Assassination is the act of killing a prominent person for either political, religious or monetary reasons. An assassination may be prompted by political or military motives, it is an act that may be done for financial gain, to avenge a grievance, from a desire to acquire fame or notoriety, or because of a military, insurgent or secret police group's command to carry out the homicide. Acts of assassination have been performed since ancient times; the word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin, shares its etymological roots with hashish. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Muslims. Founded by Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Persia from the 8th to the 14th centuries, expanded by capturing forts in Syria; the group killed members of the Abbasid, Seljuq and Christian Crusader elite for political and religious reasons. Although it is believed that Assassins were under the influence of hashish during their killings or during their indoctrination, there is debate as to whether these claims have merit, with many Eastern writers and an increasing number of Western academics coming to believe that drug-taking was not the key feature behind the name.
The earliest known use of the verb "to assassinate" in printed English was by Matthew Sutcliffe in A Briefe Replie to a Certaine Odious and Slanderous Libel, Lately Published by a Seditious Jesuite, a pamphlet printed in 1600, five years before it was used in Macbeth by William Shakespeare. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics, it dates back at least as far as recorded history. In the Old Testament, King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants. Chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra, his student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, including two of Alexander the Great's generals and Philip. Other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later; the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Ke's failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC.
Whilst many assassinations were performed by individuals or small groups, there were specialized units who used a collective group of people to perform more than one assassination. The earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe, but it was a recurring theme in the Eastern Roman Empire. Blinding and strangling in the bathtub were the most used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe. High medieval sources mention the assassination of King Demetrius Zvonimir, dying at the hands of his own people, who objected to a proposition by the Pope to go on a campaign to aid the Byzantines against the Seljuk Turks; this account is, contentious among historians, it being most asserted that he died of natural causes. The myth of the "Curse of King Zvonimir" is based on the legend of his assassination.
In 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, the French kings Henry III and Henry IV were all ended by assassins. In the modern world, the killing of important people began to become more than a tool in power struggles between rulers themselves and was used for political symbolism, such as in the propaganda of the deed. In Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister has been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11, 1812. In Japan, a group of assassins called the Four Hitokiri of the Bakumatsu killed a number of people, including Ii Naosuke, the head of administration for the Tokugawa shogunate, during the Boshin War. Most of the assassinations in Japan were committed with bladed weaponry, a trait, carried on into modern history. A video-record exists of the assassination of Inejiro Asanuma.
In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy—died at the hands of assassins. There have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents' lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated on September 10, 1935. Robert F. Kennedy, a Senator and a presidential candidate, was assassinated on June 6, 1968 in the United States. In Austria, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914, carried out by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian national and a member of the Serbian nationalist insurgents, is blamed for igniting World War I after a succession of minor conflicts, while belligerents on both sides in World War II used operatives trained for assassination. Reinhard Heydrich died after an attack by British-trained Czechoslovak soldiers on behalf of the Czechoslovak government in exile in Operation Anthropoid, knowledge from decoded transmissions allowed the United States to carry out a targeted attack, killing Japanese Admiral
Discipline is action or inaction, regulated to be in accordance with a particular system of governance. Discipline is applied to regulating human and animal behavior, furthermore, it is applied to each activity-branch in all branches of organized activity and other fields of study and observation. Discipline can be a set of expectations that are required by any governing entity including the self, classes, industries, or societies. Children being educated to use public litter bins is a form of disciplinary education, expected by some societies. Discipline is followed in every school. If a child cannot use a litter bin the lack of discipline can result in a reaction from observant people in public. Many people observe a form of disciplinary effort in their daily lives. Discipline acts an important role in student's campus life to enhance their credit and intellectual recognition amongst peers. In academia, discipline can regard the educators' responses and efforts that are designed to punish the student.
Discipline is a moral obligation among many groups of people. Disciplined behavior is required by other legal obligations. Commercial entities can put in place strict disciplinary requirements for the length of the commercial agreement. Airlines enforce strict disciplinary and conduct rules upon flight passengers. In the military, discipline regards. Not only in military, in every parts of life of an individual discipline plays the most important role by placing group recognition of the personal significance of activities, in personal life on its gradual improvements and symbolic activities that give homage to the groups actual face or respect which are more recognized by the group. Discipline shows the actual face of an individual, taking personal judgement lower or higher to meet the groups, adding values or reservations so that they may be held. In animal husbandry and training, the animals may be disciplined to perform specific task and activities without errors. Additionally, animals can discipline their young through numerous methods.
Disciplinarians have been involved in many societies throughout history. The Victorian era resulted in the popular use of disciplinarian governance over children. Edward VIII had a disciplinarian father, the English had modelled the royal families during this era. Edward's grandmother was Queen Victoria who had championed the role of the family unit during her reign. A disciplinarian will enforce a stricter set of rules that are aimed at developing children according to theories of order and discipline. Disciplinarians have been linked to child abuse in numerous cases and biographies. Time management is a form of discipline that utilizes time as the regulator and the observer of time as the governor; the requirement is for time to be used efficiently. This activity maximizes the result of a set of activities by marking each activity within a boundary of time. To improve efficiency activities that are not necessary to completing the current activity or goal should be completed separately without interruption, this is the alternative to multi-tasking.
Time management can utilize skills, tools, or techniques to create specific time allotments according to a range of organization methods. Time management for discipline scheduling should involve focusing on one task defining what we plan to undertake and focus on what we are doing rather than resisting alternative ways of doing during its completion. A major theme arising from time management is that of modifying behavior to ensure compliance with time-related deadlines, it may be utilized by a emphasis on completing goals rather than a specific task, completing short and non-urgent tasks first, complete urgent and high importance tasks second and make progress on less urgent tasks which are time consuming in the middle of the working day. More segregating operations to different individuals as opposed to overlapping activities, more efficiently organizing and completing tasks, this may however increase the need for supervision, non-group fixed milestones and intermittent reports; this theme is interrelated with discipline and methods of discipline that can be used to incentivize group or personal responsibility and reducing wasted hours by performance drops or irrelevant tasks to completing a deadline.
Time management is about goal-oriented programs. Team based time management is exemplified by good questioning. Meeting times can be reduced by asking why we need to meet to accomplish this, what will we do differently if we succeed and how will this further the vision or goals of our team, group or organization? Responsibility-based discipline co-opts the members to understand remedies for problems in an organization. Responsibility is includes laying out instructions for modifying future behavior by following good role models who have earned esteem. Reward and punishment may be ineffective without someone to administer them. Responsibility-based discipline is about mimicking the warmth, democratic decision-making in setting ground rules and problem-solving, this is while maintaining dignity and observing clear limits. Sending frequent reminders about how the member can meet the performance indicators, organizational objectives, why the rules should be adhered to or useful advice on meeting the rules day-to-day.
Obedience-based discipline is basing membership by the hard work, obedience to authority, self-discipline. Corporal punishment is a debated technique of discipline that can focus on spanking, whipping, deprivation or hitting with an object using mild to extreme degrees of force
Archery is the art, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is called an archer or a bowman, a person, fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite; the bow and arrow seems to have been invented in the Paleolithic or early Mesolithic periods. The oldest signs of its use in Europe come from the Stellmoor in the Ahrensburg valley north of Hamburg and dates from the late Paleolithic, about 10,000–9000 BC; the arrows were made of pine and consisted of a main shaft and a 15–20 centimetres long fore shaft with a flint point. There are no definite earlier bows; the oldest bows known so far comes from the Holmegård swamp in Denmark. Bows replaced the spear-thrower as the predominant means for launching shafted projectiles, on every continent except Australasia, though spear-throwers persisted alongside the bow in parts of the Americas, notably Mexico and among the Inuit.
Bows and arrows have been present in Egyptian & neighboring Nubian culture since its respective predynastic & Pre-Kerma origins. In the Levant, artifacts that could be arrow-shaft straighteners are known from the Natufian culture, onwards; the Khiamian and PPN A shouldered. Classical civilizations, notably the Assyrians, Armenians, Parthians, Koreans and Japanese fielded large numbers of archers in their armies. Akkadians were the first to use composite bows in war according to the victory stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad. Egyptians referred to Nubia as "Ta-Seti," or "The Land of the Bow," since the Nubians were known to be expert archers, by the 16th Century BC Egyptians were using the composite bow in warfare; the Bronze Age Aegean Cultures were able to deploy a number of state-owned specialized bow makers for warfare and hunting purposes from the 15th century BC. The Welsh longbow proved its worth for the first time in Continental warfare at the Battle of Crécy. In the Americas archery was widespread at European contact.
Archery was developed in Asia. The Sanskrit term for archery, came to refer to martial arts in general. In East Asia, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea was well known for its regiments of exceptionally skilled archers. Central tribesmen of Asia and American Plains Indians became adept at archery on horseback. Armored, but mobile archers were excellently suited to warfare in the Central Asian steppes, they formed a large part of armies that conquered large areas of Eurasia. Shorter bows are more suited to use on horseback, the composite bow enabled mounted archers to use powerful weapons. Empires throughout the Eurasian landmass strongly associated their respective "barbarian" counterparts with the usage of the bow and arrow, to the point where powerful states like the Han Dynasty referred to their neighbors, the Xiong-nu, as "Those Who Draw the Bow". For example, Xiong-nu mounted bowmen made them more than a match for the Han military, their threat was at least responsible for Chinese expansion into the Ordos region, to create a stronger, more powerful buffer zone against them.
It is possible that "barbarian" peoples were responsible for introducing archery or certain types of bows to their "civilized" counterparts—the Xiong-nu and the Han being one example. Short bows seem to have been introduced to Japan by northeast Asian groups; the development of firearms rendered bows obsolete in warfare, although efforts were sometimes made to preserve archery practice. In England and Wales, for example, the government tried to enforce practice with the longbow until the end of the 16th century; this was because it was recognized that the bow had been instrumental to military success during the Hundred Years' War. Despite the high social status, ongoing utility, widespread pleasure of archery in Armenia, Egypt and Wales, India, Korea and elsewhere every culture that gained access to early firearms used them to the neglect of archery. Early firearms were inferior in rate-of-fire, were sensitive to wet weather. However, they had longer effective range and were tactically superior in the common situation of soldiers shooting at each other from behind obstructions.
They required less training to use properly, in particular penetrating steel armor without any need to develop special musculature. Armies equipped with guns could thus provide superior firepower, trained archers became obsolete on the battlefield. However, the bow and arrow is still an effective weapon, archers have seen action in the 21st century. Traditional archery remains in use for sport, for hunting in many areas. Early recreational archery societies included the Finsbury Archers and the Ancient Society of Kilwinning Archers; the latter's annual Papingo event was first recorded in 1483. The Royal Company of Archers was formed in 1676 and is one of the oldest sporting bodies in the world. Archery remained a small and scattered pastime, until the late 18th century when it experienced a fashionable revival among the aristocracy. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, wit
A ninja or shinobi was a covert agent or mercenary in feudal Japan. The functions of a ninja included espionage, infiltration and guerrilla warfare, their covert methods of waging irregular warfare were deemed dishonorable and beneath the honor of the samurai. Though shinobi proper, as specially trained spies and mercenaries, appeared in the 15th century during the Sengoku period, antecedents may have existed as early as the 12th century. In the unrest of the Sengoku period and spies for hire became active in Iga Province and the adjacent area around the village of Kōga, it is from the area's clans that much of our knowledge of the ninja is drawn. Following the unification of Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century, the ninja faded into obscurity. A number of shinobi manuals based on Chinese military philosophy, were written in the 17th and 18th centuries, most notably the Bansenshukai. By the time of the Meiji Restoration, shinobi had become a topic of popular imagination and mystery in Japan.
Ninjas figured prominently in legend and folklore, where they were associated with legendary abilities such as invisibility, walking on water and control over the natural elements. As a consequence, their perception in popular culture is based more on such legend and folklore than on the spies of the Sengoku period. Ninja is an on'yomi reading of the two kanji "忍者". In the native kun'yomi kanji reading, it is pronounced shinobi, a shortened form of the transcription shinobi-no-mono; the word shinobi appears in the written record as far back as the late 8th century in poems in the Man'yōshū. The underlying connotation of shinobi means "to steal away. Mono means "a person"; the word ninja was not in common use, a variety of regional colloquialisms evolved to describe what would be dubbed ninja. Along with shinobi, some examples include monomi, rappa and Iga-mono. In historical documents, shinobi is always used. Kunoichi, (くノ一） is an argot which means "woman" came from the characters くノ一, which make up the three strokes that form the kanji for "woman".
In fictions written in the modern era, Kunoichi means "female ninja",In the West, the word ninja became more prevalent than shinobi in the post–World War II culture because it was more comfortable for Western speakers. In English, the plural of ninja can be either unchanged as ninja, reflecting the Japanese language's lack of grammatical number, or the regular English plural ninjas. Despite many popular folktales, historical accounts of the ninja are scarce. Historian Stephen Turnbull asserts that the ninja were recruited from the lower class, therefore little literary interest was taken in them; the social origin of the ninja is seen as the reason they agree to operate in secret, trading their service for money without honor and glory. The scarcity of historical accounts is demonstrated in war epics such as The Tale of Hōgen and The Tale of the Heike, which focus on the aristocratic samurai, whose deeds were more appealing to the audience. Historian Kiyoshi Watatani states that the ninja were trained to be secretive about their actions and existence: So-called ninjutsu techniques, in short are the skills of shinobi-no-jutsu and shinobijutsu, which have the aims of ensuring that one's opponent does not know of one's existence, for which there was special training.
The title ninja has sometimes been attributed retrospectively to the semi-legendary 4th-century prince Yamato Takeru. In the Kojiki, the young Yamato Takeru disguised himself as a charming maiden, assassinated two chiefs of the Kumaso people. However, these records take place at a early stage of Japanese history, they are unlikely to be connected to the shinobi of accounts; the first recorded use of espionage was under the employment of Prince Shōtoku in the 6th century. Such tactics were considered unsavory in early times, according to the 10th-century Shōmonki, the boy spy Koharumaru was killed for spying against the insurgent Taira no Masakado; the 14th-century war chronicle Taiheiki contained many references to shinobi, credited the destruction of a castle by fire to an unnamed but "highly skilled shinobi". It was not until the 15th century, it was around this time that the word shinobi appeared to define and identify ninja as a secretive group of agents. Evidence for this can be seen in historical documents, which began to refer to stealthy soldiers as shinobi during the Sengoku period.
Manuals regarding espionage are grounded in Chinese military strategy, quoting works such as The Art of War by Sun Tzu. The ninja emerged as mercenaries in the 15th century, where they were recruited as spies, raiders and terrorists. Amongst the samurai, a sense of ritual and decorum was observed, where one was expected to fight or duel openly. Combined with the unrest of the Sengoku period, these factors created a demand for men willing to commit deeds considered disreputable for conventional warriors. By the Sengoku period, the shinobi had several roles, including spy, surprise attacker, agitator; the ninja families were organized into each with their own territories. A system of rank existed. A jōnin was the highest rank, hiring out mercenaries. This
Miniature wargaming is a form of wargaming in which players enact battles between opposing military forces that are represented by miniature physical models. The use of physical models to represent military units is in contrast to other tabletop wargames that use abstract pieces such as counters or blocks, or computer wargames which use virtual models; the primary benefit of using models is aesthetics, though in certain wargames the size and shape of the models can have practical consequences on how the match plays out. A miniature wargame is played with miniature models of soldiers and vehicles on a model of a battlefield; the primary benefit of using models as opposed to abstract pieces is an aesthetic one. Models offer a visually-pleasing way of identifying the units on the battlefield. In most miniature wargame systems, the model itself may be irrelevant as far as the rules are concerned. Distances between infantry units are measured from the base of the model; the exception to this trend may be models of vehicles such as tanks, which do not require a base to be stable and have rectangular shapes.
Some miniature wargames use the dimensions of the model do determine whether a target behind cover is within line-of-fire of an attacker. Most miniature wargames are turn-based. Players take turns to move their model warriors across the model battlefield and declare attacks on the opponent. In most miniature wargames, the outcomes of fights between units are resolved through simple arithmetic, sometimes combined with dice rolls or playing cards. All wargames have a setting, based on some historical era of warfare; the setting determines. For instance, a wargame set in the Napoleonic Wars should use models of Napoleonic-era soldiers, wielding muskets and cannons, not spears or automatic rifles. A fantasy wargame has a fictional setting and may thus feature fictional or anachronistic armaments, but the setting should be similar enough to some real historical era of warfare so as to preserve a reasonable degree of realism. For instance, Warhammer Age of Sigmar is based on medieval warfare, but includes supernatural elements such as wizards and dragons.
The most popular historical settings are World War 2, the Napoleonic Wars, the American Civil War. The most popular fantasy setting is Warhammer 40,000. Miniature wargames are played either at the tactical level. At the skirmish level, the player controls his warriors individually, whereas in a tactical level game he controls groups of warriors—typically the model warriors are mounted in groups on the same base. Miniature wargames are not played at the strategic or operational level because at that scale the models would become imperceptibly tiny. Miniature wargames are played for recreation, as the physical limitations of the medium prevents it from representing modern warfare enough for use in military instruction and research; these models were made of tin or lead, but nowadays they are made of polystyrene or resin. Plastic models are cheaper to mass-produce but require a larger investment because they require expensive steel molds. Lead and tin models, by contrast, can be cast in cheap rubber molds.
Larger firms such as Games Workshop prefer to produce plastic models, whereas smaller firms with less money prefer metal models. Wargaming figurines come with unrealistic body proportions, their hands may be oversized. One reason for this is to make the models more robust: thicker parts are less to bend or break. Another reason is that manufacturing methods stipulate a minimum thickness for casting. Odd proportions may make the model look better for its size by accentuating certain features that the human eye focuses on. Wargaming models are sold in parts. In the case of plastic models, they're sold still affixed to their sprues; the player is expected to glue them together. This is the norm because, depending on the design of the model, it may not be possible to mold it whole, selling the parts un-assembled saves on labor costs. After assembling the model, the player should paint it to make it more presentable and easier to identify. Understandably, the time and skill involved in assembling and painting models deters many people from miniature wargaming.
Some firms have tried to address this by selling pre-assembled and pre-painted models, but these are rare because, with current technologies, it's hard to mass-produce ready-to-play miniatures that are both cheap and match the beauty of hand-painted models. The other options for players are to hire a professional painter. Historical miniature wargames are designed to use generic models. It's not possible to copyright the look of a historical soldier. Anyone, for instance, may produce miniature models of Napoleonic infantrymen. A player of a Napoleonic-era wargame could thus obtain his models from any manufacturer who produces Napoleonic models at the requisite scale. It's difficult if not impossible for a historical wargame designer to oblige players to buy models from a certain manufacturer. By contrast, fantasy wargames feature fictional warriors, fictional characters can be copyrighted. By incorporating original characters into his wargame, a wargame designer can oblige the player to purchase his models from a specific manufacturer, licensed to produce the re
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae in the order Proboscidea. Three species are recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, the Asian elephant. Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia. Elephantidae is the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea. All elephants have several distinctive features, the most notable of, a long trunk, used for many purposes breathing, lifting water, grasping objects, their incisors grow into tusks, which can serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging. Elephants' large ear flaps help to control their body temperature, their pillar-like legs can carry their great weight. African elephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephants have smaller ears and convex or level backs. Elephants are herbivorous and can be found in different habitats including savannahs, forests and marshes, they prefer to stay near water. They are considered to be a keystone species due to their impact on their environments.
Other animals tend to keep their distance from elephants while predators, such as lions, tigers and any wild dogs target only young elephants. Elephants have a fission -- fusion society. Females tend to live in family groups, which can consist of one female with her calves or several related females with offspring; the groups are led by an individual known as the matriarch the oldest cow. Males leave their family groups when they may live alone or with other males. Adult bulls interact with family groups when looking for a mate and enter a state of increased testosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gain dominance and reproductive success. Calves are the centre of attention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for as long as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild, they communicate by touch, sight and sound. Elephant intelligence has been compared with that of cetaceans, they appear to show empathy for dying or dead individuals of their kind. African elephants are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature while the Asian elephant is classed as endangered.
One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Other threats to wild elephants include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people. Elephants are used as working animals in Asia. In the past, they were used in war. Elephants are recognisable and have been featured in art, religion and popular culture; the word "elephant" is based on the Latin elephas, the Latinised form of the Greek ἐλέφας from a non-Indo-European language Phoenician. It is attested in Mycenaean Greek as e-re-pa in Linear B syllabic script; as in Mycenaean Greek, Homer used the Greek word to mean ivory, but after the time of Herodotus, it referred to the animal. The word "elephant" was borrowed from Old French oliphant. Loxodonta, the generic name for the African elephants, is Greek for "oblique-sided tooth". Elephants belong to the family Elephantidae, the sole remaining family within the order Proboscidea which belongs to the superorder Afrotheria.
Their closest extant relatives are the sirenians and the hyraxes, with which they share the clade Paenungulata within the superorder Afrotheria. Elephants and sirenians are further grouped in the clade Tethytheria. Three species of elephants are recognised. African elephants have larger ears, a concave back, more wrinkled skin, a sloping abdomen, two finger-like extensions at the tip of the trunk. Asian elephants have smaller ears, a convex or level back, smoother skin, a horizontal abdomen that sags in the middle and one extension at the tip of the trunk; the looped ridges on the molars are narrower in the Asian elephant while those of the African are more diamond-shaped. The Asian elephant has dorsal bumps on its head and some patches of depigmentation on its skin. Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus first described the genus Elephas and an elephant from Sri Lanka under the binomial Elephas maximus in 1758. In 1798, Georges Cuvier classified the Indian elephant under the binomial Elephas indicus.
Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck described the Sumatran elephant in 1847 under the binomial Elephas sumatranus. English zoologist Frederick Nutter Chasen classified all three as subspecies of the Asian elephant in 1940. Asian elephants vary geographically in their amount of depigmentation; the Sri Lankan elephant inhabits Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant is native to mainland Asia, the Sumatran elephant is found in Sumatra. O
Behemoth is a beast mentioned in Job 40:15–24. Suggested identities range from a mythological creature to an elephant, rhinoceros, or buffalo. Metaphorically, the name has come to be used for any large or powerful entity. Job 40:15–24 describes Behemoth, the sea-monster Leviathan, to demonstrate to Job the futility of questioning God, who alone has created these beings and who alone can capture them. C. L. Patton lists several interpretations of the nature of these beasts, including the idea that they are chaos monsters destroyed by the deity at the time of creation. Leviathan is identified figuratively with both the primeval sea and in apocalyptic literature as the Devil, around since before creation and will be defeated during the end times. In the divine speeches in Job and Leviathan may both be seen as composite and mythical creatures with enormous strength, which humans like Job could not hope to control, but both are reduced to the status of divine pets, with rings through their noses and Leviathan on a leash.
In Jewish apocrypha and pseudepigrapha such as the 2nd century BCE Book of Enoch, Behemoth is the primal unconquerable monster of the land, as Leviathan is the primal monster of the waters of the sea and Ziz the primordial monster of the sky. According to this text Leviathan lives in "the Abyss", while Behemoth the land-monster lives in an invisible desert east of the Garden of Eden. A Jewish rabbinic legend describes a great battle which will take place between them at the end of time: "they will interlock with one another and engage in combat, with his horns the Behemoth will gore with strength, the fish will leap to meet him with his fins, with power, their Creator will approach them with his mighty sword." "from the beautiful skin of the Leviathan, God will construct canopies to shelter the righteous, who will eat the meat of the Behemoth and the Leviathan amid great joy and merriment.". In the Haggadah, Behemoth's strength reaches its peak on the summer solstice of every solar year. At this time of year, Behemoth lets out a loud roar that makes all animals tremble with fear, thus renders them less ferocious for a whole year.
As a result, weak animals live in safety away from the reach of wild animals. This mythical phenomenon is shown as an example of divine goodness. Without Behemoth's roar, traditions narrate, animals would grow more wild and ferocious, hence go around butchering each other and humans. Since the 17th century CE there have been many attempts to identify Behemoth; some scholars have seen him as a real creature the hippopotamus the elephant, rhinoceros, or water buffalo. The reference to Behemoth's "tail" that "moves like a cedar" presents a problem for most of these readings, since it cannot be identified with the tail of any animal. Biologist Michael Bright suggests that the reference to the cedar tree refers to the brush-like shape of its branches, which resemble the tails of modern elephants and hippopotamuses; some have identified the cedar as an elephant trunk, but it might instead refer to Behemoth's penis, since the Hebrew word for "move" can mean "extend", the second part of the verse speaks of the sinew around his "stones".
The Vulgate seems to endorse such a reading by using the word "testiculorum". Russian-language speakers have used the cognate word бегемот to refer to the hippopotamus from third quarter of the 18th century – Russian-speakers use the name гиппопотам. Young Earth Creationists, who tend to believe humans coexisted with dinosaurs, have argued that the behemoth may have been a sauropod-like dinosaur due to it being a large, plant-eating land animal with a long tail resembling a cedar. Young earth creationists assert that the creature's massive size and its tree-like tail eliminate the possibilities of it being an extant land animal, where they see it more akin to a large herbivorous dinosaur. Another opinion sees Behemoth as a product of the imagination of the author of Job, a symbol of God's power: in verse 24 he is described as having a ring through his nose, a sign that he has been tamed by Yahweh; the 17th-century political philosopher Thomas Hobbes named the Long Parliament'Behemoth' in his book Behemoth.
It accompanies his book of political theory that draws on the lessons of English Civil War, the rather more famous Leviathan. It is the name of a character in Mikhail Bulgakov's novel, The Master and Margarita; the Behemoth appears in John Milton’s Paradise Lost: "Scarce from his mould / Behemoth biggest born of earth upheaved / His vastness: Fleeced the flocks and bleating rose..." The Behemoth is mentioned in The Seasons by James Thomson: "... behold! in plaited mail / Behemoth rears his head". The German émigré Franz Leopold Neumann entitled his 1941 book about National Socialism, Behemoth: The Structure and Practice of National Socialism; the Behemoth is mentioned in the opera, Nixon in China, composed by John Adams, written by Alice Goodman. At the beginning of the first act, the chorus sings "The people are the heroes now, Behemoth pulls the peasants' plow" several times. In a letter to his sister Mariana, Khalil Gibran told her that his health was "as good as a Bahamut", thought to derive from the biblical "Behemoth".
The Pokemon Groudon is based on a behemoth. Bahamut Bambotus, ancient name for the Senegal River The Beast, two beasts described in the New Testament Dābbat al-Arḍ Book of Job in Byzantine illuminated manuscripts The Giant Behemoth, an American-British science fiction giant monster film Tarasque Metzeger, Bru