Horology is the study of the measurement of time. Clocks, clockwork, hourglasses, timers, time recorders, marine chronometers, atomic clocks are all examples of instruments used to measure time. In current usage, horology refers to the study of mechanical time-keeping devices, while chronometry more broadly includes electronic devices that have supplanted mechanical clocks for the best accuracy and precision in time-keeping. People interested in horology are called horologists; that term is used both by people who deal professionally with timekeeping apparatus, as well as aficionados and scholars of horology. Horology and horologists have numerous organizations, both professional associations and more scholarly societies; the largest horological membership organisation globally is the NAWCC, the National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors, USA based, but has local chapters elsewhere. There are several specialized libraries devoted to the subject. One example is the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the source of the Prime Meridian, the home of the first marine timekeepers accurate enough to determine longitude.
Other horological museums in the London area include the Clockmakers' Museum, which re-opened at the Science Museum in October 2015, the horological collections at the British Museum, the Science Museum, the Wallace Collection. In Upton, UK, at the headquarters of the British horological Institute, Upton hall, is the Museum of time keeping. One of the more comprehensive museums dedicated to horology is the Musée international d'horlogerie in La Chaux-de-Fonds; the Musée d'Horlogerie du Locle is smaller but located nearby. One of the better horological museums in Germany is the Deutsches Uhrenmuseum in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald, in the Black Forest; the two leading specialised horological museums in North America are the National Watch and Clock Museum in Columbia and the American Clock and Watch Museum in Bristol, Connecticut. The eastern French city of Besançon has the Musée du Temps in the historic Palais Grenvelle. An example of a museum devoted to one particular type of clock is the Cuckooland Museum in the UK, which hosts the world's largest collection of antique cuckoo clocks.
One of the most comprehensive horological libraries open to the public is the National Watch and Clock Library in Columbia, Pennsylvania. Other good horological libraries providing public access are at the Musée international d'horlogerie in Switzerland, at the Deutsches Uhrenmuseum in Germany, at the Guildhall Library in London. Another museum dedicated to clocks is the Willard Clock Museum in Grafton, Massachusetts. Notable scholarly horological organizations include: American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute – AWCI Antiquarian Horological Society – AHS British Horological Institute – BHI Chronometrophilia Deutsche Gesellschaft für Chronometrie – DGC Horological Society of New York – HSNY National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors – NAWCC BaselWorld Geneva Time Exhibition Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie Buddhist calendar Complication Daylight saving time History of timekeeping devices Hora Horoscope ISO 8601 Kalachakra List of calendars List of clock manufacturers List of watch manufacturers System time Winthrop Kellogg Edey Dictionary of Horology Beckett, Edmund, A Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks and Bells, 1903, from Project Gutenberg Berner, G.
A. Illustrated Professional Dictionary of Horology, Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH 1961 - 2012 Daniels, Watchmaking, London: Philip Wilson Publishers, 1981 Grafton, Horology, a popular sketch of clock and watch making, London: Aylett and Jones, 1849 Perman, Stacy, A Grand Complication: The Race to Build the World's Most Legendary Watch, Atria Books, February 2013. ISBN 9781439190081
Guangdong music known as Cantonese music is a style of traditional Chinese instrumental music from Guangzhou and surrounding areas in Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province on the southern coast of China. The name of the music is not an accurate description because Guangdong music is not the only music of the whole Guangdong area. Cantonese classical music were much livelier in pace and happier than those of other China provinces, typical and the essence of the Cantonese's character. In Guangdong, there are numerous traditional genres of music such as Hakka music; the name of the music originated in the 1920 and 1930s when the music was popular in Shanghai ballrooms in the form of "Spiritual Music". As the performers were entirely from Guangdong, Shanghai people generalized the form of music as Guangdong music. Musically, compositions are based on tunes derived from Cantonese opera, together with new compositions from the 1920s onwards; some pieces have influences from jazz and Western music, using syncopation and triple time, incorporating instruments such as the saxophone, guitar, drum set, or xylophone.
The gaohu is the most common lead instrument used in performing Cantonese music. It was invented by Lü Wencheng in the 1920s. Prior to this, the erxian was the most common lead bowed string instrument in the Cantonese ensemble. Ensembles led by the erxian and featuring the tiqin are called yinggong ensembles, while those led by the gaohu are called ruangong because the erxian and tiqin have thick bamboo bows, while the gaohu has a thinner, flexible bow. Guangdong music evolved into a string ensemble format by the 1960s, led by the gaohu with ruan, yangqin, yehu and various woodwind and percussion instruments. Alto saxophone, violin, electric guitar, drum set may be used, in combination with traditional instruments, he Liutang Lü Wencheng Qiu Hechou Yan Laolie Baihua Ting Nao Jiu Bu Bu Gao È Mǎ Yáo Líng Han Tian Lei Jiao Shi Ming Qin Autumn Moon Over the Calm Lake Qīng Méi Zhú Mǎ Sailong Duojin Xiao Tao Hong Yu Da Ba Jiao Yu Le Sheng Ping Guangdong Chinese Orchestra Guangdong music page
Heinrich Schmidtgal is a Kazakhstani football defender, a free agent. Born in Esik, Kazakh SSR, Schmidtgal emigrated with his parents at the age of two from the former Soviet Union and settled in Schloss Holte-Stukenbrock in East Westphalia in North Rhine-Westphalia, he started to move from there to the youth of SC Verl. On 27 August 2003, the second matchday of the Oberliga Westfalen, he made his debut for the first team in the 2–3 defeat against FC Gütersloh. In this season, where he was still a youth player, he came to a total of ten appearances. In the next season, he came to 29 appearances, he showed above average performance and thus aroused the interest from clubs in higher leagues, among those VfL Bochum who signed him. Schmidtgal had for promotion to the Regionalliga, the third division, the Verl side. In Bochum, he played for the second team and did only train with the first team, playing in the Bundesliga. In summer of 2009, he left VfL Bochum and signed for Rot-Weiß Oberhausen the 2.
Bundesliga. For the 2011–12 season he joined SpVgg Greuther Fürth with a two-year contract. In 2013, he moved on to Fortuna Düsseldorf. In June 2015 he signed a two-year contract with FSV Frankfurt. In 2008 Bernd Storck, the newly appointed manager of the Kazakhstan national team, researched German players born in Kazakhstan; this research revealed Juri Judt, Konstantin Engel and Heinrich Schmidtgal. On 3 September 2010, Schmidtgal made his debut for the Kazakhstan national team in a Euro 2012 qualifier against Turkey. Schmidtgal was not entitled by UEFA rules to play for the Kazakhstan national team in second qualifier game against Austria in Vienna, as Schmidtgal had not yet completed obtaining Kazakhstani citizenship and was only in possession of preliminary id; this issue was resolved by Schmidtgal gaining dual citizenship. During his 12th appearance for the Kazakhstan, Schmidtgal scored his first international goal in a 4-1 loss against Germany during the group stage of 2014 FIFA World Cup qualification.
Heinrich Schmidtgal at fussballdaten.de Heinrich Schmidtgal at kicker.de Heinrich Schmidtgal – UEFA competition record