University of Houston System
The University of Houston System is a state university system in Texas, comprising four separate and distinct universities. It owns and holds broadcasting licenses to a television station. The fourth-largest university system in Texas, the UH System has more than 70,000 students from the four distinct universities and its flagship institution is the University of Houston, a comprehensive doctoral degree-granting research university of about 43,000 students. The economic impact of the UH System contributes over $3 billion annually to the Texas economy, the administration is housed in the Ezekiel W. Cullen Building, located on the campus of the University of Houston. The chancellor of the UH System is Renu Khator, who concurrently as president of the University of Houston. The System is governed by nine voting-member board of regents, appointed by the Governor of Texas, the University of Houston System has four separate and distinct institutions, each institution is a stand-alone university and confers its own degrees.
Its flagship institution is the University of Houston, the three other institutions in the System are stand-alone universities, they are not branch campuses of the University of Houston. Admission into each institution is separate, and each institution has distinct admission criteria, the University of Houston, founded in 1927, entered the state system of higher education in 1963. By August 1979, it became a university when the 66th Texas Legislature established UH/DC as a separate. The University of Houston System was created by statute on August 29,1977 under House Bill 188 during the 65th Texas Legislature, the Board of Regents of the University of Houston was renamed the Board of Regents of the University of Houston System. Philip G. Hoffman became the first chancellor of the System, during the 68th Texas Legislature, Senate Bill 235 was signed into law and became effective immediately on April 26,1983. A proposal to reorganize and consolidate state university systems emerged in 1986, the UH System would have been merged into a new university system to include a total of 10 institutions under the recommended reorganization referred to as the Gulf Coast System.
The proposed consolidation grouping drew oppositions from affected institutions, and the plan never materialized, in 1991, the University of Houston–University Park reverted to its original name, University of Houston. The addition of the University Park appellation was done with little discussion and had never gained community acceptance, arthur K. Smith became the first person to have held the combined position. In November 2007, Renu Khator was selected as the chancellor of the University of Houston System. Khator became the first female to hold the position. She is the person to hold the dual role of UH System chancellor. With this action, the campus was renamed the University of Houston Sugar Land in January 2012, the governance, jurisdiction and management of the University of Houston System is vested in its Board of Regents
University of Texas at Austin
Founded in 1881 as The University of Texas, its campus is in Austin, Texas—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the nations seventh-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty, UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory, among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Emmy Award, the Turing Award, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards. UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference and its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The first mention of a university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish education in the arts and sciences. On April 18,1838, An Act to Establish the University of Texas was referred to a committee of the Texas Congress. On January 26,1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land towards the establishment of a publicly funded university, in addition,40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated College Hill. In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States, the states Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11,1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B,102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the states first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the universitys endowment, Texas secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants, the more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general education in the state. The legislature additionally appropriated $256,272.57 to repay the funds taken from the university in 1860 to pay for frontier defense, the 1883 grant of land increased the land in the Permanent University Fund to almost 2.2 million acres. Under the Act of 1858, the university was entitled to just over 1,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad built in the state. On March 30,1881, the legislature set forth the structure and organization. By popular election on September 6,1881, Austin was chosen as the site, having come in second in the election was designated the location of the medical department. On November 17,1882, on the original College Hill, smite the earth, smite the rocks with the rod of knowledge and fountains of unstinted wealth will gush forth
Mississippi /ˌmɪsᵻˈsɪpi/ is a state in the southern region of the United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico. Its western border is formed by the Mississippi River, the state has a population of approximately 3 million. It is the 32nd most extensive and the 32nd most populous of the 50 United States, located in the center of the state, Jackson is the state capital and largest city, with a population of approximately 175,000 people. The state is heavily forested outside of the Mississippi Delta area, before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, where slaves worked on cotton plantations. After the war, the bottomlands to the interior were cleared, by the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Deltas property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after a financial crisis. Clearing altered the Deltas ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi, much land is now held by agribusinesses.
The states catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States, since the 1930s and the Great Migration, Mississippi has been majority white, albeit with the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were mostly black, whites retained political power through Jim Crow laws. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state, since gaining enforcement of their voting franchise in the late 1960s, most African Americans support Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party, African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic settlement during the plantation era. Since 2011 Mississippi has been ranked as the most religious state in the country, the states name is derived from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary.
Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi, in addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, and the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Mississippi is entirely composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains,807 feet above sea level. The lowest point is sea level at the Gulf coast, the states mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain, the coastal plain is generally composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations, yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state. The northeast is a region of black earth that extends into the Alabama Black Belt. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St.
Louis, the northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain
Jerry Edwin Smith
Jerry Edwin Smith is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. He was nominated by President Ronald Reagan on June 2,1987, Smith received his commission for the seat two days later. Smith attended Yale University and Yale Law School, earning his bachelors degree in 1969, after law school, he clerked for Judge Halbert O. Woodward on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. Smith wrote the majority opinion in Hopwood v. Texas,78 F. 3d 932, seven years later, the decision was abrogated by the U. S. Supreme Courts decision in Grutter v. Bollinger,539 U. S.306. The decision was upheld by the Supreme Court in Stoneridge Investment Partners v. Scientific-Atlanta,552 U. S.148, though Smiths response and order were criticized by some legal scholars and members of the press, Bush administration U. S. In July 2012, Smith authored the majority opinion for the en banc Fifth Circuit in United States v. Kebodeaux,687 F. Judge Smiths former clerks include, Dana Berliner, Litigation Director at the Institute for Justice Ronald J.
Colombo, Professor of Law, deane School of Law at Hofstra University Tom Cotton, U. S. Deane Distinguished Professor of Constitutional Law and Faculty Director of International Programs, Maurice A
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
University of Houston Law Center
The University of Houston Law Center is the law school of the University of Houston in Houston, Texas. Founded in 1947, the Law Center is one of 12 colleges of the University of Houston and it is accredited by the American Bar Association and is a member of the Association of American Law Schools. The law schools facilities are located on the universitys 667-acre campus in southeast Houston, the Law Center awards the Juris Doctor and Master of Laws degrees. The law school is among four law schools tied for 50th in the 2016 U. S. News & World Report law school rankings. According to UHLCs 2013 ABA-required disclosures,63. 2% of the class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, the dean of the Law Center is Leonard M. Baynes. The University of Houston Law Center was founded in 1947 as the University of Houston College of Law, with a class consisting of 28 students. The law school was housed in locations on campus in its first few years—including temporary classrooms. The College of Law moved into its current facilities—located at the northeast corner of campus—shortly following its groundbreaking in 1969, in 1969, the college was renamed the Bates College of Law for Col.
William B. Bates, former member of the University of Houston System Board of Regents, since 1982, the College of Law has been commonly referred to as the University of Houston Law Center. The law school is tied for 50th in the 2016 U. S. News & World Report law school rankings. U. S. News ranks the school in three specialties, second for health care law, seventh for intellectual property law, and sixth among part-time programs, in 2010, the school ranked 34th for number of alumni included on the Super Lawyers list. The National Law Journal reported that the Law Center ranked 29th for the percentage of its graduates hired as first-year associates at the nations 250 largest law firms in 2013. In 2013, the law blog Above the Law ranked the school 35th on its Above the Law Top 50 Law Schools List. As of fall 2014, the law school reported an enrollment of 732 students. For the class of 2016, the school received 2,208 applications, the median undergraduate GPA among all students at the school is 3.47, and the median LSAT score was 159.
The class of 2016 is 63.6 percent white and 43. 9% female, of the 2013 graduating class, 62% work in law firms, 23% in business and industry, 8% in government, 3% in public interest, and 2% as judicial clerks. The average school bar passage rate for the July 2013 was 88. 02%. Annual tuition for the 2015–2016 full-time program is $29,784 for Texas residents, annual tuition for the part-time program is $26,541 for Texas residents and $38,961 for non-Texas residents
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized.
Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest.
The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi River
University of Texas School of Law
The University of Texas School of Law is an ABA-certified American law school located on the campus of The University of Texas at Austin. The law school has been in operation since the founding of the University in 1883, Texas Law offers both Juris Doctor and Master of Laws degrees. It offers degree programs with the JD, such as an MBA, MPA. In 2016 the law school was ranked No.14 in the nation by U. S. News & World Report, No.12 by Above the Law, Texas Law is consistently ranked among the top five public law schools in the United States. The school has ranked No.1 for the biggest return on investment among law schools in the United States, the school has 19,000 living alumni, over 4,000 of whom practice law outside of Texas. The law school has graduated the late U. S. Supreme Court Justice Tom C. Clark as well as a number of heads of state and corporate executives. According to Texas Laws 2014 ABA-required disclosures,77. 8% of the Class of 2014 obtained full-time, long-term, Texas Law is among the most selective law schools in the nation.
For the class of 2018,4,303 students applied and 21. 9% were accepted with a class median LSAT score of 167, the median GPA for the admitted class is 3.73. The average age of admitted students is 24, and women make up 47% of the class, Texas Law admits students from over 22 US states. Emphasizing its role as an institution, Texas Law reserves 65% of the seats in each first-year class for Texas residents. In 2014, the law school was the subject of a scandal, currently under investigation by Kroll. Records obtained through the Texas Public Information Act revealed that students were admitted with LSAT scores as low as 128. In connection with the inquiry, a study of those UT graduates who failed the Texas Bar on multiple occasions included children of legislators, legislators. The law school suffered one of the lowest bar passage rates in all of the law schools in February,2014. The bar passage rate was the lowest of all Texas schools, the University of Texas School of Law was founded in 1883. In 1914, the school created its first course on oil and gas law, the school was sued in the civil rights case of Sweatt v.
Painter. When the plaintiff first applied to the University of Texas, there was no law school in Texas which admitted blacks. Instead of granting the plaintiff a writ of mandamus, the Texas trial court continued the case for six months to allow the time to create a law school for blacks
Sam Sparks is a federal judge in the Austin Division of the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas. He earned a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Texas School of Law two years and he clerked for Federal District Court Judge Homer Thornberry before turning to private practice. His great-grandfather and his grandfather were named Sam Sparks, the former was sheriff of Bell County and this Sam Sparks became president of the Texas Sheriffs Association in 1903 and the Texas state treasurer in 1906. He was married to Arden Reed Sparks, until she died in 1990 and he married his second wife, Melinda Echols, formerly of Fort Worth, in 1995. Sparks was nominated by President George H. W. Bush on October 1,1991 and he was confirmed by the Senate on November 21,1991, and received his commission on November 25,1991. No one warned the undersigned that in many instances his responsibility would be the same as a person who supervised kindergarten, among his more notable cases were the sentencing of former Texas Attorney General Dan Morales and the trial of Gary Paul Karr for federal wire fraud.
Sparks heard the Karl Rove & Co and this case found its way into court following a dispute over payment of fundraising expenses by the failed Republican Senate campaign of Dick Thornburgh. Sparks ruled that Roves company could recoup roughly $180,000 in bills from the Thornburgh campaign, in 1994 Sparks ruled in favor of Steve Jackson Games against the United States Secret Service. The latter had raided Jacksons offices and seized computers, searching for a file that one of Jacksons employees may have posted. The Electronic Frontier Foundation helped with the lawsuit, and Sparks ruled that the Secret Service had acted in a too heavy-handed manner and he received the Trial Judge of the Year from the Texas Chapter of the Board of Trial Advocates in 2005. In 2010, he became the second honoree in the history of the American College of Trial Lawyers Sandra Day OConnor Award, in 2006 he handled a case involving the Texas Republican Partys effort to get former Congressman Tom DeLays name removed from the ballot in the 2006 Congressional Election.
DeLay won the Republican primary election in March, but resigned from Congress in early April during a corruption scandal, on July 6, Judge Sparks ruled that DeLays name must remain on the ballot. In 2007, Justice Sparks ruled in a settlement that greatly improved conditions for immigrant children. In response to the treatment of young children in T. Don Hutto, Judge Sparks established the government would have to establish rules for how to detain families safely and humanely. He said that he was beginning to wonder who was in charge out there, in 2009, Sparks heard Fisher v. University of Texas, a case challenging the admissions policy of the University of Texas at Austin. He upheld UTs policy under Grutter v. Bollinger, in 2012 the court commemorated his 20 years served on the federal bench and marked the occasion with a portrait painted by artist Michele Rushworth. Text of decision of the DeLay case, Texas Democratic Party v Benkiser Re, Copeland trial
William P. Hobby Jr.
William Pettus “Bill” Hobby Jr. is a Texas Democratic politician who served a record eighteen years as the 37th Lieutenant Governor. The principal duty of the Texas lieutenant governor is to preside over the Texas State Senate, born in Houston, he was the only son of William P. Hobby, Sr. and Oveta Culp Hobby. Both of his grandfathers were in the Texas Legislature. S, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, a Republican. She served in that position, now the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Hobby attended high school at St. Albans School in Washington, D. C. Hobby attended Rice University in Houston, after graduation, he served in the United States Navy for four years in naval intelligence. For many years, the Hobby family owned the now-defunct Houston Post and he worked his way through the editorial department. When his father became ill in 1963, Hobby assumed editorial and managerial control of the newspaper and he remained president of the Post for twenty years – until the family sold the newspaper in 1983.
It was absorbed in 1995 by the Houston Chronicle, which is still published and his lengthy career in government began in 1959, when he served as parliamentarian of the Texas Senate under Lieutenant Governor Ben Ramsey. He was appointed to the Presidential Task Force on Suburban Problems, Governor Preston Smith appointed him to the Texas Air Control Board. Lieutenant Governor Ben Barnes appointed him chair of the Senate Interim Committee on Welfare Reform in 1969, Hobby resigned from the Texas Air Control Board in 1971 to run for lieutenant governor. The position had opened when the incumbent, Ben F. Barnes, ran unsuccessfully in the Democratic gubernatorial primary. Hobby was re-elected in 1974 defeating Republican Gaylord Marshall, Hobby did not seek an unprecedented sixth term in 1990, and the lieutenant governorship passed to fellow Democrat then-Comptroller Bob Bullock on January 15,1991. In addition to presiding over the senate, Hobby served in numerous other political leadership capacities.
He was chair of the National Conference of Lieutenant Governors in 1974, in 1985, he joined the mental health activist, Helen J. Farabee of Wichita Falls, in convincing the legislature to create the Department of Mental Health Mental Retardation, known as MHMR. Over his years as Lieutenant Governor, Hobby gained a reputation as a fiscal manager and parliamentary leader in the Texas Senate. Hobby served as Chancellor of the University of Houston System from 1995 to 1997 and he told Texas Monthlys Paul Burka that he had never expected the call. Also, Hobby remained active in business and he served on the boards of directors for various firms, including Southwest Airlines, a position he held for seventeen years. He was Trustee of the LBJ Foundation and he held the Sid Richardson Chair in Public Affairs at the LBJ School of Public Affairs and was Radoslav Tsanoff Professor at Rice University
Texas Monthly is a monthly American magazine headquartered in Downtown Austin, Texas. Texas Monthly was founded in 1973 by Michael R. Levy and has published by Emmis Publishing, L. P. since 1998 and now owned by Genesis Park. Texas Monthly chronicles life in contemporary Texas, writing on politics, the environment, the magazine covers leisure topics such as music, art and travel. It is a member of the City and Regional Magazine Association, Texas Monthly has a paid circulation of 300,000 and it has a monthly readership of 2.5 million people—one out of seven Texan adults. Its audience comprises about a number of men and women. Texas Monthly takes as its premise that Texas began as a distinctive place and it is the self-appointed arbiter of all things culturally Texan, with past articles on Texas BBQ, the Texas Rangers, and Texas musicians. Texas Monthlys annual Bum Steer Awards poke fun at Texas politicians and policies, odd Texas-related news items, anna Nicole Smith was a perennial winner. Other Bum Steer Hall of Famers include Ross Perot, Tom DeLay and it releases biennial lists with explanations of the Ten Best and Ten Worst Texas state legislators.
Since the establishment of the magazine, barbecue enthusiasts had been among the Texas Monthly staff, the magazines first article about barbecue in Texas was published in 1973. The magazine often ranks what it considers to be the best barbecue restaurants in Texas, calvin Trillin of The New Yorker said in 2008 that East Texas barbecue often did not interest the Austin-based staff of the Texas Monthly, who were more focused on Central Texas barbecue. It has its headquarters at 816 Congress Ave. in Downtown Austin and it occupies a 21,610 square feet area on the 17th floor of the building. As of 2011 it has about 80 employees, around 2009 the Texas Monthly headquarters moved to University Park, on the site of the former Concordia University. The headquarters was scheduled to move to its current location in Downtown Austin in the summer of 2011, previously the headquarters was in Suite 1600 of 701 Brazos in Downtown Austin. In the 1980s, Texas Monthly Press published such books as Goodbye to a River and Hank the Cowdog and authors such as Bud Shrake, Stephen Harrigan, gulf Publishing Company purchased Texas Monthly Press in 1989.
Texas Monthly from the Handbook of Texas Online, official website Texas Monthly Mobile Texas Monthly Archives at The Wittliff Collections of Southwestern Writers, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX