Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope
Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope FRS, styled Viscount Mahon between 1816 and 1855, was a British politician and historian. He held political office under Sir Robert Peel in the 1830s and 1840s but is best remembered for his contributions to cultural causes and for his historical writings. Born at Walmer, Stanhope was the son of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope, the Hon. Catherine Stanhope, daughter of Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington, he was educated at Christ Church, graduating in 1827. Stanhope entered Parliament in 1830, representing the rotten borough of Wootton Basset until the seat was disenfranchised in 1832, he was re-elected to Parliament representing Hertford. He served under Sir Robert Peel as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between December 1834 and April 1835, Secretary to the Board of Control in 1845, but though he remained in the House of Commons till 1852, he made no special mark in politics. Stanhope's chief achievements were in the fields of literature and antiquities.
In 1842 took a prominent part in passing the Literary Copyright Act 1842. From the House of Lords he was responsible for proposing and organising the foundation of the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1856. A sculpted bust of Stanhope holds the central place over the entrance of the building, flanked by fellow historians and supporters Thomas Carlyle and Lord Macaulay, it was due to him that in 1869 the Historical Manuscripts Commission was started. As president of the Society of Antiquaries, he called attention in England to the need of supporting the excavations at Troy, he was president of the Royal Literary Fund from 1863 until his death, a trustee of the British Museum and founded the Stanhope essay prize at Oxford in 1855. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1827. Of Lord Stanhope's own works, the most important were: Life of Belisarius. A new edition of this work was published in London by John Murray, Albemarle St. in 1869, which includes some letters of Prince Charles Edward Stuart.
The two histories and the Life of William Pitt were considered of great importance on account of Stanhope's unique access to manuscript authorities on Pitt the Elder's life. His records of the Duke of Wellington's remarks during his frequent visits were considered of great use to the historian as a substitute for Wellington's never-written memoirs, they were secretly transcribed because of Wellington's famous antagonism to the "truth" of recollected history. He edited the letters that his distant cousin, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, had written to his natural son, Philip, they were published between 1845 and 1853. Stanhope's position as an historian was established when he succeeded to the earldom in 1855, in 1872 he was made an honorary associate of the Institute of France. 1805–1816: The Honourable Philip Henry Stanhope 1816–1827: Viscount Mahon 1827–1830: Viscount Mahon FRS 1830–1832: Viscount Mahon MP FRS 1832–1835: Viscount Mahon FRS 1835–1852: Viscount Mahon MP FRS 1852–1855: Viscount Mahon FRS 1855–1875: The Right Honourable The Earl Stanhope FRS Lord Stanhope married Emily Harriet, daughter of General Sir Edward Kerrison, 1st Baronet, in 1834.
She died in December 1873. They had four sons and one daughter: Arthur Stanhope, 6th Earl Stanhope Hon. Edward Stanhope, a well-known Conservative politician Lady Mary Catharine Stanhope, married Frederick Lygon, 6th Earl Beauchamp and had issue Hon. Henry Augustus Stanhope, married Hon. Mildred Vernon and had issue Philip Stanhope, 1st Baron Weardale Stanhope survived her by two years and died at Merivale, Hampshire, in December 1875, aged 70, he was succeeded in the earldom by Arthur. Burke, Bernard, A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, London: Harrison, p. 636 Lundy, Philip James Stanhope, 1st Baron and last Weardale of Stanhope, The Peerage, p. 22434 § 224331 Lundy, Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Peerage, p. 1407 § 14069Pine, L. G; the New Extinct Peerage 1884-1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms, London: Heraldry Today, p. 67 Stanhope, Philip Henry, The life of Belisarius, London: John Murray Stanhope, Philip Henry, History of the War of the Succession in Spain, London: John Murray Stanhope, Philip Henry, History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713-1783, 1, London: John Murray Stanhope, Philip Henry, Life of the Right Honourable William Pitt, 4, London: John Murray Stanhope, Philip Henry, The reign of Queen Anne until the peace of Utrecht, London: John Murray Stanhope, Philip Henry, Notes of Conversations with the Duke of Wellington 1831-1851, Pickle Partners Publishing, ISBN 978-1-908692-35-1 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. "Stanhope, Earls", Encyclopædia Bri
Sarah Siddons was a Welsh-born English actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. Contemporaneous critic William Hazlitt dubbed Siddons as "tragedy personified", she was the elder sister of John Philip Kemble, Charles Kemble, Stephen Kemble, Ann Hatton, Elizabeth Whitlock, the aunt of Fanny Kemble. She was most famous for her portrayal of the Shakespearean character, Lady Macbeth, a character she made her own, as well as for fainting at the sight of the Elgin Marbles in London; the Sarah Siddons Society, founded in 1952, continues to present the Sarah Siddons Award annually in Chicago to a distinguished actress. Siddons was born Sarah Kemble in Brecon, Wales, the eldest daughter of Roger Kemble, a Roman Catholic, Sarah "Sally" Ward, a Protestant. Sarah and her sisters were raised in their mother's faith and her brothers were raised in their father's faith. Roger Kemble was the manager of the Warwickshire Company of Comedians. Although the theatre company included most members of the Kemble family, Siddons' parents disapproved of her choice of profession.
