The.30 refers to the caliber of the bullet, and the 06 refers to the year the cartridge was adopted—1906. It replaced the. 30-03, 6mm Lee Navy, and. 30-40 Krag cartridges and it remains a very popular sporting round, with ammunition produced by all major manufacturers. In the early 1890s, the U. S. military adopted the smokeless powder. 30-40 Krag rimmed cartridge, the 1894 version of that cartridge used a 220-grain round-nose bullet. Around 1901, the U. S. started developing an experimental rimless cartridge for a Mauser action with box magazine and that led to the 1903. 30-03 rimless service round that used the same 220-grain round-nose bullet as the Krag. The. 30-03 achieved a velocity of 2,300 ft/s. Consequently, the round-nosed U. S. 30-03 service cartridge was falling behind. For these reasons, the U. S. military developed a new, cartridge in 1906, the cartridge was loaded with Military Rifle 21 propellant, and its maximum range was claimed to be 4,700 yd. The M1903 Springfield rifle, which had been introduced alongside the. 30-03 cartridge, was modified to accept the new.
30-06 Springfield cartridge. Modifications to the rifle included shortening the barrel at its breech and resizing the chamber, other changes to the rifle included elimination of the troublesome rod bayonet of the earlier Springfield rifles. The M1906 maximum range was originally overstated, when the M1906 cartridge was developed, the range tests had been done to only 1,800 yards, distances beyond that were estimated, but the estimate for extreme range was wrong by almost 40 percent. The range discrepancy became evident during World War I, before the widespread employment of light mortars and artillery, long-range machine gun barrage or indirect fires were considered important in U. S. infantry tactics. When the US entered World War I, it did not have machine guns, so it acquired British. When those weapons were replaced with US machine guns firing the M1906 round. Firing tests performed around 1918 at Borden Brook Reservoir, patrone was inroduced in 1914 and used a 197. 5-grain s. S. - schweres Spitzgeschoß boat-tail bullet which had a maximum range of approximately 5,140 yd.
Its maximum range was approximately 5,500 yd. Additionally, wartime surplus totaled over 2 billion rounds of ammunition. Army regulations called for training use of the oldest ammunition first, as a result, the older. 30-06 ammunition was expended for training, stocks of.30 M1 Ball ammunition were allowed to slowly grow until all of the older M1906 ammunition had been fired. By 1936, it was discovered that the range of the.30 M1 Ball ammunition with its boat-tailed spitzer bullets was beyond the safety limitations of many ranges. An emergency order was made to manufacture quantities of ammunition that matched the ballistics of the earlier M1906 cartridge as soon as possible
Rimfire is a method of ignition for metallic firearm cartridges as well as the cartridges themselves. It is called rimfire because the pin of a gun strikes and crushes the bases rim to ignite the primer. Once the rim of the cartridge has been struck and the bullet discharged, while many other different cartridge priming methods have been tried since the 19th century, only rimfire technology and centerfire technology survive today in significant use. Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented the first rimfire metallic cartridge in 1845 and his cartridge consisted of a percussion cap with a bullet attached to the top and the idea was to improve the safety of indoor shooting. In English-speaking countries, the Flobert cartridge corresponds to.22 BB, Rimfire cartridges are limited to low pressures because they require a thin case so that the firing pin can crush the rim and ignite the primer. Rimfire cartridges of.44 caliber up to.56 caliber were once common when black powder was used as a propellant, modern rimfire cartridges use smokeless powder which generates much higher pressures and tend to be of.22 caliber or smaller.
Rimfire cartridges are typically inexpensive, primarily due to the inherent cost-efficiency of the ability to manufacture the cartridges in large lots, the price of metals used in the cartridges increased in 2002, the prices of the ammunition further increased in 2012 possibly due to hoarding. The idea of placing a priming compound in the rim of the cartridge evolved from an 1831 patent, by 1845, this had evolved into the Flobert.22 BB Cap, in which the priming compound is distributed just inside the rim. The.22 BB Cap is essentially just a percussion cap with a round ball pressed in the front, intended for use in an indoor gallery target rifle, it used no gunpowder, but relied entirely on the priming compound for propulsion. Its velocities were very low, comparable to an airgun, the next rimfire cartridge was the.22 Short, developed for Smith & Wessons first revolver, in 1857, it used a longer rimfire case and 4 grains of black powder to fire a conical bullet. This led to the.22 Long, with the bullet weight as the short.
This was followed by the.22 Extra Long with a longer than the.22 Long. The.22 Long Rifle is a.22 Long case loaded with the heavier Extra Long bullet intended for performance in the long barrel of a rifle. Larger rimfire calibers were used during the American Civil War in the Henry Repeater, the Spencer Repeater, the Ballard rifle and the Frank Wesson carbine. The early 21st century has seen a revival in interest in rimfire cartridges, a new and increasingly popular rimfire, the 17 HMR is based on a.22 WMR casing with a smaller formed neck which accepts a.17 bullet. The advantages of the 17 HMR over.22 WMR and other rimfire cartridges are its much flatter trajectory, the.17 HM2 is based on the.22 Long Rifle and offers similar performance advantages over its parent cartridge, at a significantly higher cost. While.17 HM2 sells for about four times the cost of.22 Long Rifle ammunition, it is significantly cheaper than most centerfire ammunition. A notable rimfire cartridge that is still in production in Europe and this cartridge can fire a small ball, but is primarily loaded with a small amount of shot, and used in smoothbore guns as a miniature shotgun, or garden gun
Vermin are pests or nuisance animals, that spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock. Use of the term implies the need for extermination programs, since the term is defined in relation to human activities, which species are included vary from area to area and person to person. Varmint or varmit is an American-English colloquialism, particularly common to the American east and South-east within the bordering states of the vast Appalachia region. The term vermin is used to refer to a scope of organisms, including rodents, fleas, lice, bed bugs. Birds which eat crops and fruit are an example. The American crow, is hated by farmers because of crop depredation. Pigeons, which have been introduced in urban environments, are sometimes considered vermin. Some varieties of snakes and arachnids may be referred to as vermin, vermin is used as a term for vile people, an enemy of a state or nation, or certain ethnic groups that are considered subhuman. Species can develop into vermin if introduced into regions where they find living conditions.
In such cases, humans often choose to fill the role of the predator to limit the danger to the environment, examples of vermin include goats on the Galápagos Islands, rabbits in Australia or cats on Prince Edward Islands. Rats and cockroaches are common urban and suburban vermin, hunting laws and definitions vary by province in Canada. Under Tudor vermin laws, many creatures were seen as competitors for the produce of the countryside, the declaration of the red kite as vermin led to its decline to the point of extirpation in the UK by the 20th century. However, the red kite is being reintroduced by the trans-location of breeding pairs from other parts of Europe, parasite Varmint hunting The dictionary definition of vermin at Wiktionary The New Brunswick Ministry of Natural Resources
Sturm, Ruger & Co.
Sturm, Ruger & Co. Inc. is an American, Connecticut–based firearm manufacturing company, better known by the shortened name Ruger. The company was founded in 1949 by Alexander McCormick Sturm and William B, Ruger and has been publicly traded since 1969. Ruger produces bolt-action, semi-automatic, and single-shot rifles, semi-automatic pistols, Ruger & Company was founded by William B. Ruger and Alexander McCormick Sturm in 1949 in a small rented shop in Southport. Ruger is a dominant manufacturer in the.22 LR rimfire rifle market in the U. S. due primarily to the sales of its Ruger 10/22 semiautomatic rifle, the 10/22 is very popular due to being relatively inexpensive and of good quality. As a result, a wealth of after-market accessories and parts were available for it. The availability and variety of after-market parts makes it possible to build a 10/22 using only these parts, Ruger similarly dominates the.22 rimfire semi-automatic pistol market with the Ruger MK II and Ruger MK III, descendants of the Ruger Standard pistol.
Like the 10/22, the MkII is supported with a variety of after-market accessories. The 22/45 is similar to the Ruger Standard family of pistols but features a different grip angle, Ruger Casting has plants in Newport, New Hampshire and Prescott, making ferrous, ductile iron and commercial titanium castings. Ruger Golf makes steel and titanium castings for golf clubs made by a number of different brands, Ruger stock has been publicly traded since 1969, and became a New York Stock Exchange company in 1990. After Alex Sturm’s death in 1951, William B, Ruger continued to direct the company until his death in 2002. From 1949 through 2004, Ruger manufactured over 20 million firearms, and currently offers models for hunting, target shooting, self-defense and law enforcement. Sturm, Ruger & Co. is headquartered in Southport and maintains manufacturing facilities in Newport, New Hampshire, Prescott and Mayodan, North Carolina. Rugers subsidiaries are Ruger Precision Metals LLC in Earth City, Pine Tree Castings in Newport, New Hampshire, and Ruger Sportswear & Accessories in Mayodan, North Carolina.
Of the total 2,288 makers of civilian firearms operating in the United States from 1986–2010, Ruger was ranked the number one U. S. firearms manufacturer from 2008–2011. In 2011, Ruger manufactured 1,114,687 firearms, as their promotion, the company has set a new goal of 2 million firearms produced per year. From 2009 to 2012, Ruger was the top-seller of handguns, list of modern armament manufacturers TALO Distributors Wilson, R. L. Ruger & His Guns, A History of the Man, the Company and Their Firearms. Sturm, Ruger & Co official site Ruger Official History
The.17 Hornady Mach 2, or.17 HM2, is a rimfire cartridge introduced in 2004 by the ammunition manufacturer Hornady, following the successful launch in 2002 of the.17 HMR. The.17 HM2 is based on the.22 Long Rifle Stinger case, necked down to.17 caliber, the ultralight bullet is a key part of achieving the very-high velocity for a rimfire round. It weighs only 17 grains vs 30-40 grains for typical.22 LR bullets, the.17 HM2 may or may not live up to its Mach 2 name, depending on geographic location and conditions, with velocities out of a rifle of 2100 ft/s. The velocity is nearly double that of a standard.22 LR, since the.17 HM2 is based on the.22 Long Rifle converting most bolt action firearms chambered in.22 Long Rifle to.17 HM2 requires only a barrel change. The higher pressure makes conversion of semi-automatic firearms more difficult, as all are blowback designs that are sensitive to pressure changes. Kits for the Ruger 10/22 and AR-15 have appeared, and they replace the bolt or bolt handle with a heavier one to increase the bolt mass.
List of handgun cartridges List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 4 mm caliber.17 Rimfire The.17 HM2 by Chuck Hawks Eley CCI
The.480 Ruger is a large, high-power revolver cartridge, introduced in 2003 by Sturm and Hornady. This was the first new cartridge introduced by Ruger, and was at time of introduction the largest-diameter production revolver cartridge, the.475 Linebaugh was introduced around 1988 as a custom, 5-shot Ruger Blackhawk single-action revolver. The.475 is a wildcat cartridge made by cutting the. 45-70 case to a length of 1.4 inches, the.475 Linebaugh is an immensely powerful cartridge, almost as powerful as the.454 Casull, the most powerful production revolver cartridge at the time. When Ruger began to design their new cartridge, they started with the.475 Linebaugh super-magnum cartridge, rather than using the Blackhawk, Ruger chose to chamber the new round in the double-action Super Redhawk, and designed the cartridge to fit in a 6-shot cylinder. The Super Redhawk was already the only 6-shot.454 Casull revolver in production, the.480 case was also.21 inches shorter than the.475 Linebaugh, at 1.285 inches, the same as the.44 Magnum.
The. 45-70s large diameter rim is turned down, which is required to fit the 6 cartridges in the Super Redhawks cylinder without interference. The.480 Ruger is often viewed by some as a.475 Special, in other words, as a slightly downgraded version of the super-magnum cartridge. In fact.480 Ruger rounds will fit and function in a.475 Linebaugh revolver, just as a.44 Special will fit and function in revolvers chambered for the.44 Magnum. The.480 Ruger operates at a pressure of 48,000 psi, whereas the Linebaugh has a maximum pressure of 50,000. Depending on load, the.480 Ruger can easily reach within 150 ft/s of the.475 Linebaugh, making it a very formidable hunting cartridge for large and dangerous game. Indeed, the first factory load, a 325-grain bullet at 1,350 ft/s, is nearly within reach of the.44 Magnum, with bullets of 400 grains and higher, the.480 Ruger starts to show more potential. The standard.44 Magnum powders, in amounts, will push a 400-grain bullet at over 1300 ft/s. This provides 1,500 ft·lbf.
of muzzle energy, about 50% more than commercial.44 Magnum loads, the lower velocities and lower pressures mean the.480 Ruger has less felt recoil and muzzle blast than the higher pressure super-magnums. The.480 is a cartridge, providing a lot of energy without the recoil of larger hard-kicking rounds. It has been stated by many gun writers that the.44 Magnum is typically the most powerful handgun an average person can master. The.480 should be able to take that title, as its original Hornady loading of a 325 gr JHP, easily surpasses factory loadings for the.44 Magnum, the future of this round remains cloudy. Magazine articles and online forums were, for a brief while, lackluster sales and a limited number of firearms available in this caliber have shown it to have only moderate popularity. Much of this may be due to the somewhat lackluster ballistics available from the initial Hornady factory offerings, for the most part, the round was seen as not doing anything new, and available loads limited its potential for the non-handloader to mere deer hunting
Ammunition is the general term used for the material fired, dropped or detonated from any weapon. The term ammunition can be traced back to the mid 17th century, broadly speaking, ammunition refers to both expendable weapons and the component parts of other weapons that create the effect on a target. Nearly all weapons will require some form of ammunition to operate, the word comes from the French la munition, which refers to the material used for war. The terms ammunition and munitions are used interchangeably, although the term munition now usually refers to both the actual weapons system alongside the ammunition required to operate it. The purpose of ammunition is to project a force against a target to have an effect. The most iconic example of ammunition is the cartridge, which all components required to deliver the weapon effect in a single package. Ammunition comes in a range of sizes and types and is often designed to work only in specific weapons systems. However, there are internationally recognized standards for certain types that enable their use across different weapons.
There are types of ammunition that are designed to have a specialized effect on a target, such as armor-piercing shells and tracer ammunition. Ammunition is commonly colored in a manner to assist in the identification. A round is a cartridge containing a projectile, primer. A shell is a form of ammunition that is fired by a large cannon or artillery piece. Before the mid-19th century, these shells were made of solid materials. However, since that time, they are often filled with high-explosives. A shot refers to a release of a weapons system. This may involve firing just one round or piece of ammunition, a dud refers to loaded ammunition that fails to function as intended, typically failing to detonate on landing. However, it can refer to ammunition that fails to fire inside the weapon, known as a misfire, or when the ammunition only partially functions. Dud ammunition, which is classified as an ordnance, is regarded as highly dangerous
.17 Hornady Magnum Rimfire, commonly known as the.17 HMR, is a rimfire rifle cartridge developed by the ammunition company Hornady in 2002. It descended from the.22 Magnum by necking down the.22 Magnum case to take a.17 caliber projectile, commonly loaded with a 17 grain projectile, it can deliver muzzle velocities in excess of 775 m/s. The.17 HMR round is similar to rounds developed by dedicated rimfire wildcatters who worked to create a cartridge with an exceptionally flat trajectory. With 5mm diameter barrels and bullets being virtually unavailable at the time, the commercially available.17 caliber became their bullet of choice. The.22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire was the parent case, rather than 5mm RMR, because it was commonly available. The.17 caliber wildcats not only met, but far exceeded the 5 mm RMRs velocities, the accuracy of these cartridges was quite good. However, the energy of the 5mm RMR is superior to both.22 WMR and.17 HMR, so there is still potential in the 5mm rimfire for wildcatters.
Hornady, in conjunction with Marlin Firearms and Sturm, with the.22 WMR case as the starting point, a simple barrel change was sufficient for most.22 WMR firearms to chamber the new cartridge. In 2002 the first rifles and ammunition began appearing on the market, while the ammunition was relatively expensive due to the high-performance.17 caliber bullets used, it was still cheaper than most centerfire ammunition. By 2004 CCI, Federal Cartridge and Remington had each introduced.17 HMR ammunition offerings. Cartridges for.17 HMR come with bullets that weigh 15. 5-grain, 17-grain, and 20-grain, and come in such as polymer tipped, hollow points, soft points. A growing number of companies offer.17 HMR ammunition, CCI Ammunition loads all of the.17 HMR ammunition for the CCI, Federal Cartridge and Remington brands. However, the ammunition is loaded with different bullets to different specifications, Ammunition is available from Winchester, PMC and Sellier & Bellot. Citing safety concerns about the use in semi-automatic firearms, Remington issued a product safety warning.
Higher velocity, 2350-2550fps compared to the popular ≈1255fps. 22LR High Velocity, Flatter trajectory Longer range As the round is faster there is less chance of ricochet due to bullet break up at shorter ranges More expensive. Overly destructive at close range for small game, faster flight, 2350-2550fps compared to the Hornady 2200fps 22Wmr 30gr rounds Flatter trajectory Longer range. The.17 HM2 is based on the.22 LR case necked down to.17 caliber using the bullet as the HMR. 4 mm caliber Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 4. 5×26mm MKR Varmint Als Field Testing the.17 HMR
The.303 British or 7. 7×56mmR, is a. 303-inch calibre rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford rifle. In 1891 the cartridge was adapted to use smokeless powder and it was the standard British and Commonwealth military cartridge from 1889 until the 1950s when it was replaced by the 7. 62×51mm NATO. The.303 British has 3.64 ml cartridge case capacity, americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ≈17 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 254 mm,5 grooves, Ø lands =7.70 millimetres, Ø grooves =7.92 millimetres, land width =2.12 millimetres and the primer type is Berdan or Boxer. Rulings the.303 British can handle up to 365.00 MPa Pmax piezo pressure, regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C. I. P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that.303 British chambered arms in C. I. P, regulated countries are currently proof tested at 456.00 MPa PE piezo pressure.
The SAAMI Maximum Average Pressure for this cartridge is 49,000 psi piezo pressure, the measurement. 303-inch is the nominal size of the bore measured between the lands which follows the older black powder nomenclature. Measured between the grooves, the size of the bore is. 311-inch. Bores for many.303 military surplus rifles are found ranging from around. 309-inch up to. 318-inch. Recommended bullet diameter for standard.303 British cartridges is. 312-inch, the bolt thrust of the.303 British is relatively low compared to many other service rounds used in the early 20th century. The original.303 British service cartridge employed black powder as a propellant, and was adopted for the Lee–Metford rifle, ballistite was a stick-type smokeless powder composed of soluble nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Unlike Cordite, Riflelite was a powder, and contained no nitroglycerine. After extensive testing, the Committee on Explosives selected Cordite for use in the Mark II.303 British service cartridge, the initial.303 Mark I and Mk II service cartridges employed a 215-grain, round-nosed, copper-nickel full-metal-jacketed bullet with a lead core.
After tests determined that the bullet had too thin a jacket when used with cordite. This led to the introduction of the Cartridge S. A. Ball.303 inch Cordite Mark III, similar hollow-point bullets were used in the Mk IV and Mk V loadings, which were put into mass production. The design of the Mk IV hollow-point bullet shifted bullet weight rearwards, improving stability, the remaining stocks were used for target practice. The concern about expanding bullets was brought up at the 1899 Hague Convention by Swiss, the British and American defense was that they should not focus on specific bullet designs, like hollow-points, but instead on rounds that caused superfluous injury. The parties in the end agreed to abstain from using expanding bullets, as a result, the Mark III and other expanding versions of the.303 were not issued during the Second Boer War
The.50 Browning Machine Gun is a cartridge developed for the Browning.50 caliber machine gun in the late 1910s. Entering service officially in 1921, the round is based on a greatly scaled-up. 30-06 cartridge, under STANAG4383, it is a standard cartridge for NATO forces as well as many non-NATO countries. The cartridge itself has made in many variants, multiple generations of regular ball, armor-piercing, incendiary. The rounds intended for machine guns are linked using metallic links, the.50 BMG cartridge is used in long-range target and sniper rifles, as well as other. 50-caliber machine guns. A wide variety of ammunition is available, and the availability of match grade ammunition has increased the usefulness of.50 caliber rifles by allowing more fire than lower quality rounds. Armor-piercing incendiary tracer rounds were especially effective against aircraft, and the AP rounds and API rounds were excellent for destroying concrete bunkers, the API and APIT rounds left a flash and smoke on contact, useful in detecting strikes on enemy targets.
The rounds dimensions and ballistic traits are totally different, decades later, the.50 BMG was chambered in high-powered rifles as well. An upgraded variant of the M2 Browning HB machine gun used during World War II is still in use today. Since the mid-1950s, some armored personnel carriers and utility vehicles have made to withstand 12.7 mm machine gun fire. A skilled sniper can effectively neutralize an infantry unit by eliminating several targets without revealing his precise location, the long range between firing position and target allows time for the sniper to avoid enemy retribution by either changing positions repeatedly, or by safely retreating. A common method for understanding the power of a cartridge is by comparing muzzle energies. The.50 BMG round can produce between 10,000 and 15,000 foot pounds, depending on its powder and bullet type, the.50 BMG cartridge has a capacity of 290 grains H2O. The round is a version of the. 30-06 Springfield but uses a case wall with a long taper to facilitate feeding.
The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 1 in 15 in, with 8 lands, the primer type specified for this ammunition is Boxer primer that has a single centralized ignition point. However, some other countries produce the ammunition with Berdan primers that have two flash holes, the proof/test pressure is listed as 65,000 psi.50 BMG cartridges are produced commercially with a plethora of different bullets and to a number of different specifications. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Tracer, M1 Tracer for observing fire, target designation and this bullet has a red tip. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Incendiary, M1 This cartridge is used against unarmored, the incendiary bullet has a light blue tip. Cartridge, Caliber.50, Ball, M2 This cartridge is used against personnel and this bullet has an unpainted tip