Energy Information Administration
The U. S. Energy Information Administration is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA programs cover data on coal, natural gas, electric and nuclear energy. EIA is part of the U. S. Department of Energy; the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973. EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, energy flows. EIA disseminates its data products, analyses and services to customers and stakeholders through its website and the customer contact center. Located in Washington, D. C. EIA has about 325 federal employees and a budget of $122 million in fiscal year 2017.
By law, EIA’s products are prepared independently of policy considerations. EIA neither advocates any policy conclusions; the Department of Energy Organization Act allows EIA’s processes and products to be independent from review by Executive Branch officials. More than 2 million people use the EIA’s information online each month; some of the EIA’s products include: General Interest Energy Information Energy Explained: Energy information written for a general, non-technical audience. A nonpartisan guide to the entire range of energy topics from biodiesel to uranium. Energy Kids: Educates students and policymakers and journalists about energy. Energy Glossary: Common energy terms defined in plain language. Timely Analysis Today in Energy: Informative content published every weekday that includes a graph or map and a short, timely story written in plain language that highlights current energy issues and data trends; this Week in Petroleum: Weekly summary and explanation of events in United States and world petroleum markets, including weekly data.
Natural Gas Weekly Update: Weekly summary and discussion of events and trends in U. S. natural gas markets. Data and Surveys Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update: Weekly price data for U. S. national and regional averages. Monthly Energy Review: Provides statistics on monthly and annual U. S. energy consumption going back in some cases to 1949. The figures are given in units of quads Annual Energy Review: EIA's primary report of historical annual energy statistics. For many series, data begin with the year 1949; this report has been superseded by the Monthly Energy Review and was not produced for 2012. Country Energy Profiles: Data by country and commercial group for 219 countries with additional country analysis notes for 87 of these. Country Analysis Briefs: EIA's in-depth analyses of energy production, consumption and exports for 36 individual countries and regions. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: EIA's comprehensive survey and analysis of residential energy consumption, household characteristics, appliance saturation.
Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: A national sample survey that collects information on the stock of U. S. commercial buildings, including their energy-related building characteristics and energy usage data. Projections and Outlooks Short-Term Energy Outlook: Energy projections for the next 13-24 months, updated monthly. Annual Energy Outlook: Projection and analysis of U. S. energy supply and prices through 2040 based on EIA's National Energy Modeling System. Projections are based on existing legislation, without assumption of any future congressional action or technological advancement. In 2015, EIA has been criticized by the Advanced Energy Economy Institute after its release of the AEO 2015-report to "consistently underestimate the growth rate of renewable energy, leading to'misperceptions' about the performance of these resources in the marketplace". AEE points out that the average power purchase agreement for wind power was at $24/MWh in 2013. PPA for utility-scale solar PV are seen at current levels of $50–$75/MWh.
These figures contrast with EIA's estimated LCOE of $125/MWh for solar PV in 2020. This criticism has been repeated every year since. International Energy Outlook: EIA's assessment of the outlook for international energy markets through 2040; the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 created the Federal Energy Administration, the first U. S. agency with the primary focus on energy and mandated it to collect, assemble and analyze energy information. It provided the FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and major consuming firms. Section 52 of the FEA Act mandated establishment of the National Energy Information System to “… contain such energy information as is necessary to carry out the Administration’s statistical and forecasting activities …” The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, P
Wind power in the United States
Wind power in the United States is a branch of the energy industry that has expanded over the latest several years. For the twelve months through November 2017, 254.2 terawatt-hours were generated by wind power, or 6.33% of all generated electrical energy. As of January 2017, the total installed wind power nameplate generating capacity in the United States was 82,183 megawatts; this capacity is exceeded only by the European Union. Thus far, wind power's largest growth in capacity was in 2012, when 11,895 MW of wind power was installed, representing 26.5% of new power capacity. In 2016, Nebraska became the eighteenth state to have installed over 1,000 MW of wind power capacity. Texas, with over 22,000 MW of capacity, about 15% of the state's electricity usage, had the most installed wind power capacity of any U. S. state at the end of 2018. Texas had more under construction than any other state has installed; the state generating the highest percentage of energy from wind power is Iowa, while North Dakota has the most per capita wind generation.