At that time, acting was only beginning to become a respectable profession for a woman. From 1770 until her marriage in 1773, Siddons served as a lady's maid and as companion to Lady Mary Bertie Greatheed at Guy's Cliffe near Warwick. Lady Greatheed was the daughter of the Duke of Ancaster. In 1774, Siddons won her first success as Belvidera in Thomas Otway's Venice Preserv'd; this brought her to the attention of David Garrick, who sent his deputy to see her as Calista in Nicholas Rowe's Fair Penitent, the result being that she was engaged to appear at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Owing to inexperience as well as other circumstances, her first appearances as Portia and in other parts were not well received and she received a note from the manager of Drury Lane stating that her services would not be required, she was, in her own words, "banished from Drury Lane as a worthless candidate for fame and fortune". In 1777, she went on "the circuit" in the provinces. For the next six years she worked in particular York and Bath.
Her first appearance at Bath's Old Orchard Street Theatre was in autumn 1778 at a salary of £3 per week. This amount grew as her performances became better known, as she began to appear in Bristol at the Theatre Royal, King Street run by John Palmer. Siddons lived with her husband and children in a Georgian house at 33 The Paragon in Bath, until her final performance there in May 1782. Having built up a reputation, her next Drury Lane appearance, on 10 October 1782, could not have been more different, she was an immediate sensation playing the title role in Garrick's adaptation of a play by Thomas Southerne, Isabella, or, The Fatal Marriage. After Lady Macbeth she played Desdemona, Rosalind and Volumnia, all with great success, she once told Samuel Johnson. Siddons continued to act in the provinces, appearing at The Theatre, Leeds, in 1786 and brought a thorough understanding to each of her roles, it was through her portrayals of Lady Macbeth and Isabella that Siddons offered a new way of approaching character.
Siddons has been credited for inventing and promoting textual accuracy above the theatrical traditions of her time: "Siddons was unique for making herself familiar with the entire script, sitting offstage in order to hear the full play, playing careful attention to her scene partners and to textual clues that could aid performance." It was the beginning of twenty years. Her celebrity status was called "mythical" and "monumental", by the mid-1780s Siddons had established herself as a cultural icon, yet her iconography and the fashioning of her celebrity differed in comparison to her female counterparts. Siddons, according to Laura Engel, invented a new category of femininity for actresses: the "Female Star". By "cleverly blurring the distinction between the characters she played on stage with representations of herself offstage" Siddons was able to present a duality to her admirers. At once she would project both the "divine and the ordinary and authoritative, fantastic and real". In combining her maternal persona with depictions of "British femininity", Siddons escaped the scathing criticisms and scandal with which other actresses of her time were plagued.
