish and Nelson Parish. Long prior to European settlement, the Miramichi region was home to members of the Mi'kmaq first nation. For the Mi'kmaq, Beaubears Island, at the junction of the Northwest and Main Southwest branches of the Miramichi River was a natural meeting point. Following the European discovery of the Americas, the Miramichi became part of the French colony of Acadia. About 1648, Nicolas Denys, Sieur de Fronsac, established a fort and trading post, Fort Fronsac, on the Miramichi.
This establishment was constructed "on the North side of the Miramichi, at the forks of the river". According to W. F. Ganong, a Recollet Mission was established in 1686 on the Miramichi "in Nelson", "probably near Beaubear's Island". Nicolas Denys' son, Richard Denys, was placed in charge of the fort and trading post, in 1688 Richard states, "Miramichi is the principal place of my residence", describes his establishment as including about a dozen French and more than 500 indigenous inhabitants. In 1691 Richard died at sea; the following account from the Dictionary of Miramichi Biography describes in greater detail the extent of the Denys' Miramichi base:"The domain of Nicholas Denys, governor of Acadia, extended along the southerly side of the Gulf of St Lawrence, from Miscou Island to Cape Breton. It may have included a trading post at Miramichi in the 1640s, but the first extensive French establishment on the river was that of Denys's son Richard Denys, he began to cultivate land along the Miramichi in 1684.
In 1688 he had a fort with gun emplacements, a house built of freestone, a storehouse. There were three French families at the fort, he had men employed catching fish. Nearby there were eighty Micmac wigwams."The site of Denys's establishment, considered to have been on the north side of the Miramichi opposite the Point - that is, near the pulp mill site in Newcastle - was abandoned by 1691. In August of that year, when he was thirty-seven years old, Denys set sail for Quebec in the ship Saint-François-Xavier, never heard of again, his estate passed to his widow in 1694 and was still owned by members of the family in Quebec in the 1750s."By about 1740 French villages were well established on Miramichi Bay at Bay du Vin and Neguac. In the current city of Miramichi, a larger village existed at Canadian Point, a town comprising 200 houses, a chapel, provision stores occupied "Beaubear's Point"; the French maintained batteries of guns at French Fort Cove. The French and Indian War erupted in 1754.
During the war many Acadian homes were destroyed by the British, their residents were deported. In 1757 the French general, Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot attempted to evade British troops in the Saint John River Valley and the Bay of Fundy, by leading 900 French refugees up the northeast coast of New Brunswick to Miramichi, establishing a camp, "Camp de l’Espérance", on Beaubears Island. After the Siege of Louisbourg, Boishebert led a group of Acadians from St. Peter's, Nova Scotia to Miramichi. Over 200 of the refugees died at the camp. On 13 August 1758 French officer Boishebert left Miramichi with 400 soldiers, including Acadians from Port Toulouse, for Fort St George, his detachment was caught in an ambush and had to withdraw. They went on to raid Friendship, where British settlers were killed and others taken prisoner; this was Boishébert’s last Acadian expedition. From there and the Acadians went to Quebec and fought in the Battle of Quebec. In September 1758 Colonel James Murray reported spending two days in Miramichi Bay during the Gulf of St. Lawrence Campaign looking unsuccessfully for Acadians, but destroying anything he found.
This included burning the first stone church built in New Brunswick. Murray did not sail as far west as Beaubear's Island. Most of the surviving Beaubear's Island refugees soon left the Miramichi; some Acadians, however and escaped British attempts at deportation. They established a host of small Acadian communities along the northern and eastern coasts of present-day New Brunswick; the French were defeated at Quebec and Montreal, the remaining Miramichi settlement was subsequently burned to the ground by British Commodore John Byron in 1760. The French North American colonies were ceded to the British in the 1763 Treaty of Paris; the Miramichi thus became a part of the British colony of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. Benjamin Marston, a surveyor and the first sheriff, reported in 1785 that "a considerable French Village" had existed on Wilson's Point. Although they were preceded by the Mi'kmaq and Acadian peoples, credit for the first permanent white settlement at Miramichi is gr
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an high tidal range. Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, are classified as a Hemispheric site, it is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Canadian Wildlife Service, is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning "deep"; the bay was named Baie Française by Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition to St. Croix Island; the Bay of Fundy has a high tidal range. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next.
During the 12.4-hour tidal period, 115 billion tonnes of water flow out of the bay. According to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, there is a 16.8-metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head for the Bay of Fundy. The range at Leaf Basin is higher on average than at Minas Basin; the highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the "Saxby Gale". The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, a spring tide. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two lows each day; the height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are equal. There are six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas. Tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms.
A process of gathering tidal energy called "In-stream turbine technology" is being tested in the Minas Passage, Nova Scotia. This project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy or FORCE. In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles; as the blades of the turbine move, they create energy. From here the power travels to a cable attached to the seafloor and back to an offsite facility, where it can be added to the power grid. While this technology has shown to be successful in its early stages of testing, FORCE has not begun the process for energy collection. However, the installation of the undersea cable in December 2013 indicates that the project is moving along swiftly. A megawatt-scale turbine was installed at Cape Sharp near Partridge Island in November 2016, its owner, Open Hydro, went into insolvency in August 2018. The Bay of Fundy lies in a rift valley called the Fundy Basin.
These flood basalts poured out over the landscape. Sections of the flood basalts have been eroded away, but still form a basaltic mountain range known as North Mountain; as a result, much of the basin floor is made of tholeiitic basalts giving its brown colour. The rift valley failed as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continued to separate North America and Africa; the upper part of the bay splits into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay; some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds. Cape Chignecto defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin; the Minas Channel connects the Minas Basin with the main body of the bay. The channel is 5.6 kilometres across and 106.7 metres deep. The tides that flow through the channel are powerful, they are as powerful as 25 million horses. Facing Cape Split at the entrance to the Minas Channel are the basalt cliffs of Cape d'Or.
The lower part of the bay is home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. The bay is home to several islands, the largest of, Grand Manan at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haute is in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, Annapolis Basin; the Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are scenic. The Bay of Fundy is home to another interesting geologic feature, the Hopewell Rocks formation; this formation is where the "famous flower-pot rocks" are l
Roosevelt Campobello International Park
Roosevelt Campobello International Park preserves the house and surrounding landscape of the summer retreat of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt and their family, it is located on the southern tip of Campobello Island in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, is connected to the mainland by the Roosevelt Memorial Bridge, at Lubec, Maine in the United States. Here in August 1921, 39-year-old Roosevelt, who would go on to become the 32nd President of the United States, fell ill and was diagnosed with polio. FDR was no longer able to stay at the "beloved island", but he sailed there in 1933 and visited in 1936 and 1939. Eleanor Roosevelt loved the cool summer weather and visited many times with her children and friends. After her death in 1962, the family deeded the property to the governments of the U. S. and Canada. In 1964, they created the 2,800-acre International Park; the cottage, built in the Shingle Style and completed in 1897, was designed by Willard T. Sears. Roosevelt Campobello International Park has a visitor centre with a gift shop and a small bilingual display on the open Canada–United States border.
