British Comedy Guide
British Comedy Guide or BCG is a British website covering all forms of British comedy, across all media. At the time of writing, BCG has published guides to more than 7,000 individual British comedies - TV and radio situation comedy, sketch shows, comedy dramas, satire and panel games. Other notable features on BCG include a news section, a message board, interviews with comedians and actors, a series of comment and opinion articles, a searchable merchandise database, a section offering advice to aspiring comedy writers; the website runs The Comedy.co.uk Awards and hosts several podcast series, some of which have won awards. British Comedy Guide attracts over 500,000 unique visitors a month, making it Britain's most-visited comedy-related reference website; the website was founded in August 2003 as the British Sitcom Guide, a website devoted to British sitcom TV programmes. The website was established by Mark Boosey, a freelance web developer as a hobby. However, in 2008, it was decided to expand the remit of the website to cover all forms of British comedy, thus the BSG was re-launched as British Comedy Guide or BCG, has continued to expand since this point.
Other features added since the site's re-launch in 2008 as British Comedy Guide include a series of podcasts, a section featuring interviews with people working in the British comedy industry and a Twitter-based news service. The website went through another relaunch in 2016, where it underwent a re-design of the layout, a new logo, increased coverage of online comedy and people working in British comedy. In 2015, BCG's data specialist Ian Wolf was awarded the inaugural "Unsung Hero" at the first FringePig Ham Fist awards for his work collating reviews during that year's Edinburgh Festival Fringe. BCG hosts a range of podcasts; as It Occurs To Me was nominated for a Sony Radio Academy Award in 2010, Do The Right Thing won the Bronze Sony Award for "Best Internet Programme" in 2012, Pappy's Flatshare Slamdown won the 2012 Loaded Lafta award for "Best Podcast", Richard Herring's Leicester Square Theatre Podcast won the Bronze Sony Radio Award for comedy in 2013. In June 2013, an episode of Richard Herring's Leicester Square Theatre Podcast saw host Richard Herring interviewing Stephen Fry, in which Fry revealed that he had attempted to commit suicide.
The story was reported across the media, including the BBC and Sky News. The podcasts hosted by BCG are: In January 2007, the website launched The British Sitcom Guide Awards, which were renamed The British Comedy Guide Awards and are now known as The Comedy.co.uk Awards. The awards are notable for allowing the public to choose the winners via an online poll, but with no shortlist - all broadcast programmes are available to choose; this differs from the British Comedy Awards which relies on broadcasters to put their programmes forward for nomination, only uses a small panel of judges to determine the results. Additionally, The Comedy.co.uk Awards seeks to name not just the winners, but the worst programme in each category too. In order to be considered for a Comedy.co.uk Award, a programme must be a British comedy which has had at least one new episode broadcast on British TV or radio between 1 January and 31 December of the previous year. The only exception is shows which span across the new year, in which case it is nominated only in the first of the years.
Up until the 2015 awards the visitors taking part in the poll are asked to give three votes in each category: one to their favourite show, one to their second favourite show, one to their least favourite show. The vote for "top favourite" scores two points for the selected programme, a vote for a "second favourite" scores one; the comedy programme with the most points is declared the winner in that category. The show which receives the highest number of "worst" votes is declared the worst comedy in that category; the 2016 awards change format, removing the "worst" categories, people voting for the top three programmes, with their favourite show scoring three points, their second favourite two points, their third favourite one point. In the first week of voting all comedies from the year could be voted on, in the second week the six most popular shows in every category formed a shortlist. All of the awards are voted for by the website's users except one, the British Comedy Guide Editors' Award, an award voted for just by the controllers of the guide, is given "to the show, channel, or indeed anything else comedy related that deserves some recognition."
The first awards were presented in January 2007 and were known at the time as The British Sitcom Guide Awards 2006, but have since been renamed. Below are the awards; the second awards were presented in January 2008 under the title The British Sitcom Guide Awards 2007. Below are the results; the third awards were the first to include radio shows. The 2008 awards were known as the British Comedy Guide Awards 2008, but were renamed in 2009 to reflect the website's new URL. Below are the awards; the fourth awards were presented in January 2010. Below are the results; the fifth awards were presented in January 2011. Below are the results; the sixth awards were presented on 23 January 2012. Below are the results; the seventh awards were presented on 21 January 2013. Below are the results; the eighth awards were presented on 20 January 2014. Below are the results; the ninth awards were presented on 26 January 2015. Below are the results; the tenth awards were presented on 1 February 2016. Below are the results.
The 11th awards will be presented on 23 January 2016. Below are the winners; the 12th awards will be presente
BBC iPlayer is an internet streaming, catchup and radio service from the BBC. The service is available on a wide range of devices, including mobile phones and tablets, personal computers, smart televisions. IPlayer services delivered to UK based viewers feature no commercial advertising; the terms BBC iPlayer, iPlayer, BBC Media Player refer to various methods for viewing or listening to the same content. Viewing live television broadcasts from any UK broadcaster, or BBC TV catch-up or BBC TV on demand programmes, in the UK without a TV licence is a criminal offence. In 2015, the BBC reported that it was moving towards playing audio and video content via open HTML5 standards in web browsers rather than via Flash or their Media Player mobile app. On 17 October 2018, the BBC ` iPlayer Radio' brand was renamed. BBC Redux was developed as a proof of concept for a cross-platform, Flash Video-based streaming system. BBC iPlayer left beta and went live on 25 December 2007. On 25 June 2008, a new-look iPlayer was launched as a beta-test version alongside the earlier version.
The site tagline was "Catch up on the last 7 days of BBC TV & Radio", reflecting that programmes were unavailable on iPlayer after this time. The BBC state on their website; the marketing slogan was changed to "Making the unmissable, unmissable". In May 2010 the site was updated again, to include a recommendations feature and a "social makeover". In February 2011, the BBC iPlayer was once again modified to include links to programmes from other broadcasters, including ITV, ITV2, ITV3, ITV4, Channel 4, E4, More4, Film4, Channel 5, 5Star, 5USA and S4C; the feature was added to the channels function. When users click on a programme by another broadcaster, they are redirected to the relevant broadcaster's catch up service. In April 2014, BBC iPlayer was once again relaunched with a different user interface. From October 2014, the BBC extended the programme availability for programmes on iPlayer from 7 days to 30 days. However, due to legal reasons, most news bulletins are only available for 24 hours after initial broadcast.
Some archive programming is available for the long term, such as Timewatch. Specific applications for mobile platforms were launched in February 2011; these were for iOS and Android devices, where the launch would have the biggest impact. The original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five-month trial by five thousand broadband users until 28 February 2006. IPlayer was criticised for delay in its launch and cost to BBC licence-fee payers, because no finished product had been released after four years of development. A new, improved iPlayer service had another limited user trial which began on 15 November 2006. At various times during its development, iPlayer was known as the Integrated Media Player, Interactive Media Player, MyBBCPlayer; the iPlayer received the approval of the BBC Trust on 30 April 2007, an open beta for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 was launched at midnight on 27 July 2007, where it was announced that only a fixed number of people would be able to sign up for the service, with a controlled increase in users over the summer.
The BBC had been criticised for saying that the iPlayer would'launch' on 27 July 2007, when what was on offer was an extension of the beta to an open beta, admitting more users in a controlled manner. This was done to allow British ISPs and the BBC to gauge the effect of the iPlayer traffic on the Internet within the UK; the open beta incorporated a media player, an electronic programme guide and specially designed download client, allowed the download of BBC Television content by computers assigned to a United Kingdom-based IP address, for use up to thirty days after broadcast. However, it was available only to users of Windows XP; this was a controversial decision by the BBC, which led to a petition against the decision being posted on 10 Downing Street's e-petition website. The petition reached 16,082 signatures on 20 August 2007; the response from the Government was:... the Trust noted the strong public demand for the service to be available on a variety of operating systems. The BBC Trust made it a condition of approval for the BBC's on-demand services that the iPlayer is available to users of a range of operating systems, has given a commitment that it will ensure that the BBC meets this demand as soon as possible.
