National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland
The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. Originally organized as the United States National Museum, that ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Virginia, more than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates. The Institutions thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge and its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institutions endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford, Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1,1836.
The American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest, Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithsons rather vague mandate for the increase, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842, in 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation, in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research. The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, the Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. The Smithsonian Institution Building began construction in 1849, designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron and the building opened in 1855.
The Smithsonians first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881, Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonians Department of Living Animals and this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. More than 40 years would pass before the museum, the Museum of History. It was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead & White. That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration, the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum opened in the Old Patent Office Building on October 7,1968. The first new building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
Beaux-Arts architecture expresses the academic neoclassical architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without interruption until 1968. The Beaux-Arts style heavily influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920, in contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation often returned to Greek models, for the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches, highly finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, site considerations tended toward social and urbane contexts. In the façade shown to the right, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in an action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the teams of the first truly modern architectural offices.
The prestige of the École gave the style Beaux-Arts a second wind in combining the new manner with the traditional training and they were followed by an entire generation. Henry Hobson Richardson absorbed Beaux-Arts lessons in massing and spatial planning and his Beaux-Arts training taught him to transcend slavish copying and recreate in the essential fully digested and idiomatic manner of his models. Richardson evolved a personal style freed of historicism that was influential in early Modernism. The White City of the Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was a triumph of the movement, the Beaux-Arts curriculum was subsequently begun at Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania, and elsewhere. From 1916, the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York City schooled architects, bosworth, Carnegie Mellon University, designed by Henry Hornbostel, and the University of Texas, designed by Paul Philippe Cret. Beaux-Arts architecture brought a civic face to the railroad, two of the best American examples of the Beaux-Arts tradition stand within a few blocks of each other, Grand Central Terminal and the New York Public Library.
Another prominent U. S. example of the style is the largest academic dormitory in the world, in the late 1800s, during the years when Beaux-Arts architecture was at a peak in France, Americans were one of the largest groups of foreigners in Paris. Many of them were architects and students of architecture who brought this back to America. Beaux-Arts was very prominent in public buildings in Canada in the early 20th century, notably all three prairie provinces legislative buildings are in this style. Buenos Aires is a center of Beaux-Arts architecture which continued to be built as late as the 1950s, national Theatre, Melbourne General Post Office building, Forrest Place, Perth Argus Building. Beaux-Arts Architecture in New York, A Photographic Guide United States, sixteenth Street Architecture – profiles of Beaux-Arts architecture in Washington D. C
The Fraser Mansion is a building at 1701 20th Street NW, at the intersection of Connecticut Avenue, 20th Street, and R Street in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Since its construction in 1890, the mansion has served as a residence, a restaurant, a boarding house. The building is currently the location of Scientologys National Affairs office, the mansion was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. The mansion was designed by the firm of Hornblower and Marshall in an early eclectic beaux arts style to serve as the home of New York merchant George S. Fraser. The building is three stories tall with two basement levels and an attic and it is constructed of red brick and pink granite with a colonnaded entrance porch with balustraded deck, and a tiled, hipped roof. The interior was planned around an open stair, with large. It was constructed in 1890 at a cost of $75,000, the building served as Frasers residence until his death in 1896. In 1901, Frasers widow sold the mansion to Pennsylvania Congressman Joseph Earlston Thropp, the Thropps made exterior alterations, enlarging dormer windows and adding an oriel window in 1901.
In 1905, architects Totten and Rogers designed a terrace with an entrance to the house near the oriel window, the mansion remained in the ownership of Thropp and his wife, Miriam Scott-Thropp, until Scott-Thropps death in 1930. In 1932, the floor of the mansion began operation as the Parrot Tea Room. In 1950, upon leasing to John Goldstein, the facility was converted to a restaurant, the mansion was sold in 1974, and the restaurant was renamed the Golden Booeymonger. Later, the mansion became home to nightclubs Larry Browns and Sagittarius, the mansion was again sold in 1981 to Walter Sommer for $2 million. In 1982, following a $3 million restoration/renovation, the Fourways fine dining restaurant on the first floor, the Fourways served Continental European and American dishes under the leadership of chef Jacques Barre. By 1988, Sommer opened the Bermuda Bar and Grill patio-cafe alongside the Fourways, according to the Nations Restaurant News, the restaurant seated 40 people inside and 60 outside, and was modeled after the Fourways Restaurant and Inn of Bermuda.
Another Bermudian tradition, Bermuda Fish Chowder with Outerbridges Sherry Peppers Sauce was always on the menu, in 1987, Sommer proposed to construct a seven-story, 29-unit apartment building in its parking lot behind the mansion. At the time, the property was zoned residential, with variances permitting a restaurant on the property, Sommer claimed that without commercial zoning, he was unable to obtain a realistic commercial loan to fund maintenance costs. Between 1982 and 1987, the D. C, board of Zoning Appeals granted Sommer variances to expand the commercial use of the building above the first floor permitting a private business club on the second floor. The third floor was an apartment for the General Manager, while the proposed design for the building was approved by the D. C
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Engine Company 23
Engine Company 23 is a fire station and a historic structure located in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C. The two-story Italianate style building was a collaboration of the Washington, D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall, the exterior of the structure features segmental-arched vehicle openings and quoined limestone frontispiece. It was listed on both the DC Inventory of Historic Sites in 2005 and on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, the building sits on the campus of the George Washington University near Kogan Plaza
The Phillips Collection
Duncan Phillips played a seminal role in introducing America to modern art. Born in Pittsburgh—the grandson of James H. Laughlin, a banker and co-founder of the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company—Phillips and his moved to Washington. Beginning with a small collection of paintings, Phillips, a published art critic. A specially built room over the wing of the family home provided a public gallery space. With the collection exceeding 600 works and facing public demand, the Phillips family moved to a new home in 1930, Duncan Phillips married painter Marjorie Acker in 1921. His focus on the tradition of art was revolutionary at a time when America was largely critical of modernism. Moreover, she helped launch its national fundraising campaign, the Phillips Collection, opened in 1921, is America’s first museum of modern art. Featuring a permanent collection of nearly 3,000 works by American and European impressionist and modern artists and it is housed in founder Duncan Phillips’1897 Georgian Revival home and two similarly scaled additions in Washington, D. C.
’s Dupont Circle neighborhood. In 1923, Phillips purchased Pierre-Auguste Renoirs impressionist painting, Luncheon of the Boating Party and he presented visual connections—between past and present, between classical form and romantic expression—as dialogues on the walls of the museum. He exhibited watercolors by John Marin with paintings by Cézanne, Phillips’ vision brought together congenial spirits among the artists, and his ideas still guide the museum today. The Phillips Collection is known for its groups of works by artists who Phillips particularly favored, for example, he was overwhelmed by Bonnard’s expressive use of color, acquiring 17 paintings by the artist. Cubist pioneer Braque is represented by 13 paintings, including the monumental still-life The Round Table, the collection has an equal number of works by Klee, such as Arab Song and Picture Album, as well as seven pieces by abstract expressionist artist Mark Rothko. The Rothko Room is the existing installation for the artists work in collaboration with the artist himself.
Phillips was initially attracted to Rothkos work because he saw the use of color as similar to Bonards, by purchasing works by such promising but unknown artists, Phillips provided them with the means to continue painting. The museum served as a haven for artists such as Richard Diebenkorn, Gene Davis. In a 1982 tribute to the museum, Noland acknowledged, I’ve spent many hours of many days in this home of art and you can be with art in the Phillips as in no other place I know. In 2013, the museum opened its second permanent installation, a room covered in wax by artist Wolfgang Laib. Though Laibs work is interpreted as evocative of nature, the piece
Maryhill Museum of Art
Maryhill Museum of Art is a small museum with an eclectic collection, located near what is now the community of Maryhill in the U. S. state of Washington. The museum is situated on a bluff overlooking the eastern end of the Columbia River Gorge, the structure was originally intended as a mansion for entrepreneur Samuel Hill, and was designed by architects Hornblower and Marshall. Construction was halted upon Americas entry into World War I, the unfinished museum building was dedicated on November 3,1926 by Queen Marie of Romania, and was opened to the public on Hills birthday in 1940. The museums first physical expansion was completed when the Mary and Bruce Stevenson Wing opened to the public in May 2012 and it includes a plaza that overlooks the Columbia River, an education center, a collections suite and a café. European and American paintings, including works by William McGregor Paxton, R. H. Ives Gammell, William Stanley Haseltine, Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton and Edwin Blashfield.
The Maryhill Museum building was designed as a residence for Sam Hill by Washington. It was designed in a Beaux-Arts style and built of steel-reinforced concrete beginning in 1914, Hill imagined the structure as a ranch building amidst a 5, 300-acre agricultural community that he was developing at the eastern end of the Columbia River Gorge. During a 1917 visit by his friend Loïe Fuller, he decided to turn his home into “a museum for the public good, and for the betterment of French art in the far Northwest of America. ”Hill’s contribution to the new museum included almost 90 American Indian baskets, more than 70 Rodin sculptures and watercolors. Fuller herself provided the museum with plaster casts of the hands of more than a dozen period celebrities and she gave the museum numerous small, carved ivory crucifix figures that were originally given to her by Désiré-Joseph Mercier, Cardinal Archbishop of Mechelen. She convinced some of her friends to make their own donations to the fledgling museum.
During her 1926 visit for the dedication, Queen Marie of Romania gave Maryhill more than 100 objects. These included personal items, Romanian folk objects, Russian icons and that same year, Queen Marie’s oldest daughter Elisabetha, the former Queen Consort of Greece, gave the museum a collection of small Tanagra figurines and a number of ancient Cypriot amphorae. A year earlier, the museum had received its very first donation—three silver filigree objects—from Queen Marie’s second daughter, Queen Consort of the Serbs, Maryhill Museum owes a profound debt to its fourth great patron, Alma de Bretteville Spreckels. Following the deaths of Hill and Queen Marie, she worked tirelessly to turn Sam Hill’s unfinished mansion into an art museum. Over the years, Spreckels had acquired many objects from Queen Marie that were intended for a Romanian Room in San Franciscos California Palace of the Legion of Honor and she instead donated this material to Maryhill Museum in 1938. It included Queen Marie’s gold throne and other pieces of Byzantine-inspired furniture, a replica of her coronation crown.
Spreckels’ efforts helped bring the Théâtre de la Mode to Maryhill, after being displayed in Paris in 1945–1946, the mannequins toured Europe and the United States. Their final American venue was the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco, organizers attempted to return them to Paris, but the Théâtre de la Mode originator, the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne, was unwilling to pay custom charges
Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C.
Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. is located at the corner of 8th and I Streets, Southeast in Washington, D. C. It is home to the U. S. Marine Drum and Bugle Corps, Barracks Marines conduct ceremonial missions in and around the National Capital Region as well as abroad. Marine Barracks Washington and the Historic Home of the Commandants were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, a 6-acre property with eight contributing buildings was included in the listing. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1976, the buildings at the Marine Barracks are some of the oldest in Washington. They chose a location within marching distance of both the Navy Yard and the Capitol and hired architect George Hadfield to design the barracks, when the British burned Washington during the War of 1812, they captured the Marine barracks. It is traditionally held within the Marine Corps that, out of respect for the showing of the Marines at Bladensburg, the British refrained from burning the barracks.
This was simply due to the fact that Millers Marines had brought heavier field guns, there is little doubt that Barneys sailors would have held their ground had it not been for the cannons dispensing grape and canister volley after volley into the 85th Light Foot Regt. This is supported by the fact that Baltimore artillery on the Marines right flank was only firing round shot in an attempt to stop Thornton from crossing the bridge, round shot, in general, is very ineffective against dispersed troops such as the light infantry of the 85th. This account of events still survives, The people of the flotilla, under the orders of Captain Barney, no troops could have stood better, and the fire of both artillery and musketry has been described as to the last degree severe. The last stand of the sailors and Marines is to this day immortalized by Col. Charles Waterhouses painting of Captain Millers Marines manning two of the three 12 lb Gribeuaval type cannons. The three guns themselves were hauled from the Marine barracks onto the battlefield to cover a strategic bridgehead and this event has been marked by sculptor Joanna Blake of Cottage City in her Undaunted in Battle.
It shows a wounded Barney being helped by a Marine and flanked by a sailor presumably representing a member of the Flotilla, the background shows a wheeled cannon, likely one of the three hauled to the battlefield by the Marines. Ones that proved so decisive in holding off the British even if for a brief moment, the Commandants house is the only original building left in the complex, the remainder having been rebuilt in 1900 and 1907. The Marine Corps Institute moved to the barracks from its previous home at Marine Barracks Quantico in 1920, the Drum and Bugle Corps has been based at the barracks since its formation in 1934. The barracks complex is one of the oldest government buildings in use in Washington. Funeral escort for Marines and dignitaries, ceremonial honor guard for state functions. Security forces for Camp David and the White House Communications Agency, Friday Evening Parade Tuesday Sunset Parade at the Iwo Jima Memorial Provided military correspondence courses for Marines and other services through tenant Marine Corps Institute.
- Officially Deactivated 1 October 2015 Training to maintain MOS proficiency and emergency preparedness, during the summer months, a sunset parade is held every Tuesday evening at the Marine Corps War Memorial in Rosslyn, Virginia near Arlington National Cemetery