Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be white, pink, or gray in color. The word granite comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is a rock with at least 20% quartz. The term granitic means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a texture is known as a granite porphyry. Granitoid is a general, descriptive field term for lighter-colored, coarse-grained igneous rocks, petrographic examination is required for identification of specific types of granitoids. The extrusive igneous rock equivalent of granite is rhyolite, Granite is nearly always massive and tough, and therefore it has gained widespread use throughout human history, and more recently as a construction stone.
The average density of granite is between 2.65 and 2.75 g/cm3, its compressive strength usually lies above 200 MPa, and its viscosity near STP is 3–6 •1019 Pa·s. The melting temperature of dry granite at ambient pressure is 1215–1260 °C, it is reduced in the presence of water. Granite has poor primary permeability, but strong secondary permeability, true granite according to modern petrologic convention contains both plagioclase and alkali feldspars. When a granitoid is devoid or nearly devoid of plagioclase, the rock is referred to as alkali feldspar granite, when a granitoid contains less than 10% orthoclase, it is called tonalite and amphibole are common in tonalite. A granite containing both muscovite and biotite micas is called a binary or two-mica granite, two-mica granites are typically high in potassium and low in plagioclase, and are usually S-type granites or A-type granites. A worldwide average of the composition of granite, by weight percent, based on 2485 analyses. Much of it was intruded during the Precambrian age, it is the most abundant basement rock that underlies the relatively thin veneer of the continents.
Outcrops of granite tend to form tors and rounded massifs, granites sometimes occur in circular depressions surrounded by a range of hills, formed by the metamorphic aureole or hornfels. Granite often occurs as small, less than 100 km² stock masses
Nubhetepti-khered was an Ancient Egyptian kings daughter of the Thirteenth Dynasty. She is basically only known from her burial at Dahshur. Her burial was found at the end of a long corridor and it consisted of two chambers, one above the other. The lower chamber contained the coffin and the canopic chest of the princess, in the upper chamber were placed several burial goods. The body of Nubhetepti-khered was placed in a coffin, decorated with inscribed gold leaf. In the coffin were found the remains of an inner, the body of Nubhetepti-khered was adorned with a broad collar and with armlets and anklets. Next to the body were several royal insignia, such as a flail. The wooden canopic chest was adorned with gold leaf and contained four canopic jars made of alabaster, in the chamber above the burial chamber were found several pottery vessels. There was a box with ointment jars and a second, long box with further royal insignia, Nubhetepti-khered is so far not yet known outside her burial. She was most likely related to king Hor, who was buried next to her, the tomb was found in 1894 by Jacques de Morgan
In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche /kɑːrˈtuːʃ/ is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, while the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, it is sometimes horizontal if it makes the name fit better, with a vertical line on the left. The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring, in Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line. Of the five royal titularies it was the prenomen, the name, and the Son of Ra titulary, the so-called nomen name given at birth. At times amulets were given the form of a cartouche displaying the name of a king, such items are often important to archaeologists for dating the tomb and its contents. Cartouches were formerly worn by Pharaohs. The oval surrounding their name was meant to them from evil spirits in life. The cartouche has become a symbol representing good luck and protection from evil, egyptians believed that one who had their name recorded somewhere would not disappear after death.
A cartouche attached to a coffin satisfied this requirement, there were periods in Egyptian history when people refrained from inscribing these amulets with a name, for fear they might fall into somebodys hands conferring power over the bearer of the name. In the Rosetta Stone, the hieroglyph is used for the word name. For the cartouche cut in half, the half-cartouche hieroglyph, Gardiners sign listed no, v11, is used in the Egyptian language for words meaning, to cut, to divide, to separate. It was the use of cartouches on the Rosetta Stone that was the biggest clue allowing Jean-François Champollion to decipher hieroglyphics, cartouche Serekh, a predecessor to the cartouche Shen ring General Budge. The Rosetta Stone, E. A. Wallis Budge, c, archived from the original on June 15,2011
Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt
The Nineteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt was one of the periods of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne, the warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence easily. The situation had changed radically towards the end of the 18th Dynasty, the Hittites gradually extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would need to deal with. The Pharaohs of the 19th dynasty ruled for one hundred and ten years. Seti Is reign is considered to be 11 years and not 15 years by both J. von Beckerath and Peter Brand, who wrote a biography on this pharaohs reign. Consequently, it will be amended to 11 years or 1290-1279 BC, Setis father and predecessor would have ruled Egypt between 1292-1290 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes, more information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.
New Kingdom Egypt reached the zenith of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who campaigned vigorously against the Libyans and the Hittites. The city of Kadesh was first captured by Seti I, who decided to concede it to Muwatalli of Hatti in a peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti. He ultimately accepted that a campaign against the Hittites was a drain on Egypts treasury and military. In his 21st regnal year, Ramesses signed the first recorded peace treaty with Urhi-Teshubs successor, Hattusili III, Ramesses II even married two Hittite princesses, the first after his second Sed Festival. At least as early as Josephus, it was believed that Moses lived during the reign of Ramesses II and this dynasty declined as internal fighting between the heirs of Merneptah for the throne increased. Amenmesse apparently usurped the throne from Merneptahs son and successor, Seti II, after his death, Seti regained power and destroyed most of Amenmesses monuments. Both Bay and Setis chief wife Twosret had a reputation in Ancient Egyptian folklore.
After Siptahs death, Twosret ruled Egypt for two years, but she proved unable to maintain her hold on power amid the conspiracies. She was likely ousted in a revolt led by Setnakhte, founder of the Twentieth Dynasty, Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree
Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul
The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts, the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body, the other souls were aakhu and khat. An important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb, the heart was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the childs mothers heart, taken at conception. To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought and this is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language which incorporate the word jb. This word was transcribed by E. A. Wallis Budge as Ab, in Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife. It was conceived as surviving death in the world, where it gave evidence for, or against. It was thought that the heart was examined by Anubis and the deities during the Weighing of the Heart ceremony, if the heart weighed more than the feather of Maat, it was immediately consumed by the monster Ammit. A persons shadow or silhouette, Sheut, is always present, because of this, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contains something of the person it represents.
Through this association, statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as shadows, the shadow was representative to Egyptians of a figure of death, or servant of Anubis, and was depicted graphically as a small human figure painted completely black. Sometimes people had a box in which part of their Sheut was stored. For example, part of the Book of Breathings, a derivative of the Book of the Dead, was a means to ensure the survival of the name, a cartouche often was used to surround the name and protect it. Conversely, the names of deceased enemies of the state, such as Akhenaten, were hacked out of monuments in a form of damnatio memoriae. Sometimes, they were removed in order to make room for the insertion of the name of a successor. The greater the number of places a name was used, the greater the possibility it would survive to be read, the Bâ was everything that makes an individual unique, similar to the notion of personality. In the Coffin Texts one form of the Bâ that comes into existence after death is corporeal, louis Žabkar argued that the Bâ is not part of the person but is the person himself, unlike the soul in Greek, or late Judaic, Christian or Muslim thought.
The word bau, plural of the ba, meant something similar to impressiveness, power. When a deity intervened in human affairs, it was said that the Bau of the deity were at work. The Ka was the Egyptian concept of essence, which distinguishes the difference between a living and a dead person, with death occurring when the ka left the body
Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologist Kim Ryholt, he was the king of the dynasty, reigning for 3 years. Thomas Schneider, on the hand, places his reign from 1752 BC until 1746 BC. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the king of the dynasty. As a ruler of the early 13th Dynasty, Khabaw would have ruled from Memphis to Aswan, Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw is not listed on the Turin canon nor on any other ancient king list. According to Ryholt, Khabaws name was lost in a wsf lacuna of the Turin canon reported in Column 7, line 17 of the document. The redactor of this king list, which was written in the early Ramesside period, Khabaw is however well attested through archaeological finds. The architrave is now in the British Museum, under the catalog number BM EA1100, another architrave discovered in Tanis shows Khabaws name together with that of pharaoh Hor of the 13th Dynasty. Darrell Baker and Ryholt suggest that close association might mean that Khabaw was Hors son.
Ryholt and Baker believe that both architraves did not originate from the Delta region but from Memphis, the architraves may have stayed in Avaris until the reign of Ramses II, when this king built his capital at Pi-Ramesses using material from Avaris. Pi-Ramesses was subsequently dismantled during the 21st Dynasty and its monuments scattered in the Delta region, Khabaw is attested by a cylinder-seal now in the Petrie Museum,4 seal impressions from Uronarti and one from Mirgissa, both places being Egyptian fortresses in Nubia. The nomen of Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw is unknown and his identity is not completely established. Ryholt has proposed Khabaws nomen could have been Sobek, as this nomen is attested from artifacts which must belong to a king of the first half of the 13th Dynasty, only two kings of this time period have their nomina unknown and Nerikare. Sobek may thus possibly be the nomen of Khabaw, on the other hand, Jürgen von Beckerath identified Khabaws nomen as Pantjeny, thereby equating Khabaw with Sekhemrekhutawy Pantjeny, who is otherwise attested by a single stele.
However, this hypothesis has been invalidated in a recent study of stele by Marcel Marée, Marée has shown that the stele was produced by the same workshop who produced the stelae of Wepwawetemsaf and Rahotep. The latter is dated to the early 17th Dynasty c.1580 BC and thus Pantjeny must have ruled c.1600 BC. Alternatively, Pantjeny could be a member of the Abydos Dynasty, wolfgang Helck and Stephen Quirke have equated Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw with Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep, called Sobekhotep I or Sobekhotep II depending on the scholar. Spalinger argues that the Nile records of Nubia associated to Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep cannot be attributed to Khabaw
Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch. The full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom, the Horus name is the oldest form of the pharaohs name, originating in the Predynastic Period. Many of the oldest-known Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title, the Horus name was usually written in a serekh, a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace, typically an image of the falcon God Horus was perched on top of or beside it. At least one Egyptian ruler, the 2nd dynasty Seth-Peribsen, used an image of the god Seth instead of Horus and he was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Seth and Horus above his name. Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh, by the time of the New Kingdom the Horus name was often written without the enclosing serekh.
The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet and this particular name was not typically framed by a cartouche or serekh, but always begins with the hieroglyphs of a vulture and cobra resting upon two baskets, the dual noun nebty. Also known as the Golden Horus Name, this form of the name typically featured the image of a Horus falcon perched above or beside the hieroglyph for gold. The meaning of this title has been disputed. One belief is that it represents the triumph of Horus over his uncle Seth, Gold was strongly associated in the ancient Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaohs eternal Horus name. Similar to the Nebty name, this particular name typically was not framed by a cartouche or serekh, the pharaohs throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, and usually accompanied the title nsw-bity. The term nsw-bity It has been suggested that the Berber term for strong man, the epithet neb tawy, Lord of the Two Lands, referring to valley and delta regions of Egypt, often occurs as well.
This was the name given at birth and it was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasizes the kings role as a representative of the solar god Ra. For women who became pharaoh, the title was interpreted as daughter also. Modern historians typically refer to the ancient kings of Egypt by this name, Middle Egyptian, An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Cairo and New York, The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. The Great Name, Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary, Egyptian Grammar, Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs
A tomb is a repository for the remains of the dead. It is generally any structurally enclosed interment space or burial chamber and its central feature is a single, prominent pillar or column, often made of stone. Sarcophagus – a stone container for a body or coffin, often decorated and perhaps part of a monument, sepulchre – a cavernous rock-cut space for interment, generally in the Jewish or Christian faiths. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds, Hügelgräber or kurgans, a cairn, might be originally a tumulus. A long barrow is a tumulus, usually for numbers of burials. As indicated, tombs are located in or under religious buildings, such as churches. However, they may be found in catacombs, on land or, in the case of early or pre-historic tombs. The tomb of Emperor Nintoku is the largest in the world by area, the Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt is the largest by volume
Dahshur is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo. It is known chiefly for several pyramids, two of which are among the oldest and best preserved in Egypt, built from 2613–2589 BC, building the Dahshur pyramids was an extremely important learning experience for the Egyptians before they could build the Great Pyramid of Giza. Two of the Dahshur Pyramids, The Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid, were constructed during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu, the Bent Pyramid was the first attempt at a smooth-sided pyramid but ultimately wasnt successful. One design flaw was that there was a very unstable base for it made of desert gravel and this in turn is thought to be the reason the pyramid is bent and changes angles about halfway up the sides. Sneferu was not pleased with this pyramid, so he built called the Red Pyramid. Getting its name from the red hue the pyramid gives off after a nice rain, standing more than 30 stories tall, it is thought to be Sneferus pride and glory and the place where he is believed to be buried.