She avoided claims of sexual licentiousness, the only damage to her career was faced toward its end, when caricatures and satirical prints emerged detailing the physical decline and stoutness of her body. Shearer West, in an analysis of the collapse of Siddons' private and public personas, wrote that Siddons' brother, actor-manager John Philip Kemble "substantially rewrote passages in some of the plays in order to temper any indelicacy transcend sexual indiscretions" that could harm her reputation of feminine propriety. Commissioned and completed in 1784, Sir Joshua Reynolds' portrait, Sarah Siddons as The Tragic Muse, is characterized by Reynolds' inspiration, contextualisation of the Muse, distinctive brush work and paint palette; this portrait, as Heather McPherson writes, became the known depiction of tragedy, infused with contemporary ideas about acting and representation of the passions in Siddons' melancholy expression and deportment
Francis Twiss was an English drama critic, known as the compiler of a concordance to William Shakespeare. He was the son of Francis Twiss, a merchant from Norwich, was baptised in Rotterdam on 5 April 1759, he was admitted to Cambridge in 1776, where he studied for a year. In London during the early 1780s, Twiss took an interest in the stage, wrote some criticism, he met John Philip Kemble, took an interest in his sisters, marrying in the end Fanny. He encountered Elizabeth Inchbald, giving her constructive help with her dramatic writing. Twiss died at Cheltenham on 28 April 1827, aged 68. Twiss published in two volumes in 1805, A complete verbal Index to the Plays of Shakspeare, adapted to all the editions, with a dedication to John Philip Kemble, it gives the word only not the longer passage in which it occurs, as concordances did. Of 750 copies printed of it, 542 were destroyed by fire in 1807. Praised by James Boaden two decades it was in its time more convenient than the comparable work of Samuel Ayscough.
Twiss married on 1 May 1786 Frances Kemble, known as Fanny. She was the second daughter of Roger Kemble, the sister of Sarah Siddons, had been courted unsuccessfully by George Steevens. An actor though not successful, on marriage she retired from the stage, which gladdened her sister. From 1807 she kept a fashionable girls' school at 24 Camden Place, Somerset. Fanny Twiss predeceased her husband, dying at Bath on 1 October 1822, their eldest son was Horace Twiss. There were four daughters of the marriage. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Twiss, Francis". Dictionary of National Biography. 57. London: Smith, Elder & Co
Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles west of London and 11 miles south-east of Bristol; the city became a World Heritage site in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin name Aquae Sulis c. 60 AD when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known before then. Bath Abbey became a religious centre. In the 17th century, claims were made for the curative properties of water from the springs, Bath became popular as a spa town in the Georgian era. Georgian architecture, crafted from Bath stone, includes the Royal Crescent, Pump Room and Assembly Rooms where Beau Nash presided over the city's social life from 1705 until his death in 1761. Many of the streets and squares were laid out by John Wood, the Elder, in the 18th century the city became fashionable and the population grew. Jane Austen lived in Bath in the early 19th century.
Further building was undertaken in the 19th century and following the Bath Blitz in World War II. The city has software and service-oriented industries. Theatres and other cultural and sporting venues have helped make it a major centre for tourism, with more than one million staying visitors and 3.8 million day visitors to the city each year. There are several museums including the Museum of Bath Architecture, the Victoria Art Gallery, the Museum of East Asian Art, the Herschel Museum of Astronomy and the Holburne Museum; the city has two universities – the University of Bath and Bath Spa University – with Bath College providing further education. Sporting clubs include Bath Rugby and Bath City F. C.. Bath became part of the county of Avon in 1974, following Avon's abolition in 1996, has been the principal centre of Bath and North East Somerset; the hills in the locality such as Bathampton Down saw human activity from the Mesolithic period. Several Bronze Age round barrows were opened by John Skinner in the 18th century.
Solsbury Hill overlooking the current city was an Iron Age hill fort, the adjacent Bathampton Camp may have been one. A long barrow site believed to be from the Beaker people was flattened to make way for RAF Charmy Down. Archaeological evidence shows that the site of the Roman baths' main spring may have been treated as a shrine by the Britons, was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva. Messages to her scratched onto metal, known as curse tablets, have been recovered from the sacred spring by archaeologists; the tablets were written in Latin, cursed people whom the writers felt had wronged them. For example, if a citizen had his clothes stolen at the baths, he might write a curse, naming the suspects, on a tablet to be read by the goddess. A temple was constructed in AD 60–70, a bathing complex was built up over the next 300 years. Engineers drove oak piles into the mud to provide a stable foundation, surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead.
In the 2nd century, the spring was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted structure that housed the caldarium and frigidarium. The town was given defensive walls in the 3rd century. After the failure of Roman authority in the first decade of the 5th century, the baths fell into disrepair and were lost as a result of rising water levels and silting. In March 2012 a hoard of 30,000 silver Roman coins, one of the largest discovered in Britain, was unearthed in an archaeological dig; the coins, believed to date from the 3rd century, were found about 150 m from the Roman baths. Bath may have been the site of the Battle of Badon, in which King Arthur is said to have defeated the Anglo-Saxons; the town was captured by the West Saxons in 577 after the Battle of Deorham. A monastery was founded at an early date – reputedly by Saint David although more in 675 by Osric, King of the Hwicce using the walled area as its precinct. Nennius, a 9th-century historian, mentions a "Hot Lake" in the land of the Hwicce along the River Severn, adds "It is surrounded by a wall, made of brick and stone, men may go there to bathe at any time, every man can have the kind of bath he likes.