They will publish the findings. On 16 October 2007, the BBC announced a strategic relationship with Adobe, that would bring a limited, streaming-only version of the iPlayer to Mac and Linux users, Windows users who cannot or do not wish to use the iPlayer download service, such as Windows 9x users; the streaming service was launched on 13 December 2007. Most programmes can be viewed for up to seven days after broadcast, unlike the thirty days provided by the download service. Since January 2008, iPlayer has supported Mozilla Firefox under the Microsoft Windows platform for downloading content. Before the iPlayer had launched, it was announced that the BBC, alongside ITV and Channel 4, were intending to launch a new video on demand platform, provisionally named Kangaroo, it was intended that Kangaroo would complement the video on demand services that these channels were offering, including the iPlayer, by making programmes available once their "catch up" period expires. The Kangaroo project was abandoned after being blocked by the Competi
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Launched on 9 February 2003 as a replacement for BBC Choice, the service's remit was to provide "innovative programming" to a target audience of viewers between 16 and 34 years old, leveraging technology as well as new talent. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Three's output originated from the United Kingdom. 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, current affairs, drama. BBC Three had a unique 60 Seconds format for its news bulletins, adopted so that operation of the channel could be automated, without the complication of dealing with variable-length live news broadcasts; the former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, at which point BBC Three commissioner Sam Bickley became acting controller. Until February 2016, the network broadcast on Freeview, digital cable, IPTV and Satellite television platforms, was on-air from 7 pm to around 4 am each night to share terrestrial television bandwidth with CBBC.
In March 2014, as a result of a planned £100 million budget cut across the BBC, it was proposed that BBC Three be discontinued as an'open' television service, be converted to an over-the-top Internet television service with a smaller programming budget and a focus on short-form productions. Despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year; the TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016. In late 2001, the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two, their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three. However, questions were raised over the proposed format of the new BBC Three, as some thought the new format would be too similar to the BBC's commercial rivals, namely ITV2 and E4, would be unnecessary competition.
The channel was given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, launched on 9 February 2003. The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who ran BBC Choice, before that UK Play, the now-discontinued UKTV music and comedy channel. At 33, Murphy was still the youngest channel controller in the country, a title he had held since launching UK Play at the age of 26. On 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229, it was moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, to free up space for new channels. It was moved to 115. For the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9:00 am to 4:00 am for the duration of the games. On 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014; the channel launched on 10 December 2013.
In February 2014, BBC Director-General Tony Hall announced that cuts of £100 million would have to be made at the corporation. On 5 March 2014, Hall announced a proposal to convert BBC Three to an online-only service, with an 50% cut in its programming budget, a larger emphasis on short form content due to the cut in funding; these changes formed part of a package of proposals from the BBC, including extending CBBC's hours, respending £30m on BBC One audiences for drama, launching a one-hour timeshift channel of BBC One. There was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change.org has gathered over 300,000 signatures. However, there was some support from media commentators, those who backed a "slimmer" BBC; when the BBC revealed the full detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers but said there was support for the wider package of proposals.
They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits "a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels". The'Save BBC Three' campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three; the BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it ended with a protest outside Broadcasting House. As part of the consultation a letter of 750 names against the move from the creative industry was sent to the BBC Trust, this had the backing of a number of celebrities including Daniel Radcliffe, Aidan Turner, Olivia Colman and Lena Headey; the polling company ICM concluded a "large majority" of those that replied to the consultation were against the move with respondents concerned about those who cannot stream programming online, the effect of the content budget cuts, the BBC's own admission the audience numbers would drop. The Save BBC Three campaign has argued the transition period is too short and that programmes like Family Guy and Don't Tell the Bride have not performed as well on BBC One and BBC Two with the 16-34 year old audience, in comparison to BBC Three.
It did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. Nonetheless, the BBC Trust issued its final decision to approve the transition in November 2015, citing the fact th
James Kimberley Corden is an English actor and television host. He hosts The Late Late Show with James Corden, a late-night television talk show on CBS. Along with Welsh actress Ruth Jones, Corden co-created, co-wrote and starred in the critically acclaimed BBC sitcom Gavin & Stacey for which he won the BAFTA Television Award for Best Comedy Performance, he was featured on the UK No.1 single "Shout", along with grime artist Dizzee Rascal, an unofficial anthem of the England football team for the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, duetted with Australian singer Kylie Minogue on a cover of "Only You" in 2015. Appearing on the UK charity telethon Comic Relief in 2011, Corden created his Carpool Karaoke sketch when he drove around London singing songs with George Michael. In 2009, Corden presented the BRIT Awards with Mathew Horne. In 2011, he returned to host the BRIT Awards, he continued to host the ceremony annually until 2014. In 2016, he hosted the 70th Tony Awards, he has presented the sports-based comedy panel show A League of Their Own on Sky One since 2010.
