Rhys Hopkin Morris
Sir Rhys Hopkin Morris was a Welsh Liberal politician, a Member of Parliament from 1923–1932 and from 1945–1956. Morris was born at Blaencaerau, Glamorgan, son of John Morris, Congregational minister in Caerau, Mary, he was educated at University of Wales, Bangor and at University College London from 1913-1914, graduating with Honours in Philosophy. He was admitted to Middle Temple on 10 January 1914. Morris served continually in the armed forces during the First World War from December 1914 until January 1919, possessing the rank of Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers by the end of the war and being twice wounded - the second time seriously, he was awarded the Order of the British Empire. After the war, he qualified as a barrister with special dispensations granted due to his service in the military, was Called to the Bar on 2 July 1919. A classic laissez-faire liberal, Morris supported Herbert Henry Asquith against David Lloyd George when the party split between 1916 and 1923, would remain fiercely opposed to Lloyd George and interventionist Liberalism throughout his political career.
In 1922 Morris contested the general election as a pro-Asquith Liberal in Cardiganshire, narrowly losing to the sitting pro-Lloyd George Liberal MP Ernest Evans. The following year the Liberal Party reunited but Morris ran as an Independent Liberal against Evans. In one of the most surprising results of the 1923 general election Morris was elected. In the follow year's general election he was returned unopposed as an official Liberal candidate, his opposition to both Lloyd George and the introduction of tariffs resulted in his remaining with the official Liberals when the party split three ways in advance of the 1931 general election. The following year Morris was appointed as a Metropolitan Police magistrate, a salaried post which vacated his seat because the post was an'office of profit under the Crown' and incompatible with membership of the House of Commons. In 1936, he became the first Regional Director of the BBC in Wales; the same year Morris became President of the London Welsh Trust, which runs the London Welsh Centre, holding office until 1937.
Thirteen years Morris returned to Parliament in a once more sensational result. In the 1945 general election he won Carmarthen, taking the seat from the Labour Party's Moelwyn Hughes despite the rest of the country experiencing a Labour landslide. Morris was to hold the seat for the remainder of his life. In 1951 he became Deputy Chairman of Ways and Means in the House of Commons and thus one of the Deputy Speakers; this post, together with his age, combined to exclude him for consideration for the Liberal Party leadership when Clement Davies stood down in October 1956. Morris died the following month, aged 68. Throughout his career Morris was a staunch individualist, once summing up his political philosophy as, "There is no man alive, sufficiently good to rule the life of the man next door to him!" Many have regarded him as being the last representative of traditional Gladstonian Liberalism in the Commons. Report of the Commission on the Palestine Disturbances of August, 1929, Cmd. 3530 Craig, F. W. S..
British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Rhys Hopkin Morris: The Man and his Character by T J Evans, 1957 Sir Rhys Hopkin Morris by J Graham Jones, in Brack et al. Dictionary of Liberal Biography, 1998 Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Rhys Hopkin Morris, The man and his character: T J Evans, Gomerian Press, Llandyssul, 1958 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Rhys Morris
Mary Hopkin, credited on some recordings as Mary Visconti, is a Welsh folk singer best known for her 1968 UK number one single "Those Were the Days". She was one of the first to sign to the Beatles' Apple label. Hopkin was born in Pontardawe, into a Welsh-speaking family, she took weekly singing lessons as a child and began her musical career as a folk singer with a local group called the Selby Set and Mary. She released an EP of Welsh-language songs for a local record label called Cambrian, based in her home town, before signing to Apple Records, owned by the Beatles, one of the first artists to do so; the model Twiggy saw her winning the British ITV television talent show Opportunity Knocks and recommended her to Paul McCartney. Her debut single, "Those Were the Days", produced by McCartney, was released in the UK on 30 August 1968. Despite competition from well-established star Sandie Shaw, whose single was released that year, Hopkin's version became a number 1 hit on the UK Singles Chart.
It reached number 2 on the US Billboard Hot 100, where for three weeks it was held out of the top spot by the Beatles' "Hey Jude", spent two weeks at number 1 on Canada's RPM singles chart. It sold over 1,500,000 copies in the United States alone, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Global sales topped 8,000,000. On 2 October 1968, Hopkin appeared at St Paul's Cathedral in London for the Pop Experience, where she sang "Morning of My Life", "Turn Turn Turn" and "Plaisir d'amour". In December that year, the NME music magazine reported that Hopkin was considering a lead acting role in Stanley Baker's forthcoming film, The Rape of the Fair Country; that particular project did not materialise but Hopkin did sing the title songs to two of Baker's films, Where's Jack? and Kidnapped. On 21 February 1969, Hopkin's debut album, again produced by McCartney, was released, it included covers of three songs from Donovan, who played on the album, one song each from George Martin and Harry Nilsson. It reached number 3 on the UK Albums Chart, although it proved to be her solitary success in that chart.
In the United States, Postcard reached number 28 on the Billboard albums chart. The next single was "Goodbye", written by McCartney, released on 26 March 1969, it reached number 2 on the UK Singles Chart, where it was kept from the top by the Beatles' "Get Back", number 13 on the Billboard Hot 100, number 15 on the RPM chart in Canada. Hopkin said she interpreted "Goodbye" as McCartney pledging to stop "micromanaging" her career, since she was uncomfortable with his positioning of her as a pop chanteuse, she expressed dissatisfaction with her manager at this time, Terry Doran. Hopkin's third single, "Temma Harbour", was a re-arrangement of a Philamore Lincoln song, her first single not to be produced by McCartney, it was released on 16 January 1970 and peaked at number 6 in the UK and number 42 in Canada. In the US, "Temma Harbour" reached number 39 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 4 on the magazine's Easy Listening chart. Along with Donovan and Billy Preston, Hopkin was one of the chorus singers on the Radha Krishna Temple's 1970 hit single "Govinda", produced by George Harrison for Apple Records.
In March 1970, Hopkin represented the United Kingdom in the 1970 Eurovision Song Contest, achieving second place with "Knock, Knock Who's There?" Although she gave a confident performance and sang in a crystal-clear voice, despite being the pre-contest favourite, Hopkin lost to "All Kinds of Everything", performed by Irish singer Dana. Produced by Mickie Most, "Knock, Knock Who's There?" was released as a single on 23 March 1970 and peaked at number 2 in the UK. It was a worldwide hit. Hopkin's final big hit was "Think About Your Children", released in October 1970, which reached number 19 in the UK. Hopkin has expressed dissatisfaction with the material produced by Most, who had taken over as her producer with "Temma Harbour". After appearing in Eurovision, Hopkin wanted to return to her musical roots, folk song. At McCartney's insistence, Hopkin had recorded a cover of "Que Sera, Sera" in August 1969. Hopkin refused to have the single released in Britain. Having been issued in France only in September 1969, it was subsequently released in North America in June 1970.
The single peaked at number 77 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 47 in Canada, was a hit in Japan, New Zealand and Zimbabwe. The last single to hit the British charts was "Let My Name Be Sorrow", which reached number 46 in July 1971, it was produced by Tony Visconti, whom Hopkin had met earlier for a Welsh recording of "Sparrow". "Let My Name Be Sorrow" was a hit in Poland in January 1972. Hopkin's second album, Earth Song, Ocean Song, was released by Apple on 1 October 1971; the album was produced by Visconti and included cover versions of songs written by Cat Stevens and Lyle and Ralph McTell, as well as the two title tracks by Liz Thorsen. Hopkin felt it was the album she had always wanted to make, so, coinciding with her marriage to Visconti and with little left to prove, she left the music scene; the album's single, "Water and Clay", missed the Billboard Hot 100. It was Hopkin's last single for Apple Records, which she left in March 1972. After Hopkin's departure from Apple, a compilation album titled Those Were the Days was released in the latter part of 1972.
The album featured all of Hopkin's hits but it failed to chart. ”Knock Knock, Who's There?" was released as a single in the United States and Canada, both countries excluded from the first release of that record in 1970. The single reached number 92 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number 11 on the Easy Listen
Masculinity is a set of attributes and roles associated with boys and men. As a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across historical periods. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior. Traits traditionally viewed as masculine in Eastern and Western society include strength, independence, leadership and assertiveness. Machismo is a form of masculinity that emphasizes power and is associated with a disregard for consequences and responsibility. Virility is similar to masculinity, but emphasizes strength and sex drive. Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, expected of boys and men; the concept of masculinity varies and culturally. Masculine norms, as described in Ronald F. Levant's Masculinity Reconstructed, are "avoidance of femininity; these norms reinforce gender roles by associating characteristics with one gender. The academic study of masculinity received increased attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the number of courses on the subject in the United States rising from 30 to over 300.
This has sparked investigation of the intersection of masculinity with other axes of social discrimination and concepts from other fields, such as the social construction of gender difference. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior; those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification. Since what constitutes masculinity has varied by time and place, according to Raewyn Connell, it is more appropriate to discuss "masculinities" than a single overarching concept. Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the 1980s, aided by the fields of women's and gender history. Before women's history was examined, there was a "strict gendering of the public/private divide". Although women's historical role was negated, despite the writing of history by men, a significant portion of the male experience was missing; this void was questioned during the late 1970s, when women's history began to analyze gender and women to deepen the female experience.
Joan Scott's seminal article, calling for gender studies as an analytical concept to explore society and discourse, laid the foundation for this field. According to Scott, gender should be used in two ways: productive and produced. Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history; this has influenced the field of masculinity, as seen in Pierre Bourdieu's definition of masculinity: produced by society and culture, reproduced in daily life. A flurry of work in women's history led to a call for study of the male role in society and emotional and interpersonal life. Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms"; the scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve the male role in response to feminism. John Tosh calls for a return to this aim for the history of masculinity to be useful, academically and in the public sphere.
Ancient literature dates back to about 3000 BC, with explicit expectations for men in the form of laws and implied masculine ideals in myths of gods and heroes. In the Hebrew Bible of 1000 BC, King David of Israel told his son, "I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, shew thyself a man. Throughout history, men have met exacting cultural standards. Kate Cooper wrote about ancient concepts of femininity, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged – and along with it what he stands for." According to the Code of Hammurabi: Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death." Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."Scholars cite integrity and equality as masculine values in male-male relationships and virility in male-female relationships. Legends of ancient heroes include the Epic of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The stories demonstrate qualities in the hero which inspire respect, such as wisdom and courage: knowing things other men do not know and taking risks other men would not dare. Jeffrey Richards describes a European "medieval masculinity, Christian and chivalric". Courage, respect for women of all classes and generosity characterize the portrayal of men in literary history; the Anglo-Saxons Hengest and Horsa and Beowulf are examples of medieval masculine ideals. According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel; the masculinity exemplified by Beowulf "cut men off from women, other men and the household". During the Victorian era, masculinity underwent a transformation from tradition
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions