Patrick Magee (actor)
Patrick George McGee, known professionally as Patrick Magee, was a Northern Irish actor and director of stage and screen. He was known for his collaborations with Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter, as well as creating the role of the Marquis de Sade in the original stage and screen productions of Marat/Sade, he appeared in numerous horror films and in two Stanley Kubrick films, A Clockwork Orange and Barry Lyndon. He was born in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. Born into a middle-class family, McGee was the first born of five children and was educated at St. Patrick's Grammar School, Armagh, his first stage experience in Ireland was with Anew McMaster's touring company, performing the works of Shakespeare. It was here, he was brought to London by Tyrone Guthrie for a series of Irish plays. He met Beckett in 1957 and soon recorded passages from the novel and the short story, From an Abandoned Work, for BBC radio. Impressed by "the cracked quality of Magee's distinctly Irish voice," Beckett requested copies of the tapes and wrote Krapp's Last Tape for the actor.
First produced at the Royal Court Theatre in London on 28 October 1958, the play starred Magee directed by Donald McWhinnie. A televised version with Magee directed by McWhinnie was broadcast by BBC2 on 29 November 1972. Beckett's biographer Anthony Cronin wrote that "there was a sense in which, as an actor, he had been waiting for Beckett as Beckett had been waiting for him."In 1964, he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company, after Pinter, directing his own play The Birthday Party requested him for the role of McCann, stated he was the strongest in the cast. In 1965 he appeared in Peter Weiss's Marat/Sade, when the play transferred to Broadway he won a Tony Award, he appeared in the 1966 RSC production of Staircase opposite Paul Scofield. Early film roles included Joseph Losey's The Criminal and The Servant, the latter an adaptation scripted by Pinter, he appeared as Surgeon-Major Reynolds in Zulu, Séance on a Wet Afternoon, in the film versions of Marat/Sade and The Birthday Party. He is best known for his role as the victimised writer Frank Alexander, who tortures Alex DeLarge with Beethoven's music, in Stanley Kubrick's film A Clockwork Orange.
His other role for Kubrick was as Redmond Barry's mentor, the Chevalier de Balibari, in Barry Lyndon. Magee appeared in Young Winston, The Final Programme, Sir Henry at Rawlinson End, The Monster Club and Chariots of Fire, but was most seen in horror films; these included Roger Corman's The Masque of Red Death, the Boris Karloff vehicle Die, Die! for AIP. Magee married Belle Sherry a native of County Armagh, in 1958. Patrick Magee died from a heart attack at his flat in Fulham, London on 14 August 1982 at the age of 60, according to obituaries in The Glasgow Herald and The New York Times. In July 2017 it was announced that a blue plaque would be unveiled in Edward Street, Armagh to mark Patrick Magee's birthplace. Another Flip for Dominick as Caleb Line Patrick Magee at the Internet Broadway Database Patrick Magee on IMDb Patrick Magee at the BFI's Screenonline Patrick Magee BFI Patrick Magee at Find a Grave
In theatre and performing arts, the stage is a designated space for the performance of productions. The stage serves as a space for actors or performers and a focal point for the members of the audience; as an architectural feature, the stage may consist of a series of platforms. In some cases, these may be temporary or adjustable but in theaters and other buildings devoted to such productions, the stage is a permanent feature. There are several types of stages that vary as to the usage and the relation of the audience to them; the most common form found in the West is the proscenium stage. In this type, the audience is located on one side of the stage with the remaining sides hidden and used by the performers and technicians. Thrust stages may be similar to proscenium stages but with a platform or performance area that extends into the audience space so that the audience is located on three sides. In theatre in the round, the audience is located on all four sides of the stage; the fourth type of stage incorporates created and found stages which may be constructed for a performance or may involve a space, adapted as a stage.
Since the Italian Renaissance, the most common stage used in the West has been the proscenium stage which may be referred to as a picture frame stage. The primary feature is a large opening known as the proscenium arch through which the audience views the performance; the audience directly faces the stage—which is raised several feet above front row audience level—and views only one side of the scene. This one side is known as the invisible fourth wall of the scene; the proscenium arch evolved from the proskenium in Ancient Greek theaters. This was the space in front of the skênê or backdrop where the actors played; the first indoor theatres were created in French tennis courts and Italian Renaissance palaces where the newly embraced principles of perspective allowed designers to create stunning vistas with buildings and trees decreasing in size toward a "vanishing point" on the horizon. Stage floors were raked upward from front to back in order to contribute to the perspective illusion and to make actors more visible to audiences, who were seated on level floors.
Subsequently, audience seating was raked, balconies were added to give audiences a fuller view. By the end of the 19th century most stages had level floors, much of the audience looked down on, rather than up to, the stage; the competition among royals to produce elegant and elaborate entertainments fueled and financed the expansion of European court theatres. The proscenium—which was decorative in the manner of a triumphal arch—"framed" the prospective picture; the desire of court painters to show more than one of their perspective backgrounds led court architects to adapt the pin-rails and pulleys of sailing ships to the unrolling, to the lowering and raising, of canvas backdrops. A wood grid above the stage supported pulleys from which wooden battens, steel pipes, rolled down, or descended, with attached scenery pieces; the weight of heavy pieces was counterbalanced by sandbags. This system required the creation of a storage stage house or loft, as high or higher than the proscenium itself.
A "full-fly" stage could store the entire height of scenery above the visible stage using the pin-rails before or during performance, whereas a "half-fly" stage could only store props of limited size and thus required more careful backdrop and scenery design. Theatres using these rope systems, which are manually operated by stage hands, are known as hemp houses, they have been supplanted by counterweight fly systems. The proscenium, in conjunction with stage curtains called legs, conceals the sides of the stage, which are known as the wings; the wings may be used by theatre personnel during performances and as storage spaces for scenery and theatrical properties. Several rows of short curtains across the top of the stage, called teasers, hide the backdrops, which in turn are hidden above the stage in the fly system loft until ready for use. A stage may extend in front of the proscenium arch which offers additional playing area to the actors; this area is a referred to as the apron. Underneath and in front of the apron is sometimes an orchestra pit, used by musicians during musicals and operas.
The orchestra pit may sometimes be covered and used as an additional playing space in order to bring the actors closer to the audience. The stage is raised higher than the audience. Space above some proscenium stages may include a flyloft where curtains and battens supporting a variety of lighting instruments may hang; the numerous advantages of the proscenium stage have led to its popularity in the West. Many theatrical properties and scenery may be utilized. Backdrops and lighting can be used to greater effect without risk of rigging being visible to the audience. Entrances and exits can be made more graceful; the actors only have to concentrate on playing to the audience in one direction. Boxes are a feature of more modern stage designs in which temporary walls are built inside any proscenium stage, at a slight angle to the original walls, in order to allow audience members located to the left or right of the proscenium to see the entirety of the stage, they enable the creation of rat runs around the back of the stage, which are when cast members have to walk between entrances and exits without being seen by the audience.
This type of stage is located in the centre of the audience, with the audience facing it from all sides. T
John Lloyd (producer)
John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd is an English television producer and writer best known for his work on comedy television programmes, including Not the Nine O'Clock News, Spitting Image, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, Blackadder and QI. He is the presenter of BBC Radio 4's The Museum of Curiosity, a spin-off of QI. Lloyd was born in England, his father, H. L.'Harpy' Lloyd, was an Anglo-Irish captain with the Royal Navy. As a child Lloyd lived in several different places; this led him to attend school properly only at the age of 9½. He was educated at West Hill Park School in Titchfield, Hampshire, a place where he claims bullying was "endemic", at The King's School, Canterbury, he read Law at Trinity College and was a member of the Footlights. There he befriended Douglas Adams, with whom he shared a flat. Lloyd is the great nephew of John Hardress Lloyd. Lloyd worked as a radio producer at the BBC between 1974 and 1978 and created The News Quiz, The News Huddlines, To The Manor Born and Quote...
Unquote. He wrote Hordes of the Things with Andrew Marshall, co-authored two episodes of Doctor Snuggles with Douglas Adams, went on to co-write the fifth and sixth episodes of the first radio series of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy with Adams, he produced The Burkiss Way. Lloyd worked as a TV producer at both the BBC and ITV 1979–1989, where he created Not the Nine O'Clock News and Spitting Image, he produced all four Blackadder series. Lloyd was to have been the host of BBC topical news quiz Have I Got News For You, with the programme intended to be called John Lloyd's Newsround. A pilot episode of the show was recorded under this name in mid-1990, with Lloyd hosting alongside team captains Ian Hislop and Paul Merton. Lloyd subsequently decided to pull out of hosting the programme full-time and the pilot episode was never broadcast. Lloyd was replaced by Angus Deayton as host and the show was renamed Have I Got News for You in time for its debut on BBC2 that year. Lloyd married Sarah Wallace in 1989 with.
He has worked as a TV commercials director on and off since 1987. His first new TV series for 14 years, QI starring Stephen Fry and Alan Davies, began on 11 September 2003 at 10pm on BBC Two for a run of 12 episodes. In its eighth series, which started on BBC One in September 2010, Lloyd appeared as a panellist in one of the episodes. All episodes of QI have been directed by Ian Lorimer. Lloyd presents the radio series The Museum of Curiosity, which he co-created with producers Richard Turner and Dan Schreiber and former co-host Bill Bailey. In December 2011, Lloyd appeared as captain of the winning Trinity College, team on the Christmas University Challenge. Lloyd was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 New Year Honours for services to broadcasting. Lloyd was awarded an honorary degree from Southampton Solent University. In August 2014, Lloyd was one of 200 public figures who were signatories to a letter to The Guardian opposing Scottish independence in the run-up to September's referendum on that issue.
His most recent work, 1,411 Quite Interesting Facts to Knock You Sideways, a collaboration with John Mitchinson and James Harkin, was published in 2014 by Faber and Faber. In a 2016 interview with the spiritual Beshara Magazine, Lloyd talked about the process of self-knowledge, explained his interest in the Indian guru, Nisargadatta Maharaj's book I Am That, in Sufi mysticism the works of the writer and Sufi teacher, Idries Shah. Not! The Nine O'Clock News Not 1982 Not 1983 Not the Royal Wedding Not the General Election The Meaning of Liff The Deeper Meaning of Liff The Appallingly Disrespectful Spitting Image Book Spitting Image Blackadder: The Whole Damn Dynasty 1485–1917 The Book of General Ignorance The Book of Animal Ignorance The QI Annual E Advanced Banter The QI Annual F The QI Annual G The QI Book of the Dead The Second Book of General Ignorance 1,227 QI Facts To Blow Your Socks Off Afterliff John Lloyd on IMDb John Lloyd at TED BBC Guide to Comedy entry at the Wayback Machine The People Behind QI The Idler Archives — Conversations: John Lloyd John Lloyd discussing The Book of General Ignorance John Lloyd, Desert Island Discs Meet The Writers, Monocle 24 talking to Georgina Godwin
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur
In Germanic mythology, a dwarf is a human-shaped entity that dwells in mountains and in the earth, is variously associated with wisdom, smithing and crafting. Dwarfs are sometimes described as short and ugly, although some scholars have questioned whether this is a development stemming from comical portrayals of the beings. Dwarfs continue to be depicted in modern popular culture in a variety of media; the modern English noun dwarf descends from the Old English dweorg. It has a variety of cognates in other Germanic languages, including Old Norse dvergr and Old High German twerg. According to Vladimir Orel, the English noun and its cognates descend from Proto-Germanic *đwerȝaz. A different etymology of dwarf traces it to Proto-Germanic *dwezgaz, with r being the product of Verner's Law. Anatoly Liberman connects the Germanic word with Modern English dizzy: dwarfs inflicted mental diseases on humans, in this respect did not differ from elves and several other supernatural beings. Beyond the Proto-Germanic reconstruction, the etymology of the word dwarf is contested.
Scholars have proposed theories about the origins of the being by way of historical linguistics and comparative mythology, including that dwarfs may have originated as nature spirits, as beings associated with death, or as a mixture of concepts. Competing etymologies include a basis in the Indo-European root *dheur-, the Indo-European root *dhreugh, comparisons have been made with Sanskrit dhvaras. Modern English has two plurals for the word dwarf: dwarves. Dwarfs remains the most employed plural; the minority plural dwarves was recorded as early as 1818, but it was popularized by the fiction of philologist and author J. R. R. Tolkien, originating as a mistake and employed by Tolkien since some time before 1917. Regarding the plural, Tolkien wrote in 1937, "I am afraid it is just a piece of private bad grammar, rather shocking in a philologist. Norse mythology provides different origins for the beings, as recorded in the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda; the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá details that the dwarfs were the product of the primordial blood of the being Brimir and the bones of Bláinn.
The Prose Edda, describes dwarfs as beings similar to maggots that festered in the flesh of Ymir before being gifted with reason by the gods. The Poetic Edda and Prose Edda contain over 100 dwarf names, while the Prose Edda gives the four dwarfs Norðri, Suðri, Austri and Vestri a cosmological role: they hold up the sky. In addition, scholars have noted that the Svartálfar appear to be the same beings as dwarfs, given that both are described in the Prose Edda as the denizens of Svartálfaheimr. Few beings explicitly identifiable as dwarfs appear in the Poetic Edda and Prose Edda, they have quite diverse roles: murderous creators who create the mead of poetry,'reluctant donors' of important artifacts with magical qualities, or sexual predators who lust after goddesses, they are associated with metalsmithing, with death, as in the story of King Sveigðir in Ynglinga saga, the first segment of the Heimskringla — the doorways in the mountains that they guard may be regarded as doors between worlds.
One dwarf named Alvíss claimed the hand of Thor's daughter Þrúðr in marriage, but he was kept talking until daybreak and turned to stone, much like some accounts of trolls. After the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, tales of dwarfs continued to be told in the folklore of areas of Europe where Germanic languages were spoken. In the late legendary sagas, dwarfs demonstrate skill in healing as well as in smithing. In the early Norse sources, there is no mention of their being short. Anatoly Liberman suggests that dwarfs may have been thought of as lesser supernatural beings, which became literal smallness after Christianization. Old Norse dwarf names include Fullangr and Hár, whereas Anglo-Saxon glosses use dweorg to render Latin terms such as nanus and pygmaeus. Dwarfs in folklore are described as old men with long beards. Female dwarfs are hardly mentioned. Dvalinn the dwarf has daughters, the 14th-century romantic saga Þjalar Jóns saga gives the feminine form of Old Norse dyrgja, but the few folklore examples cited by Grimm in Teutonic Mythology may be identified as other beings.
However, in the Swedish ballad "Herr Peder och Dvärgens Dotter", the role of supernatural temptress is played by a dwarf's daughter. The Anglo-Saxon charm Wið Dweorh appears to relate to sleep disturbances; this may indicate that the dwarf antagonist is similar to the oppressive supernatural figure the mare, the etymological source of the word "nightmare", or that the word had come to be used to mean "fever". In the Old English Herbal, it translates warts. In Middle High German heroic poetry, most dwarfs are portrayed as having long beards, but some may have a childish appearance. In some stories, the dwarf takes on the attributes of a knight, he is most separated from normal humans by his small size, in some cases only reaching up to the knees. Despite their small size, dwarfs have superhuman strength, either by nature or through magical means
Giants are beings of human appearance, but of prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures. The word giant, first attested in 1297, was derived from the Gigantes of Greek mythology. In various Indo-European mythologies, gigantic peoples are featured as primeval creatures associated with chaos and the wild nature, they are in conflict with the gods, be they Olympian, Hindu or Norse. Giants often play similar roles in the mythologies and folklore of other, non Indo-European peoples, such as in the Nartian traditions. There are accounts of giants in the Old Testament; some of these are called Nephilim, a word translated as giant although this translation is not universally accepted. They include Og King of Bashan, the Nephilim, the Anakim, the giants of Egypt mentioned in 1 Chronicles 11:23; the first mention of the Nephilim is found in Genesis 6:4. Fairy tales such as "Jack the Giant Killer" have formed the modern perception of giants as stupid and violent monsters, sometimes said to eat humans, while other giants tend to eat the livestock.
The antagonist in "Jack and the Beanstalk" is described as a giant. In some more recent portrayals, like those of Jonathan Swift and Roald Dahl, some giants are both intelligent and friendly. Genesis tells of the Nephilim after Noah's Flood. According to Genesis 7:23, the Nephilim were destroyed in the Flood, but Nephilim are reported after the Flood, including: the Anakites the Emites the Amorites the RephaitesThe Book of Numbers includes the discouraging report by the spies which Moses sent into Canaan: “We can’t attack those people. All the people we saw. We saw the Nephilim there. We seemed like grasshoppers in our own eyes, we looked the same to them.” However, the Book of Joshua, describing the actual conquest of Canaan in a generation, makes no reference to such people living there. The Bible tells of Gog and Magog, who entered European folklore, of the famous battle between David and the Philistine Goliath. While Goliath is portrayed as a giant in retellings of the Biblical narrative, he is much smaller than other biblical giants.
The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, the 1st-2nd-century BC Dead Sea Scrolls give Goliath's height as "four cubits and a span," 2.00 m or about six feet seven inches. The King James translation of the Bible reports the giant Goliath as "six cubits and a span" in height—about nine feet nine inches tall, but the Septuagint, a Greek Bible, gives Goliath's height as "four cubits and a span". For comparison, the Anakites are described as making. See Gibborim. Josephus described the Amorites as giants in his Antiquities of the Jews, circa 93 AD, indicating that fossil evidence still remained at that time: "For which reason they removed their camp to Hebron. There were till left the race of giants, who had bodies so large, countenances so different from other men, that they were surprising to the sight, terrible to the hearing; the bones of these men are still shown to this day, unlike to any credible relations of other men."In Islam, giants known as jababirat or jabbirun such as Jalut are mentioned, as well as ‘Uj ibn Anaq.
The Book of Enoch describes giants as the offspring of Watchers and women in 7:2. Hayk was known as the founder of the Armenian state. Hayk was part of a race of giants. Ancient historian Movses Khorenatsi wrote, "Hayk was handsome and personable, with curly hair, sparkling eyes and strong arms. Among the giants he was the bravest and most famous, opponent of all who raised their hand to become absolute ruler over the giants and heroes."Mount Nemrut is known to have received its name from an Armenian tradition in which Nimrod was killed by an arrow shot by Hayk during a massive battle between two rival armies of giants to the south-east of Lake Van. According to Baltic mythology, the playing of a giantess named Neringa on the seashore formed the Curonian Spit; this character appears in other myths. "Neringa" is the name of a modern town on the spot. Giants are rough but righteous characters of formidable strength living up the hills of the Basque Country. Giants stand for the Basque people reluctant to convert to Christianity who decide to stick to the old life style and customs in the forest.
Sometimes they hold the secret of ancient techniques and wisdom unknown to the Christians, like in the legend of San Martin Txiki, while their most outstanding feature is their strength. It follows that in many legends all over the Basque territory the giants are held accountable for the creation of many stone formations and ages-old megalithic structures, with similar explanations provided in different spots. However, giants show different variants and forms, they are most referred to as jentilak and mairuak, while as individuals they can be represented as Basajaun, Errolan or Tartalo (a one-eyed giant akin
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us