The Red pyramid was the largest smooth-sided pyramid standing until Sneferus son, outdid his father by building the Great Pyramid of Giza, though Khufus pyramid is larger, he would not have been able to build it without the knowledge that his father discovered before him. The pyramid of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II is now badly damaged, next to it were found several undisturbed tombs of royal women still containing a large amount of jewellery. The pyramid of Sesostris III was part of a complex, with several smaller pyramids of royal women. In a gallery next to this pyramid were found two treasures of the kings daughters. The Black Pyramid dates from the reign of Amenemhat III and, although badly eroded. The polished granite pyramidion or capstone of the Black Pyramid is on display in the hall of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Next to the pyramid was found the partly disturbed tomb of 13th Dynasty king Hor, several other pyramids of the 13th Dynasty were built at Dahshur. Only the one of the reign of Ameny Qemau has been excavated so far, ahmad Fakhri was an archaeologist who worked at this site.
Extensive cemeteries of officials of the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom have been found around Dahshurs pyramids, Dahshur was Egypts royal necropolis during the reign of the 12th Dynasty king Amenemhat II. In July 2012, Dahshurs entire Christian community, which some estimate to be as many as 100 families, the violence began in a dispute over a badly ironed shirt, which in turn escalated into a fight in which a Christian burned a Muslim to death. This, in turn, sparked a rampage by angry Muslims, at least 16 homes and properties of Christians were pillaged, some were torched, and a church was damaged during the violence. Dahshur has a hot desert climate according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, List of Egyptian pyramids List of megalithic sites Acanthus, an old village in Dahsur mentioned in Ancient Greek literature
The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals.
Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt.
One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty
Miroslav Verner is a Czech egyptologist, who specializes in the history and archaeology of Ancient Egypt of the Old Kingdom and especially of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt. He has associated with the Universities of Vienna and Hamburg as well as the Charles University in Prague. Dr. Verner has been active in archaeological work since 1964, in 2005, Dr. Verner became the director of the project called Investigation of the civilisation of Ancient Egypt. The project runs from 2005 to 2011, and the aim is to study the evolution of Egyptian society throughout its history, minor tombs in the Royal Necropolis I, Prague 2008. Unearthing Ancient Egypt, Fifty years of the Czech Archaeological Exploration in Egypt, Czech Institute of Egyptology, Abusir IX — The Pyramid Complex of Raneferef, the Archaeology, Czech Institute of Egyptology Charles Univers, December 31,2006. Abusir X — The Pyramid Complex of Raneferef, The Papyrus Archive, Czech Institute of Egyptology, the mastaba of Ptahshepses, Charles University Articles include, Contemporaneous Evidence for the Relative Chronology of Dyns. 4 and 5, in, E.
Hornung – R. Krauss – D. A. Warburton, Ancient Egyptian Chronology, the Abusir Pyramids Quarry and Supply Road, in, P. Jánosi and Significance. Thoughts on Ancient Egyptian Architecture, Wien 2005, 531–538, Archaeological Remarks on the 4th and 5th Dynasty Chronology, Archiv Orientální, Volume 69,2001, pp. 363–418 Miroslav Verner Website Page maintained by the Czech Institute of Egyptology