The park is owned and administered by the Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission, created by international treaty signed by Governor General Georges Vanier, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, President Lyndon B. Johnson on January 22, 1964; the park was established on July 7, 1964. Both countries provide financial support to the park, it is an affiliated area of Parks Canada and of the U. S. National Park Service. Charter members of the board of the international commission included U. S. Senator Edmund S. Muskie, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. and Lubec, resident Sumner T. Pike. Sunrise at Campobello, 1958 play Sunrise at Campobello, 1960 film Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness The National Parks: Index 2001-2003. Washington: U. S. Department of the Interior. Roosevelt Campobello International Park Roosevelt Campobello International Park - National Park Service
The Hartland Bridge in Hartland, New Brunswick, is the world's longest covered bridge, at 1,282 feet long. It crosses the Saint John River from Hartland to New Brunswick, Canada; the framework consists of seven small Howe Truss bridges joined together on six piers. Before the bridge, the only way to cross the Saint John River was by ferry. Plans and specifications of the bridge began in 1898 and the bridge was constructed in 1901 by the Hartland Bridge Company. On May 13, 1901, Dr. Estey was the first person to cross the bridge before its scheduled opening, because he had to respond to an emergency call. Workers placed planks on the bridge, it was inaugurated by Justice McKeowan on July 4, 1901 before a crowd of 2,000 people. It was funded by tolls until it was purchased by the provincial government on May 1, 1906; the bridge was not built covered. A fire in 1907 burnt some of the structure and nearly destroyed the toll house. On April 6, 1920, two spans of the bridge collapsed due to river ice; the bridge reopened in 1922 after construction to repair the structure, at which time the bridge was covered, despite some local opposition.
The wooden piers were converted to concrete. A pedestrian walkway was added to the bridge in 1945. In 1966, vandals attempted to burn the bridge down. In 1970, heavy trucks were barred from crossing the bridge; the bridge was declared a National Historic Site in 1980, a Provincial Historic Site in 1999. In 1982, the bridge was again closed for repairs after a car struck a steel beam, causing part of the bridge to drop; the bridge was reopened to traffic on February 10, 1983. In 2006, the town of Hartland contributed a small piece of wood from the bridge to the Six String Nation project. Part of this material now serves as one of the reinforcing strips on the interior of Voyageur, the guitar at the heart of the project. In the winter of 2007, the bridge was closed due to the central beam splitting down the middle, it has since been reopened. On July 4, 2012, in honour of its 111th anniversary, it was celebrated with a Google Doodle on Google's Canadian homepage; when the bridge was used by horse and wagon, couples would stop half-way across to share a kiss.
The first wedding on the bridge was celebrated in September 1992 between Charmaine Laffoley and Dana Hunt from Toronto. It is thought by some locals to be good luck to hold one's breath the entire way across while driving; the bridge is situated in Southeastern Canada, in the western part of New Brunswick, between the municipality of Hartland to the east and the local service district of Somerville, in Carleton County, New Brunswick. Oriented south-southwest to north-northeast, it is used by a small route connecting New Brunswick routes 103 et 105 that crosses the Saint-Jean river just south of the island of Middle Becaguimec. Since the construction of the Hugh John Flemming Bridge in 1960 used by New Brunswick Route 130 one kilometer to the north, the Hartland bridge is now used for local and tourist traffic; the Hartland Bridge has a length of 390.75 metres, which makes it the longest covered bridge in the world. It is the longest covered bridge constructed in Canada the second being a 377 metres long bridge on the Batiscan river in Quebec, in use between 1844 and 1870.
On the other hand, several other, covered bridges have existed in the past elsewhere in the world, notably the Columbia–Wrightsville Bridge in Pennsylvania, constructed in 1814 and measuring 1,524 metres in length, crossing the Susquehanna River until its destruction in 1863 during the American Civil War. The Hartland Bridge has only one lane and only permits passage to vehicles having a mass lower than 10 tonnes and a height lower than 4.20 metres. A small gallery covered and permitting access to pedestrians, is attached on the South side of the bridge. List of crossings of the Saint John River Media related to Hartland Covered Bridge at Wikimedia Commons
Fort Beauséjour is a large five-bastioned star fort on the Isthmus of Chignecto, a neck of land connecting present-day New Brunswick with Nova Scotia, Canada. The site was strategically important in Acadia, a French colony that included parts of what is now Quebec, The Maritimes, northern Maine, it was built by the French from 1751 to 1752. It was surrendered to the British in 1755 after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour and renamed Fort Cumberland; the fort played an important role in the Anglo-French rivalry of 1749-63 and in the 1776 Battle of Fort Cumberland when sympathisers of the American Revolution were repulsed. Today the site is a National Historic Site of Canada, named the Fort Beauséjour – Fort Cumberland National Historic Site. Portions of the fort have been restored. A museum at the site depicts the conflicts between France and Britain in the 1700s, the struggle between America and Britain; the site sees about 6000 visitors each year. During the 1600s and 1700s, European monarchies were permanently at war with each other.
The threat of Anglo-American invasion of New France was constant, Acadia was vulnerable. Its capital, Port-Royal, was founded in 1605, destroyed by the British in 1613, moved upstream in 1632, besieged in 1707, taken in the Siege of Port Royal. Under the terms of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, the Kingdom of France had ceded to the Kingdom of Great Britain the territory known today as mainland Nova Scotia; the treaty stated that France retained control of Île-Royale, now Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton. France's colony Canada extended from; the treaty of Utrecht left it unclear who had sovereignty over the land between Gaspesie and Nova Scotia, now New Brunswick, where the western border of Nova Scotia stood. The de facto border became the Isthmus of Chignecto at the Missiguash River, site of the prosperous Acadian settlement Beaubassin. In the mid-1700s France and Britain were about to clash worldwide and in North America in the Seven Years' War. In the middle of the 1700s, over one million British colonists occupied a limited area along the Atlantic coast, while in the European population of what is now The Maritimes was 18,544, part of a total New France population of 70,000.
As tensions escalated, in 1749 British fortifications were erected in Nova Scotia at Citadel Hill and Fort Sackville, while the French rebuilt the Fortress of Louisbourg, re-occupied Fort Nerepis. In 1750 the French added to the military personnel in their colony. In April of that year Governor Edward Cornwallis sent British Major Charles Lawrence with a small force to establish British authority in the isthmus of Chignecto. On the north bank of the Missaguash River Lawrence found French forces under Louis de La Corne, who had orders to prevent British advancement beyond that point and had the village of Beaubassin burned. Rather than fight the French, with whom the British were not at war, or admit to any territorial limitation, Lawrence withdrew. There was not agreement in London as to how far troops should go in establishing claims during a time of peace. However, Lawrence was sent to the Missaguash River with a stronger force and routed a group of Indians led by Father Le Loutre, a French agent provocateur.
In the autumn of 1750 Lawrence built Fort Lawrence near the site of the ruined village of Beaubassin. In November 1750 Governor General de la Jonquière ordered that two forts be built at either end of the Isthmus of Chignecto to block the British, one being Fort Gaspareaux on the Northumberland Strait and the other Fort Beauséjour on the Bay of Fundy. Construction began in April 1751 under the direction of Lieutenant Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry. By 1751 the gunpowder magazine, a well, four casemates, officers' quarters were finished; the barracks, were added the following year. By 1753 the fort had a five metre high earthwork, it was a pentagon shaped star fort with bastions built of earth and pickets at the corners. In 1754, Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor became the commander of Fort Beausejour. Events revealed that he was unfit for military command. Louis-Léonard Aumasson de Courville, who became Vergor's secretary at Beauséjour claimed that Vergor was "avaricious in the extreme," and in his memoirs is a quotation attributed to François Bigot: "Profit, my dear Vergor, by your opportunity.
The French position may have been undermined by a clerk at the fort. The British commandant at Fort Lawrence paid Pichon for information about French activities. Pichon provided accounts of French activities, plans of forts and an outline of the steps necessary for capture, which Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton used in the attacks. Pichon delayed the strengthening of Beauséjour by advising that the British would not attack that year. A convoy of 31 transports and three warships left Boston on 19 May 1755, carrying nearly 2,000 New England provincial troops and 270 British regulars, dropped anchor near the mouth of the Missaguash River on 2 June; the next day the troops, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Monckton of the regular army, disembarked a few kilometres from Fort Beauséjour. To defend the fort, Commander Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor had only 150 soldiers from the Compagnies franches de la Marine and a dozen canonniers-bombardiers. On 16 June 16, a large English bomb went through the roof of a casemate and killed many of its occupants.
Vergor laid down his weapons. The fort was surrendered, renamed Fort Cumberland; the next day Fort Gaspereau was surrendered without being attacked. The fall of