If he wants, it will be a cold bath. Bede described hot baths in the geographical introduction to the Ecclesiastical History in terms similar to those of Nennius. King Offa of Mercia gained control of the monastery in 781 and rebuilt the church, dedicated to St. Peter. According to the Victorian churchman Edward Churton, during the Anglo-Saxon era Bath was known as Acemannesceastre, or'aching men's city', on account of the reputation these springs had for healing the sick. By the 9th century the old Roman street pattern was lost and Bath was a royal possession. King Alfred laid out the town afresh. In the Burghal Hidage, Bath is recorded as a burh and is described as having walls of 1,375 yards and was allocated 1000 men for defence. During the reign of Edward the Elder coins were minted in Bath based on a design from the Winchester mint but with'BAD' on the obverse relating to the Anglo-Saxon name for the town, Baðum, Baðan or Baðon, meaning "at the baths", this was the
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, London, he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography. In 1890 he became joint editor, on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary on Elizabethan authors or statesmen, his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentleman's Magazine. In 1884, he published a book with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lee's article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, which reached its fifth edition in 1905. In 1902, Lee edited the Oxford facsimile edition of the first folio of Shakespeare's comedies and tragedies, followed in 1902 and 1904 by supplementary volumes giving details of extant copies, in 1906 by a complete edition of Shakespeare's works.
Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature and Language at East London College. Besides the editions of English classics, Lee's works include: Life of Queen Victoria Great Englishmen of the Sixteenth century, based on his Lowell Institute lectures at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1903 Shakespeare and the Modern Stage Shakespeare's England: an account of the life & manners of his age King Edward VII, a Biography. There are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F. Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester. John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lee, Sidney". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography: Index and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive Works by Sidney Lee at LibriVox Works by Sidney Lee at Open Library
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is a ministerial office in the Government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister; the Chancellor is answerable to Parliament for the governance of the Duchy. However, the involvement of the Chancellor in the running of the day-to-day affairs of the Duchy is slight, the office is held by a senior politician whose main role is quite different; the position is held by David Lidington. The Chancellor was the chief officer in the daily management of the Duchy of Lancaster and the County Palatine of Lancaster, but that estate is now run by a deputy, leaving the Chancellor as a member of the Cabinet with little obligation in regard to the Chancellorship; the position has been given to a junior Cabinet minister with responsibilities in a particular area of policy for which there is no department with an appropriate portfolio.
In 1491, the office of Vice-Chancellor of the County Palatine of Lancaster was created. The position is now held by a judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, who sits in the north west of England, no longer appointed to that position as legal officer of the Duchy. In recent times, the Chancellor's duties have been said to occupy an average of one day a week. Under the Promissory Oaths Act 1868, the Chancellor is required to take the oath of allegiance and the Official Oath; the holder of the sinecure is a minister without portfolio. The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is entitled to a salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975, but section 3 of the Act provides that the salary "shall be reduced by the amount of the salary payable to him otherwise than out of moneys so provided in respect of his office"; the Office of the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is part of the Cabinet Office. From 1997 until 2009, the holder of the title served as the Minister for the Cabinet Office.
This applied in the case of Alan Milburn, given the title by Prime Minister Tony Blair in 2004 and at the same time rejoined the Cabinet. However, in the reshuffle of 5 June 2009, the Chancellorship went to the Leader of the House of Lords, the Baroness Royall. In David Cameron's first cabinet, announced on 12 May 2010, the Chancellorship remained with the Leader of the House of Lords; the position is held by David Lidington following a Cabinet reshuffle on 8 January 2018. The previous holder of the post was Patrick McLoughlin, given the post following Theresa May's appointment as Prime Minister. Before this the holder of the post was Oliver Letwin, appointed in July 2014 when he was Minister for Government Policy. List of Chancellors of the Duchy of Lancaster County Palatine of Lancaster