Bhupen Hazarika was an Indian playback singer, musician, singer and film-maker from Assam known as Sudhakantha. His songs and sung in the Assamese language by himself, are marked by humanity and universal brotherhood and have been translated and sung in many languages, most notably in Bengali and Hindi, his songs, based on the themes of communal amity, universal justice and empathy, have become popular among the people of Assam, besides West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is acknowledged to have introduced the culture and folk music of Assam and Northeast India to Hindi cinema at the national level, he received the National Film Award for Best Music Direction in 1975. Recipient of Sangeet Natak Akademi Award and Padmabhushan, Hazarika was awarded with Dada Saheb Phalke Award, India's highest award in cinema, by the Government of India and Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, the highest award of the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's The National Academy for Music and Drama, he was posthumously awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian award, in 2012.
Hazarika held the position of the Chairman of the Sangeet Natak Akademi from December 1998 to December 2003. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, in 2019. Hazarika, who made fame as a musician, was born on 8 September 1926 to Nilakanta and Shantipriya Hazarika in Sadiya, Assam, his father was from Nazira, a town located in Sivasagar district. The eldest of ten children, Bhupen Hazarika was exposed to the musical influence of his mother, who exposed him to lullabies and traditional Music of Assam, his father moved to the Bharalumukh region of Guwahati in 1929, in search of better prospects, where Bhupen Hazarika spent his early childhood. In 1932 his father further moved to Dhubri, in 1935 to Tezpur, it was in Tezpur that Bhupen Hazarika 10 years of age, was discovered by Jyotiprasad Agarwala, the noted Assamese lyricist and the first Assames Filmmaker and Bishnu Prasad Rabha, renowned Assamese artist and revolutionary poet, where he sang a Borgeet, taught by his mother at a public function.
In 1936, Bhupen Hazarika accompanied them to Kolkata where he recorded his first song at the Aurora Studio for the Selona Company. His association with the icons of Assamese Culture at Tezpur was the beginning of his artistic growth and credentials. Subsequently, Hazarika sang two songs in Agarwala's film Indramalati: Kaxote Kolosi Loi and Biswo Bijoyi Naujawan at the age of 12, he wrote his first song, Agnijugor Firingoti Moi at the age of 13 and he was well on his way to becoming a lyricist and singer. Hazarika studied at Sonaram High School at Guwahati, Dhubri Government High School and matriculated from Tezpur High School in 1940, he completed his Intermediate Arts from Cotton College in 1942, his BA and MA in Political Science from Banaras Hindu University. For a brief period he worked at All India Radio, Guwahati when he won a scholarship from Columbia University and set sail for New York in 1949. There he earned a PhD on his thesis "Proposals for Preparing India's Basic Education to use Audio-Visual Techniques in Adult Education".
In New York Bhupen Hazarika befriended Paul Robeson, a prominent civil rights activist, who influenced him in his song Bistirno parore, based on the imagery and theme of Robeson's Ol' Man River. This song is translated in various Indian languages, including Bengali and Hindi and sung by the artist himself, is still popular. Being inspired from some other foreign ones, he composed several other songs in Indian languages, he was exposed to the Spiritual, the multi-lingual version of We are in the Same Boat Brother became a regular feature in his stage performance. At Columbia University, he met Priyamvada Patel, whom he married in 1950. Tez Hazarika, their only child, was born in 1952, he returned to India in 1953. Famous quote by Sudhakantha for Bishnu Prasad Rabha - "বিষ্ণুপ্ৰসাদ ৰাভা ঠিকাদাৰ নহয়, মন্ত্ৰীও নহয়, সত্ৰাধিকাৰো নহয়, নাস্তিকো নহয়, খাটি মহাপুৰুষীয়া যদিও...মাছ মাংস খায়, ২৫০০ বিঘা মাটিৰ জমিদাৰ হৈও পুঁজিপতি নহয়, মাটিও নাই...গেৰুৱা বসন নিপিন্ধে যদিও সন্ন্যাসী, বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ত দহোটা-পাচোটা গৱেষণা কৰা নাছিল যদিও গৱেষক বুৰঞ্জীবিদ নৃতত্ববিদ্, বিপ্লবী যদিও ৰোমেণ্টিক, জাতি বিচাৰ নামানে যদিও ধনী দুখীয়াৰ জাতি বিচাৰ মানে, তিনিটা সন্তানৰ পিতৃ যদিও গতানুগতিক সংসাৰী নহয়, কমিউনিষ্ট হ.
After completing his MA he worked at the All India Radio station at Guwahati before embarking for his doctoral studies at Columbia University. His thesis "DEMYSTIFYING DR. BHUPEN HAZARIKA: envisioning education for India", edited by Tej Hazarika and published by Cool Grove Press will be available in the US in days. Soon after completing his education, he became a teacher at the Gauhati University, but after a few years, he left the job and went to Kolkata where he established himself as a successful music director and singer. During that period, Hazarika made several award-winning Assamese films such as Shakuntala, etc. and com
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
Girija Devi was an Indian classical singer of the Seniya and Banaras gharanas. She helped elevate the profile of thumri, she died on 24 October 2017. Girija Devi was born in Varanasi, on 8 May 1929, to a zamindar, her father played the harmonium and taught music, had Girija Devi take lessons in singing khyal and tappa from vocalist and sarangi player Sarju Prasad Misra starting at the age of five. She starred in the movie Yaad rahe aged nine and continued her studies under Sri Chand Misra in a variety of styles. Girija Devi made her public debut in 1949 on All India Radio Allahabad, after marrying a businessman circa 1946, but faced opposition from her mother and grandmother because it was traditionally believed that no upper class woman should perform publicly. Girija Devi agreed to not perform for others, but gave her first public concert in Bihar in 1951, she studied with Sri Chand Misra until he died in the early 1960s, worked as a faculty member of the ITC Sangeet Research Academy in Kolkata in the 1980s and of the Banaras Hindu University during the early 1990s, taught several students to preserve her musical heritage.
Girija Devi toured and continued to perform in 2009. Girija Devi sang in the Banaras gharana and performed the purabi ang thumri style typical of the tradition, whose status she helped elevate, her repertoire included the semi-classical genres kajri and holi and she sang khyal, Indian folk music, tappa. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians once stated that her semi-classical singing combined her classical training with the regional characteristics of the songs of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh. Padma Shri Padma Bhushan Padma Vibhushan Sangeet Natak Akademi Award Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship Maha Sangeet Samman Award Sangeet Samman Award GiMA Awards 2012 TanaRiri Puraskar Mishra, Yatindra. Girija: A Journey Through Thumri. Rupa. ISBN 978-81-291-0857-9. Girija Devi at AllMusic
Adoor Gopalakrishnan is an Indian film director, script writer, producer. Adoor Gopalakrishnan had a major role in revolutionising Malayalam cinema during the 1970s and is regarded as one of the most notable filmmakers of India. Adoor's first film Swayamvaram is credited for pioneering the new wave cinema movement in Kerala along with Olavum Theeravum and Athidhi. Most of his films go to festivals around the world, are released in Kerala. Eleven films he directed, from Swayamvaram to Oru Pennum Randaanum, were screened at several international film festivals and won him several national and international awards, he won National Film Awards 16 times, Kerala State Film Awards 17 times and won several international film awards. He won the prestigious British Film Institute Award for Elippathayam. Adoor received the Padma Shri in 1984 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2006; the Nation honoured Adoor for his valuable contributions to Indian cinema by awarding him the highest cinema award of India, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award for the year 2004.
Adoor has made only 12 feature films in his career. Gopalakrishnan was born on 3 July 1941 in the village of Mannadi near Adoor, present day Kerala, India as the son of Madhavan Unnithan and Mouttathu Gauri Kunjamma, he started his artistic life as an actor in amateur plays when he was 8. He shifted his base to writing and direction and wrote and directed a few plays. After securing a degree in Economics, Political Science and Public Administration in 1961 from the Gandhigram Rural Institute, he worked as a Government officer near Dindigul in Tamil Nadu. In 1962, he left his job to study direction from the Pune Film Institute, he completed his course from there with a scholarship from the Government of India. With his classmates and friends, Adoor established Chithralekha Film Society and Chalachithra Sahakarana Sangham. Adoor has directed eleven feature films and about thirty short films and documentaries. Notable amongst the non-feature films are those on Kerala’s performing arts. Adoor's debut film, the national award-winning Swayamvaram was a milestone in Malayalam film history.
The film was exhibited in various international film festivals including those held in Moscow, Melbourne and Paris. The films that followed namely Kodiyettam, Mukhamukham, Mathilukal and Kathapurushan lived up to the reputation of his first film and were well received by critics at various film festivals and fetched him many awards. However, Mukhamukham was criticized in Kerala while Vidheyan was at the centre of a debate due to the differences in opinion between the writer of story of the film Sakhariya and Adoor. Adoor's films are Nizhalkuthu, narrating the experiences of an executioner who comes to know that one of his subjects was innocent, Naalu Penungal, a film adaptation of four short stories by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai. All his films have won international awards. Adoor’s third feature, Elippathayam won him the coveted British Film Institute Award for'the most original and imaginative film' of 1982; the International Film Critics Prize has gone to him six times successively for Mukhamukham, Mathilukal, Vidheyan and Nizhalkkuthu.
Winner of several international awards like the UNICEF film prize, OCIC film prize, INTERFILM Prize etc. his films have been shown in Cannes, Berlin, London and every important festival around the world. In consideration of his contribution to Indian cinema, the nation honoured him with the title of Padma Shri in 1984 and Padma Vibhushan in 2006. Adoor is settled in Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, his daughter Aswathi Dorje is an IPS officer acting as Deputy Commissioners of Police in Mumbai since June 2010. Apart from nine feature films, he has over 30 short documentaries to his credit; the Helsinki Film Festival was the first film festival to have a retrospective of his films. He has headed the jury at many international film festivals. Apart from his films, Adoor's major contribution towards introducing a new cinema culture in Kerala was the constitution of the first Film Society in Kerala, "Chitralekha Film Society", he took active part in the constitution of "Chitralekha," Kerala's first Film Co-operative Society for film production.
These movements triggered a fresh wave of films, called "art films," by directors like G Aravindan, PA Becker, KG George and Raveendran. At a time this movement was so strong that popular cinema synthesised with art cinema to create a new genre of films. Bharat Gopi starred as hero 4 times in his ventures. Adoor has been known as a director who dictates every fine detail of his films. On the performance of actors in his movies, he stated that - "It is not the artist's job to do the detailing. I do not want different interpretations of roles, it has to be unified." He does not encourage his crew to read the script or the stories. The actors are told at the time of shooting about the role and the scenes before conducting several rehearsals. According to Adoor "n movies, the actor is not performing to the audience like the stage actor. Here they are acting for me. I a
Government Law College, Mumbai
The Government Law College, founded in 1855, is the oldest law school in Asia. The college, affiliated to the University of Mumbai, is run by the Government of Maharashtra; the college celebrated its sesquicentennial in 2006. Until the 1850s there was no formal legal education for legal lawyers in India. Sir Thomas Erskine Perry, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Judicature at Bombay, would deliver lectures on law after court hours; these classes were held on a informal basis and were attended only by a select group. However, it was not till Sir Perry left for England in 1852, that a conscious effort was made to collect funds in order to institute a chair in Jurisprudence at the Elphinstone Institution, the Perry Professorship of Jurisprudence. In 1855, Dr. R. T. Reid was appointed as the first Perry Professor of Jurisprudence and the Government Law School, as it was called, was established at the Elphinstone Institution; the Government Law School has been affiliated with the University of Bombay since 1860.
Government Law College, Mumbai is one of the premier law institutes of India. The name Government Law School was changed to Government Law College in 1925, it was only in 1938. After this change of status, the Government of Bombay decided to allocate a plot, west of Churchgate railway station for the Government Law College building; the college today stands at this location. Affiliated to the Mumbai University, the Government Law College follows the semester system, provides the 5-year integrated BLS-LLB as well as the 3-year LLB course; the 5-year course consists of a 2-year foundation in the liberal arts/sociology, followed by the 3-year curriculum of core legal subjects, which are common to the 3-year law course. Most of the 3-year law subjects are taught by practicing lawyers, rather than academics, most of them teaching part-time; the teaching and curriculum for the three-year programme is thus geared more towards practical professional law, rather than theoretical, academic law. Current faculty include respected academics such as Prof Homer Pithawala and Prof Daswani, partners from India's top law firms, as well as advocates practicing in the higher judiciary.
Many of the more prominent faculty are alumni of the college. Admission to the college is through the Maharashtra Common Entrance Test - the MH LAW CET, introduced in 2016; the entrance exam is compulsory for admissions for law colleges in Maharashtra, tests legal aptitude, general knowledge and reasoning skills. 85% of the seats are reserved for candidates from Maharashtra, an overall reservation for various college seats is as high as 50%. In 2018, over 23000 students appeared from Maharashtra, 16000 students appeared for the entrance test from the rest of the country for the 3-year course; the total number of seats are 240, typical cut off ranks for students from the "Maharashtra General Category" is an all-India Rank of 200, while those of students from outside Maharashtra is about 120. The 5-year course is less competitive, for many students consider alternate law schools, such as the National Law Universities, which do not offer 3-year degrees, admit students on the basis of another test - CLAT.
In 2018, over 15000 students appeared for the 5-year MH LAW CET admissions test. Typical cut offs for 240 BLS LLB seats are at All India Rank 500 for Maharashtra students belonging to the "General Category"; the B. L. S. LL. B. program is a 10-semester full-time course open to students right out of High School. The first 2 years constitute a'pre-law' course where the student is taught social-science subjects like Economics, Political Science, History and Legal Language etc. In the next three years core law subjects, like Contracts, Family law, Labour Laws etc. are dealt with. In their 8th and 10th semester, the students have the option of choosing some particular subjects along with some compulsory subjects. A total of 4 practical training papers are compulsory for all the students; the BLS or the Bachelor of Legal Sciences degree is awarded to the students by the University of Mumbai after successful completion of the 3rd year and the LLB degree is awarded after completion of 5 years. Students are eligible to exit with a Bachelor's degree in Legal Studies at the end of 6 semesters, but cannot practice law unless they complete the course in its entirety.
A minimum of a Bachelor's degree is required for enrolling into the LL. B. degree. The LL. B. degree is a three-year program with classes devoted to the study of law, graduates are eligible to practice as an advocate, as per the Rules of the Bar Council of India. A student who desires to learn the law but does not wish to practice as an advocate is eligible for the LL. B. Degree at the end of two years. GLC further features specialised diploma courses which include Postgraduate Diploma Course in Securities Law, Post Graduate Diploma In Intellectual Property Rights and Diploma in Cyber-Laws offered in joint-collaboration with the Asian School of Cyber Laws; the College has started the Post Graduate Certificate Course in Human Rights. All courses are taught by leading experts. Throughout its history, the college has had the honour of guidance from eminent legal luminaries who have adorned benches of the Supreme Court of India and the Bombay High Court; the long list of legends include: Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Indian freedom fighter, famous as Father of Indian Discontent and one of the First Generation of Indians to have graduated.
B. R. Ambedkar, former Principal, first Law Minister of India and Chairman, Drafting Co
Elphinstone College is an institution of higher education affiliated to the University of Mumbai. Established in 1856, it is one of the oldest colleges of the University of Mumbai, it is reputed for producing luminaries like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bhim Rao Ambedkar, Virchand Gandhi, Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta, Kashinath Trimbak Telang, Jamsetji Tata and for illustrious professors that includes Dadabhai Naoroji. It is further observed for having played a key role in spread of Western education in the Bombay Presidency; the year 2006 marked the sesquicentennial celebrations of the college. At present it offers undergraduate level courses in the arts and commerce and is under the governance of the Maharashtra Government. By the 19th century Bombay was a prosperous centre for maritime commerce. In 1824 an English school was set up by the Bombay Native Education Society for Indian students. In 1827 a resolution was passed that an institution for promotion of education should be established under Bombay Native Education Society and be designated as "Elphinstone College".
This is after Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, the departing governor of Bombay, responsible for beginning higher education in the city. Rs.2,29,636.00 was collected by public subscription to fund teaching professorships in the English language and the Arts and Literature of Europe. The professorships were in honour of Mountstaurt Elphinstone; the college was formally constituted in 1835. The classes commenced in 1836, at Town Hall, with the first two professors: Arthur Bedford Orlebar and John Harkness. In 1840, the professors' classes were amalgamated with the Society's High School to form the Elphinstone Native Education Institution. In 1845, the name was shortened to Elphinstone Institution. Elphinstone College became a distinct institution, separated from the high school, on 1 April 1856; this year is considered to be the year of the establishment of Elphinstone College. The college was affiliated to University of Bombay in 1860. In 1871, Elphinstone college gots. James Trubshawe, an architect who flourished in the early part of the 19th century: designed the structure.
An engineer John Adams, built the structure. This older Elphinstone College building stands opposite the Victoria Memorial Gardens in Byculla, Mumbai, it is now a hospital, a second Elphinstone College across the Jehangir Art Gallery was built a decade later. The University of Bombay was established in 1857. Inception classes were held at Elphinstone college and was subsequently moved to the present Fort campus. To formalize legal education, a chair of Jurisprudence was set up, called Perry Professorship at Elphinstone Institution in 1855; the same year, R. T. Reid was appointed the first Perry professor of Jurisprudence and the Government Law School as it was called; this is taken as the inception of the Government Law College Mumbai. It was suggested; the proposal was accepted and admission started for the Arts faculty in June 1948, with a formal inauguration in September 1948 at the Elphinstone College Library Hall. Sir J J School of Arts was instituted to take up drawing classes. Initial classes were held at Elphinstone Institution.
Elphinstone College, like many other colleges of Mumbai, constitutes two academic entities: Senior and Junior colleges. Senior college is affiliated to University of Mumbai and imparts education leading to bachelor's degrees while Junior college is monitored by HSC Board and provides higher secondary education. B. Sc in Basic Sciences, Information Technology, Microbiology B. A in Ancient Indian Culture, English, Hindi, Marathi, Statistics, Sociology B. Com B. B. A in Hotel and Tourism Management Higher Secondary School Certificate in Arts and Science Hostels: Government Colleges Hostel, Mumbai for boys. Gymkhana Computing facilities Well-endowed library The legacy of the college as a center of excellence was unparalleled in western India. During British rule, it was most coveted among colleges, standing alongside Presidency Colleges of Calcutta and Madras. However, post independence its standards declined and more so in the recent times; this is attributed to government negligence and red tapism.
The college was an important center of radical left sympathies during the 1970s decade: and produced leaders for this movement. The college building, with its Gothic architecture, has been classified as a grade 1 heritage structure, it is one of the most identified buildings of South Mumbai as a symbol British Raj heritage. Locally, the college is famous for its Romanesque Transitional style building, categorized as Grade I Heritage structure; the building was designed by Trubshaw, supervised by Khan Bahadur Muncherjee Murzban, completed in 1888. Maharashtrotsav is a National Level Inter College Cultural Festival organized by all the students and faculties of Elphinstone College. Maharashtrotsav 2011-12 gathered a crowd of more than 75 colleges with nearly 2500 students, the a State Level Event. 2012-13 marked a huge progress in its type making it National Level Festival with nearly 5000 students from more than 130 colleges across India. Maharashtrotsav promises to be a launch pad for new talents.
This event shall be a milestone in their path of glamour world. Maharashtrotsav is a budding event planned to cater to all those who intend to prove their
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons