Technical University of Denmark
The Technical University of Denmark simply referred to as DTU, is a university in Kongens Lyngby, just north of Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark's first polytechnic, is today ranked among Europe's leading engineering institutions. DTU, along with École Polytechnique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Eindhoven University of Technology, Technical University of Munich, is a member of Eurotech Universities. DTU was founded in 1829 as the'College of Advanced Technology' with the physicist Hans Christian Ørsted a professor at the University of Copenhagen, as one of the driving forces; the inspiration was the École Polytechnique in Paris, France which Ørsted had visited as a young scientist. The new institution was inaugurated on 5 November 1829 with Ørsted as its principal, a position he held until his death in 1851; the new college's first home was two buildings in Studiestræde and St- Pederstræde in central Copenhagen. Although expanded several times, they remained inadequate and in 1890 a new building complex was inaugurated in Sølvgade in 1890.
The new buildings were designed by the architect Johan Daniel Herholdt. In 1903 the College of Advanced Technology commenced the education of electrical engineers in addition to the construction engineers, production engineers and mechanical engineers educated at the college. In the 1920s space had once again become insufficient and in 1929 the foundation stone was laid for a new school at Østervold. Completion of the building was delayed by World War II and it was not completed until 1954. From 1933 the institution was known as Danmarks tekniske Højskole, translated as the'Technical University of Denmark'. On 1 April 1994, in connection with the joining of Danmarks Ingeniørakademi and DTH, the Danish name was changed to Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, in order to include the word'University', thus giving rise to the initials DTU by which the university is known today; the formal name, Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, still includes the original name. In 1960 a decision was made to move the College of Advanced Technology to new and larger facilities in Lyngby north of Copenhagen.
They were inaugurated on 17 May 1974. On 23 and 24 November 1967 the University Computing Center hosted the NATO Science Committee's Study Group first meeting discussing the newly coined term'Software Engineering'. On 1 January 2007 the university was merged with the following Danish research centers: Forskningscenter Risø, Danmarks Fødevareforskning, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser, Danmarks Rumcenter, Danmarks Transport-Forskning; the university is governed by a board consisting of 10 members: six members recruited outside the university form the majority of the board, one member is appointed by the scientific staff, one member is appointed by the administrative staff, two members are appointed by the university students. The President of DTU is appointed by the university board; the president in turn appoints deans, deans appoint heads of departments. In 2014, DTU was granted an institutional accreditation by the Danish Accreditation Institution; the institutional accreditation ensures that the quality assurance system of the institution is well-described, well-argued, well-functioning in practice.
Since DTU has no faculty senate, since the faculty is not involved in the appointment of president, deans, or department heads, the university has no faculty governance. The university is located on a plain known as Lundtoftesletten in the northeastern end of the city of Lyngby; the area was home to the airfield Lundtofte Flyveplads. The campus is divided in half by the road Anker Engelunds Vej going in the east-west direction, perpendicular to that, by two lengthy, collinear roads located on either side of a parking lot; the campus is thus divided into four parts, referred to as quadrants, numbered 1 through 4 in correspondence with the conventional numbering of quadrants in the Cartesian coordinate system with north upwards. In 2018 there were two gun shootings in the area; the shootings have happened on Lundtoftevej between cars. DTU was the subject of controversy in 2009 because the former institute director of the Department of Chemistry was a high-ranking member of Scientology. In relation to this, the university was accused of violating the principles of free speech by threatening to fire employees who voice their criticism of the institute director.
On 7 April 2010, his successor was announced, at a department meeting, as Erling Stenby, who took over as Director on 1 May 2010. Shortly thereafter, the university management threatened Rolf W. Berg with dismissal for publicly criticizing the university. In November 2007 the Times Higher Education Supplement put the university as number 130 in their ranking of the universities of the world and number 122 in 2010. In "The World's Most Innovative Universities" 2015 ranking by Thomson Reuters, DTU is ranked:No. 1 in the Nordic countries No. 43 in the World In the "engineering" category in the QS subject rankings, DTU is ranked: No. 2 in the Nordic countries No. 36 in the World On the Leiden Ranking's 2008 "crown indicator" list of Europe's 100 largest universities in terms of the number of Web of Science publications in the period 2000–2007, DTU is ranked:No. 1 in the Nordic countries No. 5 in Europe In the 2015 QS World University Rankings DTU is ranked: No. 112 in the World In the 2013 Leiden Ranking DTU is ranked: No. 45 in the World No. 7 in Europe In the 2013–2014 Times Hi
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Hans Christian Ørsted
Hans Christian Ørsted was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, the first connection found between electricity and magnetism. Oersted's law and the oersted are named after him. A leader of the Danish Golden Age, Ørsted was a close friend of Hans Christian Andersen and the brother of politician and jurist Anders Sandøe Ørsted, who served as Prime Minister of Denmark from 1853 to 1854. Ørsted was born in Rudkøbing in 1777. As a young boy he developed an interest in science while working for his father, who owned a pharmacy, he and his brother Anders received most of their early education through self-study at home, going to Copenhagen in 1793 to take entrance exams for the University of Copenhagen, where both brothers excelled academically. By 1796 Ørsted had been awarded honors for his papers in both physics, he earned his doctorate in 1799 for a dissertation based on the works of Kant entitled The Architectonics of Natural Metaphysics. In 1800, Alessandro Volta reported his invention of the voltaic pile, which inspired Ørsted to investigate the nature of electricity and to conduct his first electrical experiments.
In 1801 Ørsted received a travel scholarship and public grant which enabled him to spend three years traveling across Europe. He toured science headquarters including in Berlin and Paris. In Germany Ørsted met Johann Wilhelm Ritter, a physicist who believed there was a connection between electricity and magnetism; this idea made sense to Ørsted. Ørsted's conversations with Ritter drew him into the study of physics. He became a professor at the University of Copenhagen in 1806 and continued research on electric currents and acoustics. Under his guidance the university developed a comprehensive physics and chemistry program and established new laboratories. Ørsted welcomed William Christopher Zeise to his family home in autumn 1806. He granted Zeise a position as his lecturing assistant and took the young chemist under his tutelage. In 1812 Ørsted again visited Germany and France after publishing Videnskaben om Naturens Almindelige Love and Første Indledning til den Almindelige Naturlære. Ørsted was the first modern thinker to explicitly name the thought experiment.
He used the Latin-German term Gedankenexperiment circa 1812 and the German term Gedankenversuch in 1820. On 21 April 1820, during a lecture, Ørsted noticed a compass needle deflected from magnetic north when an electric current from a battery was switched on and off, confirming a direct relationship between electricity and magnetism, his initial interpretation was that magnetic effects radiate from all sides of a wire carrying an electric current, as do light and heat. Three months he began more intensive investigations and soon thereafter published his findings, showing that an electric current produces a circular magnetic field as it flows through a wire. For his discovery, the Royal Society of London awarded Ørsted the Copley Medal in 1820 and the French Academy granted him 3,000 francs. Ørsted's findings stirred much research into electrodynamics throughout the scientific community, influencing French physicist André-Marie Ampère's developments of a single mathematical formula to represent the magnetic forces between current-carrying conductors.
Ørsted's work represented a major step toward a unified concept of energy. Ørsted was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1822 and a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849. He founded Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse, a society to disseminate knowledge of the natural sciences, in 1824, he was the founder of predecessor organizations which became the Danish Meteorological Institute and the Danish Patent and Trademark Office. In 1829, Ørsted founded Den Polytekniske Læreanstalt, renamed the Technical University of Denmark. In 1825, Ørsted made a significant contribution to chemistry by producing aluminium for the first time. While an aluminium-iron alloy had been developed by Humphry Davy, Ørsted was the first to isolate the element via a reduction of aluminium chloride. Ørsted died in Copenhagen in 1851, aged 73, was buried in the Assistens Cemetery. The centimetre-gram-second system unit of magnetic induction is named for his contributions to the field of electromagnetism.
The Ørsted Park in Copenhagen was named after Ørsted in 1879. The streets H. C. Ørsteds Vej in Frederiksberg and H. C. Ørsteds Allé in Galten are named after him. The buildings that are home to the Department of Chemistry and the Institute for Mathematical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen's North Campus are named the H. C. Ørsted Institute, after him. A dormitory named H. C. Ørsted Kollegiet is located in Odense. The first Danish satellite, launched 1999, was named after Ørsted. A statue of Hans Christian Ørsted was installed in the Ørsted Park in 1880. A commemorative plaque is located above the gate on the building in Studiestræde where he lived and worked; the 100 danske kroner note issued from 1950 to 1970 carried an engraving of Ørsted. Two medals are awarded in Ørsted's name: the Oersted Medal for notable contributions in the teaching of physics in America, awarded by American Association of Physics Teachers, along with the H. C. Ørsted Medal for Danish scientists, awarded by the Danish Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse, founded by Ørsted.
The H. C. Ørsted Lectureship is awarded to two prominent researchers annually. Here is a list of some of the previou
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Rostock Power Station
Rostock Power Station is a bituminous coal-fired combined heat and power plant operated by Kraftwerks- und Netzgesellschaft mbH, located in Rostock, Germany. Construction on the plant began in June 1991, test firing and Grid connection were carried out from March to September, 1994. In October of that year it entered normal service. In addition to a generating capacity of 553 MWe, the station feeds the Rostock district heating net. A notable feature of the Rostock Power Station is that the 160 metre tall cooling tower serves as chimney. Official homepage
Boxberg Power Station
Boxberg Power Station is a lignite-fired power station with three units at Boxberg, near Weißwasser, Eastern Germany. Since the late 1990s, its capacity amounts to 1,900 MW and was acquired by Vattenfall Europe, a subdivision of Vattenfall, in 2001; the power station was sold by Vattenfall to the Czech energy group EPH and its financial partner PPF Investments on 30 September 2016. Like Jänschwalde Power Station and Schwarze Pumpe Power Station, Boxberg Power Station was built at a place surrounded by surface mines; the first unit was built in 1966, in the 1980s there were 14 units with an accumulated output of 3,520 MW. After the German reunification twelve units went off, two units, 500 MW each, were modernized. In the mid-1990s, a new 900 MW unit was built, another 675 MW unit is projected for the end of 2012. Boxberg Power Station had four chimneys 300 metres tall. One was dismantled in 2000, two were blasted in 2009, the last one was projected to be demolished in 2010 but problems during the process of demolishing delayed that project, it was blasted in 2012.
Media related to Boxberg Power Station at Wikimedia Commons Data sheet by Vattenfall Europe
Nordjylland Power Station
Nordjylland Power Station is a coal-fired combined heat and power plant in Vodskov, 17 kilometres north-east of Aalborg, Denmark. It is operated by Aalborg Kommune; the power plant consists of a gas turbine. Of these units, one is shut down; the gas turbine has an output of 25 MW and entered service in 1977, while unit 2, which went in 1977 has a maximum production capacity of electricity of 305 MW and heat of 42 MJ/s. Unit 3, which entered service in 1998, has a maximum production capacity of 411 MW and a maximum heat production capacity of 490 MJ/s, it uses a 170.1 metres tall flue gas stack, while Units 1 and 2 and the gas turbine use 112.17 metres tall stacks. Unit 3 was the first power plant in Denmark with a SNOX-system for exhaust cleaning. While two power lines leave the station eastward to the famous Vester Hassing Static Inverter Plant, where HVDC Konti-Skan starts, two other 380-kV lines cross Limfjord just east of the power plant in two spans; the towers of the westernmost of these spans are 101.2 metres tall and cross Limfjord in a 723 metres long span, while that of the easternmost span are 141.7 metres tall and cross Limfjord in a 797 metres long span.
Latter towers are the tallest electricity pylons in Denmark. Their considerable height results from the fact that they are equipped with a further crossbar for a 110-kV circuit; the produced heat is used for district heating of Aalborg. List of power stations in Denmark Nordjylland Power Station Nordjylland Power Station Nordjylland Power Station