Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
The Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was one of the original Thirteen Colonies established on the east coast of North America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It was an English colony from 1636 until the American Revolution in 1776, when it became the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; the land that became the English colony was first home to the Narragansett Indians, which led to the name of the modern town of Narragansett, Rhode Island. European settlement began around 1622 with a trading post at Sowams, now the town of Warren, Rhode Island. Roger Williams was a Puritan theologian and linguist who founded Providence Plantations in 1636 on land given to him by Narragansett sachem Canonicus, he was exiled under religious persecution from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the settlement Providence Plantation. Williams named the islands in the Narragansett Bay after Christian virtues: Patience and Hope Islands. In 1637, another group of Massachusetts dissenters purchased land from the Indians on Aquidneck Island, called Rhode Island at the time, they established a settlement called Pocasset.
The group included William Coddington, John Clarke, Anne and William Hutchinson, among others. That settlement, however split into two separate settlements. Samuel Gorton and others remained to establish the settlement of Portsmouth in 1638, while Coddington and Clarke established nearby Newport in 1639. Both settlements were situated on Rhode Island; the second plantation settlement on the mainland was Samuel Gorton's Shawomet Purchase from the Narragansetts in 1642. As soon as Gorton settled at Shawomet, the Massachusetts Bay authorities laid claim to his territory and acted to enforce their claim. After considerable difficulties with the Massachusetts Bay General Court, Gorton traveled to London to enlist the help of Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, head of the Commission for Foreign Plantations. Gorton returned in 1648 with a letter from Rich, ordering Massachusetts to cease molesting him and his people. In gratitude, he changed the name of Shawomet Plantation to Warwick. In 1651, William Coddington obtained a separate charter from England setting up the Coddington Commission, which made him life governor of the islands of Rhode Island and Conanicut in a federation with Connecticut Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Protest, open rebellion, a further petition to Oliver Cromwell in London led to the reinstatement of the original charter in 1653. Following the 1660 restoration of royal rule in England, it was necessary to gain a Royal Charter from King Charles II. Charles was a Catholic sympathizer in staunchly Protestant England, he approved of the colony's promise of religious freedom, he granted the request with the Royal Charter of 1663, uniting the four settlements together into the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. In the following years, many persecuted groups settled in the colony, notably Jews; the Rhode Island colony was progressive for the time, passing laws abolishing witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, most capital punishment and, on May 18, 1652, chattel slavery of both blacks and whites. Rhode Island remained at peace with local Indians, but the relationship was more strained between other New England colonies and certain tribes and sometimes led to bloodshed, despite attempts by the Rhode Island leadership to broker peace.
During King Philip's War, both sides violated Rhode Island's neutrality. The war's largest battle occurred in Rhode Island, when a force of Massachusetts and Plymouth militia under General Josiah Winslow invaded and destroyed the fortified Narragansett village in the Great Swamp in southern Rhode Island, on December 19, 1675; the Narragansetts invaded and burned down several of the cities of Rhode Island, including Providence. Roger Williams knew both Canonchet as children, he was aware of the tribe's movements and promptly sent letters informing the Governor of Massachusetts of enemy movements. By his prompt action, Providence Plantations made some efforts at fortifying the town, Williams started training recruits for protection. In one of the final actions of the war, troops from Connecticut hunted down and killed "King Philip", as they called the Narragansett war leader Metacom, on Rhode Island's territory. In the 1680s, Charles II sought to streamline administration of the English colonies and to more control their trade.
The Navigation Acts passed in the 1660s were disliked, since merchants found themselves trapped and at odds with the rules. However, many colonial governments, Massachusetts principally among them, refused to enforce the acts, took matters one step further by obstructing the activities of the Crown agents. Charles' successor James II introduced the Dominion of New England in 1686 as a means to accomplish these goals. Under its provisional president Joseph Dudley, the disputed "King's Country" was brought into the dominion, the rest of the colony was brought under dominion control by Governor Sir Edmund Andros; the rule of Andros was unpopular in Massachusetts. The 1688 Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought William III and Mary II to the English throne. With this eve
Yawgoog Scout Reservation
Yawgoog Scout Reservation is a 1,800-acre reservation for scouting located in Rockville, Rhode Island and operated by the Narragansett Council of the Boy Scouts of America. Founded in 1916, Yawgoog is the fourth-oldest continuously run Scout camp in the United States. At the camp is run an eight-week camping program every summer where Boy Scouts stay for a week with their troops; the reservation is divided into three camps: Three Point, Medicine Bow, Sandy Beach. In 1916 Scout Executive Donald North, after inspecting some twenty ponds in Rhode Island, recommended the deserted Joseph Palmer farm property on Yawgoog Pond as a permanent reservation for Scouting; the 150-acre piece was leased to Rhode Island Boy Scouts in 1916 and purchased in 1917. Yawgoog and Wincheck, according to local tradition, were the names of two Narragansett Native American Chiefs; the water rights to the pond, all of their equipment, fourteen mill houses, a store, 200-acre of unimproved land were obtained in 1953 when the Rhode Island Boy Scouts purchased a controlling interest in the Yawgo Line and Twine Company.
The reservation continues to be separately owned by RIBS though the camp is run by the Narragansett Council of the Boy Scouts of America. In 1917 the RIBS, BSA merged to form the Greater Providence Council, making the RIBS a trustee organization just five years after its conception. Chief Yawgoog serves as the mascot for the camp, he is portrayed in a cartoon, wearing leather Native American trousers and moccasins, smoking a calumet, holding a canoe over himself and appears as if he is about to set off canoeing. The reservation is associated with creating the first Totin' Chip axe-safety program. John Page, nicknamed "Johnny Appleseed," created the program in 1950; the Apprentice in Training program was started in 1956 in an effort to better train incoming staff members. The AIT corps, the first of its kind, was renamed the Counselor-in-Training corps and set the standard for subsequent programs across the country; the reservation is divided into three distinct camps. Each camp operates independently and has a dining hall and trading post.
Yawgoog campers used to set up tents as part of one centralized camp on what is now Tim O'Neil Field, located in Camp Three Point. In 1924, Yawgoog was divided between Upper Camp and Lower Camp, three camps emerged. Yawgoog is active during the summer for eight weeks of operation. During the off season tent camping is allowed at various campgrounds and cabin camping is allowed in any of the four cabins available; these spaces are available for troops who wish perform outdoor events when summer camp is not in session. In 1965, the architect responsible for the building work was D. Thomas Russillo. Yawgoog is located in the southwestern corner of Rhode Island—the closest town Hopkinton, RI, which sits at 41.44N -71.79W. The terrain of the reservation is flat, with only one hill located in the southwestern corner of the reservation. Most of the reservation consists of deciduous and evergreen trees. On May 4–6, 1930, the camp suffered a forest fire. Much of the forest was destroyed and subsequently replaced with white pines due to their ability to grow quickly.
Remnants of the fire are unnoticeable today. There are six main trails that are marked throughout the reservation, named by colored chevrons which mark each trail. Trails run through the camps, as well as out through the wilderness to various sights and ponds of the reservation; the reservation includes three ponds—the main pond is Yawgoog Pond, which serves as the nexus for the three camps for most water and boating activities. To the south, connected to Yawgoog Pond via a dam and "long cove" is Wincheck Pond. And, to the north of Yawgoog Pond is Hidden Lake found after the forest fire. There is a trail to nearby Long Pond further south. There are several islands on Yawgoog Pond, including Cranberry and Submarine islands in the north corner of the pond and Schooner Islands which are adjacent to the largest island, named King Phillips Island. King Phillips Island has periodically hosted "adventure camps" over the years but has been disused over the past 20 years; the reservation covers 1800 acres of land which extends into Connecticut.
Each camp is run by a camp director, assistant camp director, two program commissioners, all of which answer to the Reservation Director. As there are three distinct camps, each has its own songs, cheers and traditions. With the exception of each camp's waterfront and dining lodge, all program centers are available to campers from all three camps. Camp Three Point, named for the three points of the Scout Oath, was the first of the three camps to be founded. First named Camp Bucklin, it has been deemed "The oldest and most tradition-filled camp" and "The Camp, once Yawgoog in its entirety." Today, Camp Three Point features the Challenge Course, the Bucklin Building, the Eagle Badge program, the Arthur Livingston Kelly Environmental Education Center, The Three Point Waterfront, the first New Frontier Center on reservation, the 407 Outfitters, the reservation's largest trading post. Camp Three Point hosts the Protestant Chapel and the Jewish Synagogue, it is home to the reservation's only basketball court and includes a dam which has become a popular fishing site for scouts.
It is home to the Memorial Bell Tower, which tolls at noon each day in honor of those Scouts who died serving their country. Camp T
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Ashaway, Rhode Island
Ashaway is an unincorporated village and census-designated place in the town of Hopkinton in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. It is a principal village of Hopkinton, along with Hope Valley, although it is the smaller of the two; the population was 1,485 at the 2010 census. The name Ashaway is derived from the American Indian name for the river that runs through the village, the Ashawague or Ashawaug, which means "land in the middle" or "land between" in the Niantic and Mohegan languages; the name "Ashawague River" appears as late as 1832 on the Findley map of Rhode Island published in Philadelphia, PA. Ashaway is located at 41°25′23″N 71°47′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.2 km². 6.2 km² of it is land and 0.1 km² of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,485 people, 566 households, 418 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 239.5/km². There were 617 housing units at an average density of 99.5/km². The racial makeup of the CDP was 94.14% White, 0.88% African American, 1.55% American Indian, 0.88% Asian, 1.48% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.83% of the population. There were 566 households, out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.1% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.01. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 19% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 24% from 25 to 44, 31% from 45 to 64, 19% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.3 years. There were 95.3 males for every 100 females, 92.3 males age 18 and over for every 100 females age 18 and over. The median income for a household in the CDP during 2000 was $47,271, the median income for a family was $49,125. Males had a median income of $41,375 versus $25,556 for females.
The per capita income for the CDP was $21,149. About 6.6% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Ashaway, RI is the city of license for radio station WSUB-LP known as 96.7 FM The Buzz. Its antenna is atop the old Bradford Dyeing Association smokestack, but the designated city of license is Ashaway by the Federal Communications Commission. WSUB-LP is owned and operated by The Buzz Alternative Radio Foundation, Inc
Rockville, Rhode Island
Rockville is a village in the town of Hopkinton, Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. The zip code is 02873. Burrows Burdick, Wisconsin legislator, was born in Rockville. Yawgoog Scout Reservation, one of the oldest scout camps in operation
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
The Pawcatuck River is a river in the US states of Rhode Island and Connecticut flowing 34 miles. There are eight dams along the river's length. USS Pawcatuck was named after the river; the river was specified as the western boundary of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in the original charter of 1636. It was called the Charles River between its source and the mouth of the Wood River near Bradford, Rhode Island. On April 20, 2006, an Atlantic white-sided dolphin swam several miles up the river to Westerly, Rhode Island from Little Narragansett Bay at the east end of Fishers Island Sound, it spent several hours at Westerly-Pawcatuck, near the bridge connecting Rhode Island and Connecticut, while several hundred spectators gathered to see it. According to the Mystic Aquarium, the dolphin may have become separated from its pod at sea and had been searching for it, it was captured and taken that night to the aquarium, where it died. The Pawcatuck River flooded during a fierce rainstorm in New England on March 29, 2010, with waters overflowing into both Westerly and Pawcatuck.
Both towns evacuated low-lying areas, some historic buildings were lost to flood damage along the course of the river, such as a 150 year-old general store in North Stonington. The bridge in downtown Westerly-Pawcatuck was closed for several weeks until the river had gone down enough for divers to inspect it for safety; the Pawcatuck River's source is Worden Pond in Rhode Island. It proceeds west and southwest through the villages of Kenyon and Bradford, Rhode Island, it serves as the border between the towns of Charlestown and Richmond, Rhode Island and Hopkinton, Rhode Island, Hopkinton and Westerly. It turns northwest and west before resuming a southward course to flow past Potter Hill, Rhode Island and between the towns of Westerly, Rhode Island and the Pawcatuck section of Stonington, Connecticut. Below is a list of all crossings over the Pawcatuck River; the list goes downstream. Charlestown Biscuit City Road South County Trail Sherman Avenue Northeast Corridor Shannock Road Northeast Corridor Old Shannock Road Northeast Corridor Carolina Back Road Alton Carolina Road Northeast Corridor Kings Factory Road Northeast Corridor Burdickville Road Northeast Corridor Westerly Northeast Corridor Alton Bradford Road Ashaway Road Potter Hill Road Boombridge Road Bridge Road Westerly Bypass Stillman Avenue Northeast Corridor Broad Street In addition to many unnamed tributaries, the following brooks and rivers feed the Pawcatuck: Usquepaug River Pusquiset Brook Beaver River Taney Brook White Brook Meadow Brook Wood River Poquiani Brook Tomaquag Brook McGowan Brook Aguntaug Brook Ashaway River Shunock River Mastuxet Brook List of rivers in Rhode Island List of rivers in Connecticut