Elias Boudinot was a lawyer and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey, a delegate to the Continental Congress and served as President of Congress from 1782 to 1783. He was elected as a U. S. Congressman for New Jersey following the American Revolutionary War, he was appointed by President George Washington as Director of the United States Mint, serving from 1795 until 1805. Elias Boudinot was born in Philadelphia on May 2, 1740, his father, Elias Boudinot III, was a silversmith. His mother, Mary Catherine Williams, was born in the British West Indies. Elias' paternal grandfather, Elie Boudinot, was the son of Jean Boudinot and Marie Suire of Marans, France, they were a Huguenot family who fled to New York about 1687 to avoid the religious persecutions of King Louis XIV. Mary Catherine Williams and Elias Boudinot Sr. were married on August 8, 1729. Over the next twenty years, they had nine children; the first, was born in the British West Indies-Antigua. Of the others, only the younger Elias and his siblings Annis and Elisha reached adulthood.
Annis became one of the first published women poets in the Thirteen Colonies, her work appeared in leading newspapers and magazines. Elisha Boudinot became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey. After studying and being tutored at home, Elias Boudinot went to Princeton, New Jersey to read the law as a legal apprentice to Richard Stockton. An attorney, he had married Elias' older sister Annis Boudinot. Richard Stockton was a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. In 1760, Boudinot was admitted to the bar, began his practice in Elizabeth, New Jersey, he owned land adjacent to the road from Elizabethtown to New Jersey. After getting established, on April 21, 1762, Boudinot married Hannah Stockton, Richard's younger sister, they had two children, Maria Boudinot, who died at age two, Susan Vergereau Boudinot. Susan married William Bradford, who became Chief Justice of Pennsylvania and Attorney General under George Washington. After her husband's death in 1795, Susan Boudinot Bradford returned to her parents' home to live.
The young widow edited her father's papers. Now held by Princeton University, these provide significant insight into the events of the Revolutionary era. In 1805, Elias and Susan moved to a new home in Burlington, New Jersey. Hannah died a few years after their move, Elias lived there for the remainder of his years. In his years, Boudinot invested and speculated in land, he owned large tracts in Ohio including most of Green Township in what is now the western suburbs of Cincinnati, where there is a street bearing his surname. At his death, he willed 13,000 acres to the city of Philadelphia for parks and city needs, he was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary's Church, New Jersey. Boudinot became his practice prospered; as the revolution drew near, he aligned with the Whigs, was elected to the New Jersey provincial assembly in 1775. In the early stages of the Revolutionary War, he was active in promoting enlistment. Boudinot helped support the activities of rebel spies. After the British occupation of New York City, spies were sent to Staten Island and Long Island, New York to observe and report on movements of specific British garrisons and regiments.
On May 5, 1777, General George Washington asked Boudinot to be appointed as commissary general for prisoners. Congress through the board of war concurred. Boudinot was commissioned as a colonel in the Continental Army for this work, he served until July 1778. The commissary managed enemy prisoners, was responsible for supplying American prisoners who were held by the British. In November 1777, the New Jersey legislature named Boudinot as one of their delegates to the Second Continental Congress, his duties as Commissary prevented his attendance, so in May 1778 he resigned. By early July he had been replaced and attended his first meeting of the Congress on July 7, 1778; as a delegate, he still continued his concerns for the welfare of prisoners of war. His first term ended that year. In 1781, Boudinot returned to the Congress, for a term lasting through 1783. In November 1782, he was elected as President of the Continental Congress for a one-year term; the President of Congress was a ceremonial position with no real authority, but the office did require him to handle a good deal of correspondence and sign official documents.
On April 15, 1783 he signed the Preliminary Articles of Peace. When the United States government was formed in 1789, Boudinot was elected from New Jersey to the US House of Representatives, he was elected to the second and third congresses as well, where he supported the administration. He refused to join the expansion of affiliated groups. In 1794, he declined to serve another term, left Congress in early 1795. In October 1795, President George Washington appointed him as Director of the United States Mint, a position he held through succeeding administrations until he retired in 1805. In addition to serving in political office, Elias supported many civic and educational causes during his life. Boudinot served as one of the trustees of the College of New Jersey for nearly half a century, from 1772 until 1821; when the Continental Congress was forced to leave Philadelphia in 1783 while he was president, he moved the meetings
Elihu B. Washburne
Elihu Benjamin Washburne was an American politician and diplomat. A member of the Washburn family, which played a prominent role in the early formation of the United States Republican Party, he served as a congressman from Illinois before and during the American Civil War, he was a political ally of General Ulysses S. Grant. During Grant's administration, Washburne was the 25th United States Secretary of State in 1869, was the United States Minister to France from 1869 to 1877. In his youth, when his family became destitute, Washburne left home in Maine at the age of 14, to support himself and further his education. After working for newspapers in Maine and studying law, Washburne passed the bar and moved to Galena, where he became a partner in a successful law firm. Washburne was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1852 and served from 1853 to 1869, which included the American Civil War and the first part of Reconstruction. While advocating Lincoln's war policy, Washburne sponsored an up-and-coming Grant.
Washburne advocated for Grant's promotions in the Union Army, protected him from critics in Washington and in the field. Washburne was Grant's advocate in Congress throughout the war, their friendship and association lasted through Grant's two terms as president; as a leader of the Radical Republicans, Washburne opposed the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson and supported African American suffrage and civil rights. Washburne was appointed United States Secretary of State in 1869 by President Grant, out of respect for his championship of Grant's career during the Civil War, to give Washburne diplomatic clout after being appointed minister to France. Washburne's tenure as Secretary of State lasted for only eleven days, but he served in France for eight years, where he became known for diplomatic integrity and his humanitarian support of Americans, other neutrals, Germans in France during the Franco-Prussian War. For his efforts, he received formal praise from governments in both Germany.
Washburne's friendship with Grant ended after the contentious 1880 Republican convention, when Washburne was a candidate for president. He did not garner wide support, but Grant had been the front runner for an unprecedented third term, was disappointed when the party turned to dark horse James A. Garfield. In retirement, Washburne published a biography of anti-slavery politician Edward Coles, a memoir of his own diplomatic career in France. On October 23, 1887 Washburne died of a heart attack in Chicago. Elihu Benjamin Washburne was born on September 1816 in Livermore, Maine, he was the third oldest of eleven children born to Martha Washburn. Washburne was the grandson of Abiah Washburne, his grandfather served as an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution and was a descendant of John Washburne, who served as Secretary of the Plymouth Colony while in England. Washburne's father settled in Maine in 1806 and set up a shipbuilding trade at Whites Landing on the Kennebec River in 1808.
Following Puritan heritage, Israel was a strict disciplinarian and Washburne and his siblings were instructed in the Bible and put to work daily in the fields and on other chores, with no time for leisure. During the Winter months Washburne attended district school that used "birch rod" corporal punishment. Washburne's family came into financial hard times in 1829, his father, in the mercantile business, was forced to sell his general store; the family was destitute and forced to rely on farming for subsistence, while Washburne and several of his brothers had to fend for themselves. At the age of 14, Washburne added the letter "e" to his name, as was the original ancestral spelling, left home in search of education and a career. After attending public schools, Washburne worked as a printer on the Christian Intelligencer in Gardiner, Maine from 1833 to 1834. From 1834 to 1835 Washburne taught school and from 1835 to 1836 he worked for the Kennebec Journal in Augusta, Maine. Washburne attended Maine Wesleyan Seminary, studied law with Judge John Otis, completed his legal studies with a year at Harvard Law School from 1839 to 1840.
In 1840 he passed the bar exam, moved west to Galena, Illinois. In Galena, Washburne entered into law partnership with Charles S. Hempstead. On July 31, 1845, Washburne married Adele Gratiot, the niece of his law partner and the daughter of Colonel Henry Gratiot and Susan Hempstead Gratiot, members of one of Galena's most prominent families. Washburne had met Adele shortly after arriving in Galena; the Washburnes had seven children including sons Gratiot, William P. and Elihu B. Jr. and daughters Susan and Marie L. The Washburne's marriage lasted 42 years. Washburne became active in politics as a Whig, served as a delegate to the Whig National Conventions of 1844 and 1852. In 1848 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress. In 1852, Washburne was elected to the United States House of Representatives, he was reelected eight times, represented northwestern Illinois from 1853 to 1869. While in Congress, Washburne was chairman of the Committee on Commerce, the Committee on Appropriations. In 1854 Washburne supported Abraham Lincoln's unsuccessful candidacy for the United States Senate.
Freeport is the county seat and largest city of Stephenson County, Illinois. The population was 25,638 at the 2010 census, the mayor of Freeport is Jodi Miller, elected in 2017. Freeport is known for hosting the second Lincoln-Douglas debate of 1858, as "Pretzel City, USA", named after the heritage of its Germanic settlers in the 1850s and the Billerbeck Bakery pretzel company that started as a result of their arrival. Freeport High School's mascot is the Pretzel to honor this unique heritage; the community was called Winneshiek. When it was incorporated, the new municipality took its name from the generosity of Tutty Baker, credited with running a "free port" on the Pecatonica River; the name "Winneshiek" was adopted, is preserved to this day, by the Freeport Community Theatre Group. In 1837, Stephenson County was formed and Freeport became its seat of government in 1838. Linked by a stagecoach with Chicago, the community grew rapidly. In 1840, a frame courthouse was erected and the first school was founded.
Within two years, Freeport had two newspapers and in 1853, the two were joined by a third which published in German. By the community had a population of 2,000. On August 27, 1858, the second debate between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas took place in Freeport and gave the nation direction in the following years. Although Stephen Douglas won the election and retained his U. S. Senate seat, his reply to a question on slavery alienated the South, which called it the "Freeport Heresy", split the Democratic Party; this enabled Abraham Lincoln to win the Presidency in 1860. A monument to the debate was dedicated in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt and stands at this site. A life size statue recreating the event was dedicated in 1992. Another renowned statue, Lincoln the Debator by Leonard Crunelle, is a focal point in the city's Taylor Park. In many years there is a reenactment of the debate, shown on C-SPAN. Freeport is known as the "Pretzel City", its public high school's team is named the Pretzels.
The nickname is a reminder of Freeport's ethnic heritage. In 1869, a German immigrant named John Billerbeck established the Billerbeck Bakery, which distributed so many pretzels to residents that the local newspaper dubbed Freeport the "Pretzel City"; the city capitalized on this nickname in 2003 by starting Freeport's first Pretzel Festival. Freeport is home to the oldest Carnegie Library in Illinois and one of the first Carnegie Libraries designed by the famous Chicago architectural firm of Patton and Miller, it was renovated into Freeport's City Hall and City offices were moved to Carnegie City Hall in February 2017. The City of Freeport transitioned to the City Manager Form of Government in May 2017; the first City Manager is Lowell Crow. Before February 1893, a large square of land was purchased from the former Keller-Wittbecker farm in East Freeport; some of this land had been subdivided and platted as the "Arcade Addition". The Arcade Manufacturing Company had been in operation since 1885 when the previous Novelty Iron Works had gone out of business at the corner of Chicago and Jackson streets.
That earlier company began as early as 1868. After the 1892 fire, the Arcade Manufacturing Company built an new factory in the Arcade Addition of East Freeport, where they produced coffee mills and other metal products; the historic Germania Club on Stephenson St. collapsed in 2007. Freeport is located 20 miles south of the Wisconsin state line, at the center of a large agricultural area, located about 25 miles west of Rockford. According to the 2010 census, Freeport has a total area of 11.79 square miles, of which 11.78 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. U. S. Route 20 is a four-lane divided highway. At Rockford, it links with Interstates 90 and 39, giving Freeport residents access to the entire Interstate system. I-90 is the major route between Seattle. I-39 extends from Rockford to Bloomington, where it links with I-74 and I-55. From Freeport, U. S. 20 continues west to Galena, the metropolitan area of Dubuque, Iowa. The area code for Freeport is 815 with an overlay area code of 779 as of March 17, 2007.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,443 people, 11,222 households, 6,845 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,316.9 people per square mile. There were 12,471 housing units at an average density of 1,092.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 81.77% White, 13.81% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 2.22% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.12% of the population. There were 11,222 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,399, the median income for a family was $43,787. Ma
Hamilton College is a private, nonsectarian liberal arts college in Clinton, New York. It was founded as Hamilton-Oneida Academy in 1793, was chartered as Hamilton College in 1812 in honor of inaugural trustee Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton has been coeducational since 1978, when it merged with its coordinate sister school Kirkland College. Hamilton's student body is 51% female and 49% male, comes from 49 U. S. states and 49 countries. Hamilton is a member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference. Hamilton is an undergraduate institution, enrolling 1,850 students in the fall of 2017. Students may choose from 56 areas of study, including 43 concentrations, or design an interdisciplinary concentration. Hamilton received 6,240 applicants for the class of 2022 and accepted 1,300, yielding a 20.8% acceptance rate. The annual ranking for 2016 by U. S. News & World Report categorizes Hamilton as "most selective" in admissions and ranks the College tied for 14th overall and tied for 12th in "Best Undergraduate Teaching" among "National Liberal Arts Colleges."
Hamilton began in 1793 as the Hamilton-Oneida Academy, a seminary founded by Rev. Samuel Kirkland, a Presbyterian minister, as part of his missionary work with the Oneida tribe; the seminary admitted both Oneida boys. Kirkland named it in honor of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, a member of the first Board of Trustees of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy; the Academy became Hamilton College in 1812, making it the third oldest college in New York after Columbia and Union, after it expanded to a four-year college curriculum. By the end of the nineteenth century, its colorful ninth President M. Woolsey Stryker distanced Hamilton from the Presbyterian Church, sought to make it a more secular institution. In 1978, the all-male Hamilton College merged with the women's Kirkland College, founded by Hamilton across the road, in the 1960s; the merger provoked controversy since Hamilton refused to provide assistance with Kirkland's debt burden. Hamilton publicly justified the merger as prompted by its desire for co-education.
The merger took nearly 7 years to complete. The original Hamilton campus is called the "light side" or "north side" of campus; the original side of campus was once called "Stryker Campus" after its former president, Melancthon Woolsey Stryker. On the other side of College Hill Road, the original Kirkland campus is called the "dark side" or the "south side." Since the 1970s, Hamilton has been a member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference. This conference includes Amherst, Bowdoin, Connecticut College, Trinity, Tufts and Williams. Rivalries with many of these schools, Middlebury in particular, predate the conference. Among the more recent developments are the state-of-the-art Science Center, the largest construction project in the College's history. Hamilton's athletic facilities include an ice rink, swimming pool, several athletics fields, a golf course, a three-story climbing wall, a ten-court Squash Center; the Kirner-Johnson Building, or KJ, is home to Hamilton's social science departments, the Arthur Levitt Public Affairs Center, the Nesbitt-Johnson Writing Center and the Oral Communication Center.
The building has a large, naturally-lit, two-story commons, a popular gathering place for students to study or socialize between classes. In order to create a space that allows for both activities, the inner point of the commons features four small waterfalls that provide just enough white noise to encourage conversation while acoustically insulating those who prefer to study. In 2004, planning for the renovation and expansion of the Kirner-Johnson building received an Award of Merit from the American Institute of Architects; the project was completed in 2008. The 700-seat hall hosts the College Orchestra conducted by Heather Buchman, Hamilton College Choir and College Hill Singers, directed by Dr. Jace Saplan, Jazz Band, Faculty Dance Concerts as well as guest artists from around the globe; the Ruth and Elmer Wellin Museum of Art is the college's public art museum that serves as a teaching resource for its students. Exhibits have included contemporary and historical paintings, photography and culture, student exhibitions.
The museum building was designed so that the exhibit areas, art storage, conservation workshops, administrative offices, teaching spaces are all visible to museum visitors. Students are involved many aspects of the museum's functions, the building features classrooms for art and art history courses. Hamilton College's Sage Rink, built in 1921, was America's second oldest indoor collegiate hockey rink after Northeastern University's Matthews Arena. Now that Northeastern University has built a new rink, Sage Rink is now the oldest indoor collegiate hockey rink in America, it was financed by the widow of industrialist Russell Sage, whose name graces a number of Central New York college edifices, including Russell Sage College. In addition to Continental men's and women's teams, youth hockey, high school teams, adult amateur efforts and the famous Clinton Comets, who dominated the semi-professional Eastern Hockey League in the 1960s and early 1970s, have played at the
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was wounded while fighting in the Union Army, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens, he promoted civil service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes; the result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in equal treatment without regard to race, he ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery, his policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is ranked as average or below average by historians and scholars. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard.
Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress, his first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.
John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation. In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classm
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Admission to the bar in the United States
Admission to the bar in the United States is the granting of permission by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in the jurisdiction and before those courts. Each U. S. state and similar jurisdiction has its own court system and sets its own rules for bar admission, which can lead to different admission standards among states. In most cases, a person is "admitted" or "called" to the bar of the highest court in the jurisdiction and is thereby authorized to practice law in the jurisdiction. In addition, Federal Courts of the United States, although overlapping in admission standards with states, set their own requirements for practice in each of those courts. In the typical process, lawyers seeking admission must earn a Juris Doctor degree from a law school approved by the jurisdiction, in the states pass an exam administered by the attorney regulating authority of that jurisdiction. There is a character and fitness evaluation, which includes a background check. However, there are exceptions to each of these requirements.
A lawyer, admitted in one state is not automatically allowed to practice in any other. Some states have reciprocal agreements that allow attorneys from other states to practice without sitting for another full bar exam; the use of the term "bar" to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or Benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers were "called to the bar", crossing the symbolic physical barrier and thus "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
The first bar exam in what is now the United States was instituted by Delaware Colony in 1763, as an oral examination before a judge. The other American colonies soon followed suit. By the late 19th century, the examinations were administered by committees of attorneys, they changed from an oral examination to a written one. Today, each state has its own rules which are the ultimate authority concerning admission to its bar. Admission to a bar requires that the candidate do the following: In most situations, earn a Juris Doctor from a law school approved by that state; the first law school in colonial America was not established until 1773. Abraham Lincoln is an example of a lawyer who did not attend law school, did not read with anyone else, stating in his autobiography that he "studied with nobody". Another telling example is Levi Woodbury, the 30th person appointed to the US Supreme Court, yet the first to have attended law school. In all United States jurisdictions except Maryland, Puerto Rico, Wisconsin, pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination, an examination covering the professional responsibility rules governing lawyers.
This test is not administered at the same time as any U. S. bar exam. Most candidates sit for the MPRE while still in law school, right after studying professional responsibility, while the material is still fresh in their memory; some states require. Connecticut and New Jersey waive the MPRE for candidates who have received a grade of C or better in a law school professional ethics class. Pass a bar examination administered by the state bar association or under the authority of the supreme court of the particular state; as of June 2015, 16 jurisdictions have adopted the Uniform Bar Examination. Missouri and North Dakota were the first two states to administer the UBE, doing so in February 2011. Since Alabama, Arizona, Idaho, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Utah and Wyoming have adopted and administered the UBE. According to the National Conference of Bar Examiners, which prepares the UBE, it is intended to "test knowledge and skills that every lawyer should be able to demonstrate prior to becoming licensed to practice law", "is uniformly administered and scored by user jurisdictions and results in a portable score."
UBE jurisdictions are allowed to additionally test candidates' knowledge of state-specific law, through either a test or course. The UBE consists of three parts:The Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized test consisting of 200 multiple-choice questions covering seven key areas of law: Constitutional law, Criminal law and Procedure, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Evidence, Real Property and Torts. Examinees have three hours to answer 100 questions in a morning session and the same for an afternoon session; the MBE is administered on the last Wednesday in July. The Multistate Essay Examination, a uniform though not standardized test that examines a candidate's ability to analyze legal i