The Alta Wind Energy Center in California is the largest wind farm in the United States with a capacity of 1,548 MW. GE Power is the largest domestic wind turbine manufacturer; the first municipal use of multiple wind-electric turbines in the USA may have been a five turbine system in Pettibone, North Dakota in 1940. These were commercial Wincharger units on guyed towers. In 1980 the world's first wind farm, consisting of twenty 30 kW wind turbines was installed at Crotched Mountain, in New Hampshire. From 1974 through the mid-1980s the United States government worked with industry to advance the technology and enable large commercial wind turbines. A series of NASA wind turbines were developed under a program to create a utility-scale wind turbine industry in the U. S. with funding from the National Science Foundation and the United States Department of Energy. A total of 13 experimental wind turbines were put into operation, in four major wind turbine designs; this research and development program pioneered many of the multi-megawatt turbine technologies in use today, including: steel tube towers, variable-speed generators, composite blade materials, partial-span pitch control, as well as aerodynamic and acoustic engineering design capabilities.
In the 1980s, California provided tax rebates for wind power. These rebates funded the first major use of wind power for utility electric power; these machines, gathered in large wind parks such as at Altamont Pass would be considered small and un-economic by modern wind power development standards. In 1985 half of the world's wind energy was generated at Altamont Pass. By the end of 1986 about 6,700 wind turbines less than 100 kW, had been installed at Altamont, at a cost of about $1 billion, generated about 550 million kWh/year. Ten of the largest wind farms in the United States are: A 2012 report by a clean energy consulting group concluded that new wind farms can produce electric power in the 5-8 cents per kWh range, making wind power cost-competitive with fossil fuels in many areas; as of 2013, the US Energy Information Administration estimates the "levelized cost" of wind energy from new installations as 7 to 10 cents per kWh, depending on the geographic area, but cautioned that levelized costs of non-dispatchable sources such as wind should be compared to the avoided energy cost rather than the levelized cost of dispatchable sources such as natural gas, or baseload sources such as coal or geothermal.
In 2015, a Koch-funded institute of Utah State University stated that the cost of wind energy is higher than most cost estimates calculate. Renewable portfolio standards require renewable energy to exist, but at the expense of utilities and consumers; the production tax credit makes wind power cheaper for utilities and consumers, but at the expense of taxpayers. The American Wind Energy Association has criticized the study of lacking comparison with pollution and subsidies incurred by other electric power sources, for counting transmission as a cost rather than a benefit; as of 2017, the United States has over 82 GW of installed wind power capacity. Wind power has increased over the past years. In 2010, newly installed generating capacity was about half of the previous year due to various factors, including the financial crisis, recession. In 2013 there was a 92% reduction in newly installed generating capacity compared to 2012, due to the late extension of the PTC; the graph at left shows the growth in installed wind generation capacity in the United States based on data from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
In 2008, installed capacity in the U. S. increased by 50% over the prior year. The world average growth rate that year was 28.8%. By 2014, the wind industry in the USA was able to produce more power at lower cost by using taller wind turbines with longer blades, capturing the faster winds at higher elevations; this opened up new opportunities and in Indiana and Ohio, the price of power from wind turbines built 300 feet to 400 feet above the ground competed with conventional fossil fuels like coal. Prices had fallen to about 4 cents per kilowatt-hour in some cases and utilities had been increasing the amount of wind energy in their portfolio, saying it is their cheapest option. For power contracts made in the year 2014, the average price of wind power fell to 2.5¢/kWh. The capacity factor is the ratio of power produced divided by the nameplate capacity of the turbines; the overall average capacity factor for wind generation in the US increased from 31.7% in 2008, to 32.3% in 2013. According to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the contiguous United States has the potenti
Wind power in Texas
Wind power in Texas consists of many wind farms with a total installed nameplate capacity of 22,637 MW from over 40 different projects. Texas produces the most wind power of any U. S. state. According to ERCOT, wind power accounted for at least 15.7% of the electricity generated in Texas during 2017, as wind was 17.4% of electricity generated in ERCOT, which manages 90% of Texas's power. The wind resource in many parts of Texas is large. Farmers may lease their land creating a new revenue stream for the farm; the wind power industry has created over 24,000 jobs for local communities and for the state. Texas is seen as a profit-driven leader of renewable energy commercialization in the United States; the wind boom in Texas was assisted by expansion of the state’s Renewable Portfolio Standard, use of designated Competitive Renewable Energy Zones, expedited transmission construction, the necessary Public Utility Commission rule-making. The Roscoe Wind Farm, near the town of Roscoe, is the state's largest wind farm.
Other large wind farms in Texas include: Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center, Sherbino Wind Farm, Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm, Sweetwater Wind Farm, Buffalo Gap Wind Farm, King Mountain Wind Farm, Desert Sky Wind Farm, Wildorado Wind Ranch, the Brazos Wind Farm. Wind power has a long history in Texas. West Texas A&M University began wind energy research in 1970 and led to the formation of the Alternative Energy Institute in 1977. AEI has been a major information resource about wind energy for Texas; the first 80-meter tower was erected at Big Spring, Texas in 1999. Several forces are driving the growth of wind power in Texas: favorable wind resources and land availability, State targets for renewable energy, cost efficiency of development and operation of wind farms, a suitable electric transmission grid; the broad scope and geographical extent of wind farms in Texas is considerable: wind resource areas lie in the Texas Panhandle, along the Gulf coast south of Galveston, in the mountain passes and ridge tops of the Trans-Pecos in the western tip of Texas.
While there are over 10,700 wind turbines operating in Texas to generate electricity, there are still 80,000 windmills operating in Texas for pumping water, indicating the amount of growth potential still left for wind power generation. Wind power is a for-profit enterprise between land owners and wind farm operators. Texas farmers can lease their land to wind developers for either a set rental per turbine or for a small percentage of gross annual revenue from the project; this offers farmers a fresh revenue stream without impacting traditional farming and grazing practices. Although leasing arrangements vary the U. S. Government Accountability Office reported in 2004 that a farmer who leases land to a wind project developer can obtain royalties of $3,000 to $5,000 per turbine per year in lease payments; these figures are rising as larger wind turbines are being installed. Wind power offers a reliability benefit in that its generation is decentralized. Sabotage and industrial accidents can be potential threats to the large, centrally located, power plants that provide most of Texas’ electricity.
Should one of these plants be damaged, repairs could take more than a year creating power shortages on a scale that Texans have never experienced before. Coal trains and gas pipelines are vulnerable to disruption. However, wind power plants are installed and repaired; the modular structure of a wind farm means that if one turbine is damaged, the overall output of the plant is not affected. Wind is a variable resource. With proper understanding and planning, it can be incorporated into an electric utility's generation mix, although it does not provide the sort of on-demand availability that Gas power stations provide. Many areas in Texas have wind conditions allowing for development of wind power generation; the number of commercially attractive sites has expanded as wind turbine technology has improved and development costs continue to drop. In southern Texas, the difference between land and off-shore air temperatures creates convection currents that generate significant winds during the middle of the day when electricity usage is at its peak level.
Although these winds are less than in West Texas, they occur more predictably, more in correlation with consumption, closer to consumers. Several wind farms have been developed at the Texas coast, to a combined 3,000 MW. Starting in 2008, the wind power development boom in Texas outstripped the capacity of the transmission systems in place, predicted shortages in transmission capability could have dampened the growth of the industry; until 2008, the growth in wind power "piggybacked" on existing lines, but had depleted spare capacity. As a result, in winter the west Texas grid had such a local surplus of power, that the price would fall below zero. According to Michael Goggin, electric industry analyst at AWEA, "Prices fell below US −$30/MWh on 63% of days during the first half of 2008, compared to 10% for the same period in 2007 and 5% in 2006." In July 2008, utility officials gave preliminary approval to a $4.9 billion plan to build new transmission lines to carry wind-generated electricity from West Texas to urban areas such as Dallas.
The new plan would be the biggest investment in renewable energy in U. S. history, would add transmission lines capable of moving about 18,000 megawatts. ERCOT curtailed wind power by 17% in 2009, but that decreased to only 0.5% by 2014, as transmission improved the Competitive Renewable Energy Zone in
Wind power in New Jersey
Wind power in New Jersey is in the early stages of development. There are various projects underway to create windfarms along coastal areas in the state on land, on piers, on the continental shelf of the Atlantic Ocean off the southern Jersey Shore. Legislation has been enacted to support the industry through economic incentives and to permit wind turbines on existing piers. Several proposals have been made to expand the use of wind-generated power which may lead to the nation's first offshore wind power pilot project. In October 2010, North American Offshore Wind Conference was held in Atlantic City, site of the US's first on-shore coastal facility. New Jersey is part of the Atlantic Offshore Wind Energy Consortium; as of 2013, 9MW were produced by wind power. In May 2014, the federal Department of Energy awarded a grant for up to $47 million for the pilot of the Atlantic City Windfarm, calling the project "innovative". New Jersey regulators had earlier rejected the same project in March. In July 2014, the federal Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Ocean Management proposed sale of leases for nearly 344,000 acres covering an area about 7 miles off the coast of Atlantic City.
Despite incentives to spur the industry in the state, development has lagged. In 2018, New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy signed an executive order to revive subsidies for wind power in the state. In September 2018, the state began to solicit bids for projects off-shore. Jersey-Atlantic Wind Farm, opened in 2005 in Atlantic City, is the first coastal wind farm in the United States. In October 2010, North American Offshore Wind Conference was held in the city and included tours of the facility and potential sites for further development. In February 2011, the state passed legislation permitting the construction of wind turbines along pre-existing piers, such as the Steel Pier; the Bayonne Municipal Utilities Authority operates a singular wind turbine. Construction of a single turbine tower was completed in January 2012, it is the first wind turbine manufactured by Leitwind to be installed in the USA and the first in the Tri-State metropolitan area. The turbine came on line in June 2012, is used to power a sewage pumping station.
In 2009, the New Jersey's Board of Public Utilities awarded grants of up to $4 million to Garden State Offshore Energy, Fisherman's Energy and Bluewater Wind to undertake research of offshore meteorological conditions. The grant to Garden State Offshore Energy is being used to install an offshore meteorological buoy to measure wind speeds and weather and wave conditions off the coast. Garden State Offshore Energy is a joint venture between Deepwater Wind and PSEG Renewable Generation. On August 19, 2010, Governor Christie signed the Offshore Wind Economic Development Act, which provides for financial incentives and tax credits to support offshore wind projects; as of February 2013, the Board of Public Utilities, charged with implementing key aspects of the legislation, had not yet finalized all of the regulations necessary to carry out the policy. On April 20, 2011, the federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management issued "The New Jersey Call for Information and Nominations – Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf Offshore New Jersey".
The BOEM is responsible for leasing areas of the Outer Continental Shelf which are under federal jurisdiction for energy resource utilization. This Call for information and nominations requested public input regarding the development of offshore wind projects in a designated Wind Energy Area located offshore New Jersey; the Call sought nominations from project developers of areas within the WEA that should be put up for auction for project development. The BOEM received eleven such nominations, the entire WEA was proposed for development by one or more developers. In July 2014, the federal Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Ocean Management proposed sale of leases for nearly 344,000 acres covering an area about 7.000 nautical miles off the coast of Atlantic City. The area would be divided into two leases, known as the South Area. Sales of leases began in November 2015. New Jersey has the potential to generate 373 GWh/year from 132 MW of 80 m high wind turbines or 997 GWh/year from 349 MW of 100 m high wind turbines located onshore as well as 430,000 GWh/year from 102,000 MW of offshore wind turbines.
New Jersey used 76,759 GWh in 2011. While less susceptible than areas in southern states, hurricanes could be a threat to wind turbines in the state. In May 2011, Cape May-based Fisherman's Energy submitted an application to the Board of Public Utilities under the Offshore Wind Economic Development Act for a demonstration project to build six wind turbines 2.5 miles off the coast at Atlantic City called Fisherman's Atlantic City Windfarm. The wind farm was projected to come on line late 2012, but in August of that year the announced they would delay until the end of the year acting on the application. A decision is expected on April 30, 2013. A controversial report released in 2012 questions the economic benefits for the state. In March 2014, the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities rejected a proposal to build the off-shore wind farm, citing financial irregularities and viability. In May 2014, the federal Department of Energy awarded a grant for up to $47 million calling the project "innovative".
The revised plan is to install five, 5-megawatt turbines three miles off Atlantic City. The project will test a twisted jacket foundation, a new type of offshore platform, cheaper to make and install than traditional platforms. In August 2014, the Superior Court of New Jersey's Appellate Division orde
Wind power in Montana
Wind power in Montana is a growing industry. Montana had over 695 MW of wind generation capability by 2016, responsible for 7.6% of in-state electricity generation. At a nameplate capacity of 210 megawatts, the $500 million Glacier Wind Farm, located in Toole and Glacier counties, became Montana's largest in October 2009, surpassing the 135 MW Judith Gap Wind Farm in Wheatland County. Rim Rock Wind Farm, brought online in September 2012, is located about 25 miles due north of the Glacier project; the wind farm has 126 wind turbines of 1.5 megawatts each. The project had been delayed due to issues with the Montana-Alberta Tie Line, which connects wind farms in the area to Lethbridge, Alberta. Montana added two significant wind projects in 2012; the Gordon Butte Wind Farm, 9 MW, was completed early in the year and the Rim Rock Wind Project, 189 MW, was completed in September. Source: EIA - Electricity Data Browser Wind power in Texas Wind power in the United States
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
A wind farm or wind park is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm can be located offshore. Many of the largest operational onshore wind farms are located in China and the United States. For example, the largest wind farm in the world, Gansu Wind Farm in China had a capacity of over 6,000 MW by 2012, with a goal of 20,000 MW by 2020; as of September 2018, the 659 MW Walney Wind Farm in the UK is the largest offshore wind farm in the world. Individual wind turbine designs continue to increase in power, resulting in fewer turbines being needed for the same total output. See list of most powerful wind turbines; the location is critical to the success of a wind farm. Conditions contributing to a successful wind farm location include: wind conditions, access to electric transmission, physical access, local electric prices.
The faster the average windspeed, the more electricity the wind turbine will generate, so faster winds are economically better for wind farm developers. The balancing factor is that strong gusts and high turbulence require stronger more expensive turbines, otherwise they risk damage; the ideal wind conditions would be strong steady winds with low turbulence coming from a single direction. Sites are screened on the basis of a wind atlas, validated with wind measurements. Meteorological wind data alone is not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project. Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential in order to finance the project. Local winds are monitored for a year or more, detailed wind maps are constructed before wind generators are installed; the wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag. The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings.
How to space the turbines together is a major factor in wind farm design. The closer the turbines are together the more the upwind turbines block wind from their neighbors; however spacing turbines far apart increases the costs of roads and cables, raises the amount of land needed to install a specific capacity of turbines. As a result of these factors, turbine spacing varies by site. Speaking manufacturers require 3.5 times the rotor diameter of the turbine between turbines as a minimum. Closer spacing is possible depending on the turbine model, the conditions at the site, how the site will be operated; the world's first wind farm was 0.6 MW, consisting of 20 wind turbines rated at 30 kilowatts each, installed on the shoulder of Crotched Mountain in southern New Hampshire in December 1980. Onshore turbine installations in hilly or mountainous regions tend to be on ridges three kilometres or more inland from the nearest shoreline; this is done to exploit the topographic acceleration. The additional wind speeds gained in this way can increase energy produced because more wind goes through the turbines.
The exact position of each turbine matters, because a difference of 30m could double output. This careful placement is referred to as'micro-siting'. Europe is the leader in offshore wind energy, with the first offshore wind farm being installed in Denmark in 1991; as of 2010, there are 39 offshore wind farms in waters off Belgium, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and the United Kingdom, with a combined operating capacity of 2,396 MW. More than 100 GW of offshore projects are under development in Europe; the European Wind Energy Association has set a target of 40 GW installed by 2020 and 150 GW by 2030. As of 2017, The Walney Wind Farm in the United Kingdom is the largest offshore wind farm in the world at 659 MW, followed by the London Array in the UK. Offshore wind turbines are less obtrusive than turbines on land, as their apparent size and noise is mitigated by distance; because water has less surface roughness than land, the average wind speed is considerably higher over open water.
Capacity factors are higher than for onshore locations. The province of Ontario in Canada is pursuing several proposed locations in the Great Lakes, including the suspended Trillium Power Wind 1 20 km from shore and over 400 MW in size. Other Canadian projects include one on the Pacific west coast. In 2010, there were no offshore wind farms in the United States, but projects were under development in wind-rich areas of the East Coast, Great Lakes, Pacific coast. Installation and service / maintenance of off-shore wind farms are a specific challenge for technology and economic operation of a wind farm; as of 2015, there are 20 jackup vessels for lifting components, but few can lift sizes above 5MW. Service vessels have to be operated nearly 24/7 to get sufficient amortisation from the wind turbines. Therefore, special fast service vehicles for installation as well as for maintenance are required. So-called inertial and optical based Ship Stabilization and Motion Control systems are used for that.
Experimental wind farms consisting of a single wind turbine for testing purposes have been bu