In 2011, he played the lead part in the comedy play One Man, Two Guvnors, which transferred from the National Theatre to the West End and to Broadway and was cinecast worldwide via National Theatre Live. For his performance in the Broadway run of the play, Corden won the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play. In 2015 he received the BAFTA Britannia Award for British Artist of the Year. Corden was born in the son of Margaret and Malcolm Corden, his father was a musician in the Royal Air Force band and his mother was a social worker. He grew up in Hazlemere and attended Park Middle School and Holmer Green Upper School, he has two sisters. He was raised in the Salvation Army church but no longer considers himself a Christian. Corden's first stage appearance was at the age of 18 with a one-line part in the 1996 musical Martin Guerre, his first TV reporter role was on the BBC's Good Morning with Nick. His early television work included Gareth Jones in the 1999 series Boyz Unlimited, he starred in Tango advertisements in 1998 and had a role as a bookish student in Teachers and in 2000 a small part in an episode of Hollyoaks.
Corden had guest appearances on Little Britain and Dalziel and Pascoe, both in 2004. Corden's early film credits include Whatever Happened to Harold Smith?, Mike Leigh's All or Nothing and Cruise of the Gods. From 2000 through early 2005, Corden starred in the British television series Fat Friends as Jamie Rymer, he garnered a nomination for the 2000 Royal Television Society Award for Network Newcomer On Screen for his work. Beginning in 2004, Corden played the role of Timms in the original London stage production of Alan Bennett's play The History Boys, as well as in the Broadway, Sydney and Hong Kong productions and radio and 2006 film adaptation versions of the play. In 2006, he appeared in the film Starter for 10. From 2007 through early 2010, Corden co-starred in his own series, the BBC Three sitcom Gavin & Stacey, he co-wrote the series with his Fat Friends co-star Ruth Jones. The series was well-received critically. For the show, Corden won Best Male Comedy Performer and Gavin & Stacey won Best New British Television Comedy at the 2007 British Comedy Awards.
At the 2008 Television BAFTAs, Corden won the BAFTA for Best Male Comedy Performance, Gavin & Stacey won the BAFTA's Audience Award for Programme of the Year. In December 2008, the show won Best TV Comedy in the 2008 British Comedy Awards. Gavin & Stacey won the award for Most Popular Comedy Programme at the National Television Awards in 2010. During the two year, seven months run of Gavin & Stacey, Corden's professional endeavours outside the successful series proved somewhat chequered, he guest hosted Big Brother's Big Mouth, with Gavin & Stacey co-star Mathew Horne, in August 2007. In 2008, he appeared in the film of Toby Young's 2001 autobiography How to Lose Friends & Alienate People, he collaborated again with Horne on a 2009 sketch show named Horne & Corden, described by the BBC as a "traditional comedy entertainment show in the style of Morecambe and Wise". The show ran for only one series and was poorly received by the critics, with Corden admitting "the absolute truth is I wasn't good enough."In 2009, Corden starred as the lead character in the film Lesbian Vampire Killers, not a success.
That year he played Clem Cattini in the Joe Meek biopic Telstar, in the animated Planet 51 along with Mathew Horne. In February 2009, he co-presented the Brit Awards with Kylie Minogue. On 13 March 2009, he appeared in a sketch for the UK charity telethon Comic Relief giving the England football team a motivational talk, presented a section with Horne showing their best bits of comedy from the previous two years along with highlights from the night. In March 2010, Corden began hosting the Sky 1 comedy/sports panel show A League of Their Own alongside team captains Andrew Flintoff and Jamie Redknapp. In March 2010, he presented Sport Relief 2010 alongside Davina McCall and others, contributed a "sequel" to the 2009 England football team sketch, this time giving a motivational talk to various sports stars including David Beckham and motor racing driver Jenson Button. In March 2010, Corden took part in Channel 4's Comedy Gala, a benefit show held in aid of Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, filmed live at the O2 Arena in London.
On 5 June 2010, he performed his England World Cup single with Dizzee Rascal on the finale of Britain's Got Talent
Metro (British newspaper)
Metro is the United Kingdom's highest-circulation newspaper, published in tabloid format by DMG Media. The free newspaper is distributed from Monday to Friday mornings on trains and buses, at railway/Underground stations and hospitals across selected urban areas of England and Scotland. Copies are handed out to pedestrians. Metro is owned by Daily Mail and General Trust plc, part of the same media group as the Daily Mail and The Mail on Sunday, but in some areas Metro operates as a franchise with a local newspaper publisher, rather than as a wholly owned concern. While being a sister paper to the conservative Daily Mail, the newspaper has never endorsed any political party or candidate, claims to take a neutral political stance in its reporting; the Metro free newspaper concept originated in Sweden, where a publication of the same name was launched in 1995 by Metro International. British newspaper executives Jonathan Harmsworth and Murdoch MacLennan, from DMGT, were inspired by the idea and flew to Stockholm on a'fact-finding mission' with a view to developing their own version.
There were reports in the late 1990s that both Metro International and Rupert Murdoch's News International were considering launching free newspapers in the UK which could be a commercial threat to DMGT's businesses. DMGT subsequently launched Metro, using the same name as Metro International's publications but with a different logo on Tuesday March 16, 1999; this UK version of Metro had no relation to Metro International or its sister newspapers in other countries. Metro was launched as a London-only newspaper with an original print run of 85,000 copies, which were distributed via dedicated bins in London Underground stations; the newspaper was produced at DMGT's printworks and office complex at Surrey Quays in south east London, away from the company's main newspaper office in Kensington, west London. In the years following its launch, the paper's distribution was expanded to other major UK cities, including Manchester and Birmingham. By February 2003 Metro became operationally profitable for the first time.
In 2004 its reach was extended further, becoming available in more urban areas including Nottingham and Bath. Metro's circulation continued to rise in the following years, although readership temporarily dipped after the 7 July 2005 London bombings. There was a 1.8% decline - the equivalent of around 9,000 readers - in copies picked up in the weeks following the attacks due to a reduction in the number of people using London's public transport network, coupled with the temporary closure of some London Underground lines where Metro was distributed. Following several years of national expansion, in 2006 the newspaper's production was moved to DMGT's main newspaper offices at Northcliffe House in Kensington, west London; that same year the newspaper expanded further, launching in Cardiff and Liverpool in joint venture deals with Trinity Mirror. At the time of its 10th anniversary in 2009, the newspaper was distributed in 16 "major" UK cities and its circulation had grown to 1.3 million. Despite the increase in readership, that same year management closed five regional Metro offices in Manchester, Newcastle and Bristol, which were responsible for producing regionalised arts and food pages, citing "challenging economic conditions".
By 2011 Metro's distribution network had expanded to more than 50 cities in the UK. That year media commentator Roy Greenslade said the publication was now making "bumper profits" and dubbed it "Britain's most successful national newspaper". On 10 October 2005 Metro Ireland was launched in Dublin, it followed a legal battle over the title's name with the publishers of the Irish Independent and Dublin's Evening Herald, which launched its own free newspaper called Herald AM. Both titles were loss-making, despite having a combined circulation of 145,000 in the Greater Dublin Area. On 2 July 2009, it was announced that the two freesheets would merge under the Metro banner, an operation completed by 2010; however the Irish edition was closed down in December 2014. For the first time in its history, Metro temporarily published seven days a week during the 2012 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Paralympics, providing free copies to spectators at the Games as well as the general public; the newspaper struck a reported £2.25 million deal with sportswear manufacturer Adidas to run cover wrap adverts on each of the 17 days of the Olympics.
After more than a decade in charge, editor Kenny Campbell was replaced as editor by Ted Young in 2014. Young's appointment coincided with a number of changes at the newspaper, including the separation of the print and online editions, along with an expansion of Metro's distribution in the UK. In November 2016, comedian Richard Herring stepped down from writing his weekly column for Metro. Fellow TV comedian Dom Joly replaced him in the slot. In 2017, Metro became the most-read newspaper in the UK, according to monthly National Readership Survey figures. In March 2018 Metro overtook The Sun in total print circulation, according to ABC figures; the majority of the newspaper's content is produced at Northcliffe House in Kensington, west London. There are no regional editions within England and Wales, except for occasional differences in sports and arts content catered to specific local audiences. A separate, small team produces a Scottish edition of Metro, however the only substantial difference between the two versions is the front page.
The newspaper is divided into three main sections—news and sport. The news section includes Guilty Pleasures, which contains two or four pages of showb
The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst