A machine is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people, by natural forces such as wind and water, by chemical, thermal, or electrical power, include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement, they can include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement called mechanical systems. Renaissance natural philosophers identified six simple machines which were the elementary devices that put a load into motion, calculated the ratio of output force to input force, known today as mechanical advantage. Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements and control components and include interfaces for convenient use. Examples include a wide range of vehicles, such as automobiles and airplanes, appliances in the home and office, including computers, building air handling and water handling systems, as well as farm machinery, machine tools and factory automation systems and robots.
The English word machine comes through Middle French from Latin machina, which in turn derives from the Greek. The word mechanical comes from the same Greek roots. A wider meaning of "fabric, structure" is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage; this meaning is found in late medieval French, is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, the word could mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination; the modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to military siege engines, both in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The OED traces the formal, modern meaning to John Harris' Lexicon Technicum, which has: Machine, or Engine, in Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to raise or stop the Motion of a Body... Simple Machines are reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, Pulley, Wheel and Screw... Compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable.
The word engine used as a synonym both by Harris and in language derives from Latin ingenium "ingenuity, an invention". The hand axe, made by chipping flint to form a wedge, in the hands of a human transforms force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting forces and movement of the workpiece; the idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines: lever and screw. Archimedes discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Greek philosophers defined the classic five simple machines and were able to calculate their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can "set a load in motion". However, the Greeks' understanding was limited to statics and did not include dynamics or the concept of work. During the Renaissance the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers, as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how much useful work they could perform, leading to the new concept of mechanical work.
In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, it was included with the other simple machines. The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche, he was the first to understand that simple machines do not create energy, they transform it. The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remained unpublished in his notebooks, they were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. James Watt patented his parallel motion linkage in 1782, which made the double acting steam engine practical; the Boulton and Watt steam engine and designs powered steam locomotives, steam ships, factories. The Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, mining and technology had a profound effect on the social and cultural conditions of the times, it began in the United Kingdom subsequently spread throughout Western Europe, North America and the rest of the world.
Starting in the part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's manual labour and draft-animal-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal; the idea that a machine can be decomposed into simple movable elements led Archimedes to define the lever and screw as simple machines. By the time of the Renaissance this list increased to include the wheel and axle and inclined plane; the modern approach to characterizing machines focusses on the components that allow movement, known as joints. Wedge: Perhaps the first example of a device designed to manage power is the hand axe called biface and Olorgesailie. A hand axe is made by chipping stone flint, to form a bifacial edge, or wedge. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement o
Manual labour or manual work is physical work done by people, most in contrast to that done by machines, to that done by working animals. It is most work done with the hands, and, by figurative extension, it is work done with any of the muscles and bones of the body. For most of human prehistory and history, manual labour and its close cousin, animal labour, have been the primary ways that physical work has been accomplished. Mechanisation and automation, which reduce the need for human and animal labour in production, have existed for centuries, but it was only starting in the 18th and 19th centuries that they began to expand and to change human culture. To be implemented, they require that sufficient technology exist and that its capital costs be justified by the amount of future wages that they will obviate. Semi-automation is an alternative to worker displacement that combines human labour and computerization to leverage the advantages of both man and machine. Although nearly any work can have skill and intelligence applied to it, many jobs that comprise manual labour—such as fruit and vegetable picking, manual materials handling, manual digging, or manual assembly of parts—often may be done by unskilled or semiskilled workers.
Thus there is a partial but significant correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers. Based on economic and social conflict of interest, people may distort that partial correlation into an exaggeration that equates manual labour with lack of skill. Throughout human existence the latter has involved a spectrum of variants, from slavery, to caste or caste-like systems, to subtler forms of inequality. Economic competition results in businesses trying to buy labour at the lowest possible cost or to obviate it entirely. For various reasons, there is a strong correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers, despite the fact that nearly any work can have skill and intelligence applied to it, it has always been the case for humans that many workers begin their working lives lacking any special level of skill or experience. It has always been the case that there was a large amount of manual labour to be done; these conditions have assured the correlation's persistence.
Throughout human prehistory and history, wherever social class systems have developed, the social status of manual labourers has, more than not, been low, as most physical tasks were done by peasants, slaves, indentured servants, wage slaves, or domestic servants. For example, legal scholar L. Ali Khan analyses how the Greeks, Hindus and Americans all created sophisticated social structures to outsource manual labour to distinct classes, ethnicities, or races; the phrase "hard labour" has become a legal euphemism for penal labour, a custodial sentence during which the convict is not only confined but put to manual work. Such work may be productive, in a prison kitchen, laundry, or library. There has always been a tendency among people of the higher gradations of social class to oversimplify the correlation between manual labour and lack of skill into one of equivalence, leading to dubious exaggerations such as the notion that anyone who worked physically could be identified by that fact as being unintelligent or unskilled, or that any task requiring physical work must be simplistic and not worthy of analysis.
Given the human cognitive tendency toward rationalisation, it is natural enough that such grey areas have been warped into absolutes by people seeking to justify and perpetuate their social advantage. Throughout human existence, but most since the Age of Enlightenment, there have been logically complementary efforts by intelligent workers to counteract these flawed oversimplifications. For example, the American and French Revolutions rejected notions of inherited social status, the labour movements of the 19th and 20th centuries led to the formation of trade unions who enjoyed substantial collective bargaining power for a time; such counteractive efforts have been all the more difficult because not all social status differences and wealth differences are unfair. Social systems of every ideological pers
A stationary engine is an engine whose framework does not move. They are used to drive immobile equipment, such as pumps, mills or factory machinery; the term refers to large immobile reciprocating engines, principally stationary steam engines and, to some extent, stationary internal combustion engines. Other large immobile power sources, such as steam turbines, gas turbines, large electric motors, are categorized separately. Stationary engines were once widespread in the era when each factory or mill generated its own power, power transmission was mechanical. Applications for stationary engines have declined. Engines that operate in one place, but can be moved to another place for operation, are called portable engines. Although stationary engines and portable engines are both "stationary" while running, preferred usage reserves the term "stationary engine" to the permanently immobile type, "portable engine" to the mobile type. Stationary steam engine Hit and miss engine Hot bulb engine Hot tube engine Before mains electricity and the formation of nationwide power grids, stationary engines were used for small-scale electricity generation.
Whilst large power stations in cities used steam turbines or high-speed reciprocating steam engines, in rural areas petrol/gasoline, paraffin/kerosene or fuel oil powered internal combustion engines were cheaper to buy and operate, since they could be started and stopped to meet demand, left running unattended for long periods of time and did not require a large dedicated engineering staff to operate and maintain. Due to their simplicity and economy, hot bulb engines were popular for high-power applications until the diesel engine took their place from the 1920s. Smaller units were powered by spark-ignition engines, which were cheaper to buy and required less space to install. Most engines of the late-19th and early-20th centuries ran at speeds too low to drive a dynamo or alternator directly; as with other equipment, the generator was driven off the engine's flywheel by a broad flat belt. The pulley on the generator was much smaller than the flywheel, providing the required'gearing up' effect.
Spark-ignition engines developed from the 1920s could be directly coupled. Up to the 1930s most rural houses in Europe and North America needed their own generating equipment if electric light was fitted. Engines would be installed in a dedicated'engine house', an outbuilding separate from the main house to reduce the interference from the engine noise; the engine house would contain the engine, the generator, the necessary switchgear and fuses, as well as the engine's fuel supply and a dedicated workshop space with equipment to service and repair the engine. Wealthy households could afford to employ a dedicated engineer to maintain the equipment, but as the demand for electricity spread to smaller homes, manufacturers produced engines that required less maintenance and that did not need specialist training to operate; such generator sets were used in industrial complexes and public buildings- anywhere where electricity was required but mains electricity was not available. Most countries in the Western world completed large-scale rural electrification in the years following World War II, making individual generating plants obsolete for front-line use.
However in countries with a reliable mains supply, many buildings are still fitted with modern diesel generators for emergency use, such as hospitals and pumping stations. This network of generators forms a crucial part of the national electricity system's strategy for coping with periods of high demand; the development of water supply and sewage removal systems required the provision of many pumping stations. In these, some form of stationary engine is used to drive one or more pumps, although electric motors are more conventionally used nowadays. For canals, a distinct area of application inclined planes. Where possible these would be arranged to utilise water and gravity in a balanced system, but in some cases additional power input was required from a stationary engine for the system to work; the vast majority of these were constructed before steam engines were supplanted by internal combustion alternatives. Industrial railways in quarries and mines made use of cable railways based on the inclined plane idea, certain early passenger railways in the UK were planned with lengths of cable-haulage to overcome severe gradients.
For the first proper railway, the Liverpool and Manchester of 1830, it was not clear whether locomotive traction would work, the railway was designed with steep 1 in 100 gradients concentrated on either side of Rainhill, just in case. Had cable haulage been necessary inconvenient and time-consuming shunting would have been required to attach and detach the cables; the Rainhill gradients proved not to be a problem, in the event, locomotive traction was determined to be a new technology with great potential for further development. The steeper 1 in 50 grades from Liverpool down to the docks were operated by cable traction for several decades until locomotives improved. Cable haulage continued to be used where gradients were steeper. Cable haulage did prove viable where the gradients were exceptionally steep, such as the 1 in 8 gradients of the Cromford and High Peak Railway opened in 1830. Cable railways have two tracks with loaded wagons
A threshing machine or thresher is a piece of farm equipment that threshes grain, that is, it removes the seeds from the stalks and husks. It does so by beating the plant to make the seeds fall out. Before such machines were developed, threshing was done by hand with flails: such hand threshing was laborious and time-consuming, taking about one-quarter of agricultural labour by the 18th century. Mechanization of this process removed a substantial amount of drudgery from farm labour; the first threshing machine was invented circa 1786 by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle, the subsequent adoption of such machines was one of the earlier examples of the mechanization of agriculture. During the 19th century and mechanical reapers and reaper-binders became widespread and made grain production much less laborious. Michael Stirling is said to have invented a rotary threshing machine in 1758 which for forty years was used to process all the corn on his farm at Gateside, no published works have yet been found but his son William made a sworn statement to his minister to this fact, he gave him the details of his fathers death in 1796.
Separate reaper-binders and threshers have been replaced by machines that combine all of their functions, combine harvesters or combines. However, the simpler machines remain important as appropriate technology in low-capital farming contexts, both in developing countries and in developed countries on small farms that strive for high levels of self-sufficiency. For example, pedal-powered threshers are a low-cost option, some Amish sects use horse-drawn binders and old-style threshers; as the verb thresh is cognate with the verb thrash, the names thrashing machine and thrasher are alternate forms. The Swing Riots in the UK were a result of the threshing machine. Following years of war, high taxes and low wages, farm labourers revolted in 1830; these farm labourers had faced unemployment for a number of years due to the widespread introduction of the threshing machine and the policy of enclosing fields. No longer were thousands of men needed to tend the crops, a few would suffice. With fewer jobs, lower wages and no prospects of things improving for these workers the threshing machine was the final straw, the machine was to place them on the brink of starvation.
The Swing Rioters smashed threatened farmers who had them. The riots were dealt with harshly. Nine of the rioters were hanged and a further 450 were transported to Australia. Early threshing machines were horse-powered, they were about the size of an upright piano. Machines were steam-powered, driven by a portable engine or traction engine. Isaiah Jennings, a skilled inventor, created a small thresher that doesn't harm the straw in the process. In 1834, John Avery and Hiram Abial Pitts devised significant improvements to a machine that automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff, freeing farmers from a slow and laborious process. Avery and Pitts were granted United States patent #542 on December 29, 1837. John Ridley, an Australian inventor developed a threshing machine in South Australia in 1843; the 1881 Household Cyclopedia said of Meikle's machine: "Since the invention of this machine, Mr. Meikle and others have progressively introduced a variety of improvements, all tending to simplify the labour, to augment the quantity of the work performed.
When first erected, though the grain was well separated from the straw, yet as the whole of the straw and grain, was indiscriminately thrown into a confused heap, the work could only with propriety be considered as half executed. By the addition of rakes, or shakers, two pairs of fanners, all driven by the same machinery, the different processes of thrashing and winnowing are now all at once performed, the grain prepared for the public market; when it is added, that the quantity of grain gained from the superior powers of the machine is equal to a twentieth part of the crop, that, in some cases, the expense of thrashing and cleaning the grain is less than what was paid for cleaning it alone, the immense saving arising from the invention will at once be seen."The expense of horse labour, from the increased value of the animal and the charge of his keeping, being an object of great importance, it is recommended that, upon all sizable farms, to say, where two hundred acres, or upwards, of grain are sown, the machine should be worked by wind, unless where local circumstances afford the conveniency of water.
Where coals are plenty and cheap, steam may be advantageously used for working the machine."Steam-powered machines used belts connected to a traction engine. Steam remained a viable commercial option until the early post-WWII years. Threshing is just one step of the process in getting cereals to customer; the wheat needs to be grown, stooked, threshed, de-chaffed, straw baled, the grain hauled to a grain elevator. For many years each of these steps was an individual process, requiring teams of workers and many machines. In the steep hill wheat country of Palouse in the Northwest of the United States, steep ground meant moving machinery around was problematic and prone to rolling. To reduce the amount of work on the sidehills, the idea arose of combining the wheat binder and thresher into one machine, known as a combine harvester. About 1910, horse pulled combines became a success. Gas and diesel engines appeared with other refinements and specifications. Mo
A cooperative is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". Cooperatives may include: businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services organizations managed by the people who work there multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might include non-profits or investors. Second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Research published by the Worldwatch Institute found that in 2012 one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative; the turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2 trillion.
Cooperative businesses are more economically resilient than many other forms of enterprise, with twice the number of co-operatives surviving their first five years compared with other business ownership models. Cooperatives have social goals which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities; as an example of this, in 2013, retail co-operatives in the UK invested 6.9% of their pre-tax profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2.4% for other rival supermarkets. Since 2002 cooperatives and credit unions could be distinguished on the Internet by use of a.coop domain. Since 2014, following International Cooperative Alliance's introduction of the Cooperative Marque, ICA cooperatives and WOCCU credit unions can be identified by a coop ethical consumerism label. Cooperation dates back as far. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities.
In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context; the roots of the cooperative movement can extend worldwide. In the English-speaking world, post-feudal forms of cooperation between workers and owners that are expressed today as "profit-sharing" and "surplus sharing" arrangements, existed as far back as 1795; the key ideological influence on the Anglosphere branch of the cooperative movement, was a rejection of the charity principles that underpinned welfare reforms when the British government radically revised its Poor Laws in 1834. As both state and church institutions began to distinguish between the'deserving' and'undeserving' poor, a movement of friendly societies grew throughout the British Empire based on the principle of mutuality, committed to self-help in the welfare of working people. In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers.
Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen, from Newtown in mid-Wales, his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law David Dale and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow and Hampshire, although unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owen's thinking, having set up a cooperative store in Brighton; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. Friendly Societies established forums through which one member, one vote was practiced in organisation decision-making; the principles challenged the idea that a person should be an owner of property before being granted a political voice. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century there was a surge in the number of cooperative organisations, both in commercial practice and civil society, operating to advance democracy and universal suffrage as a political principle. Friendly Societies and consumer cooperatives became the dominant form of organization amongst working people in Anglosphere industrial societies prior to the rise of trade unions and industrial factories. Weinbren reports that by the end of the 19th century, over 80% of British working age men and 90% of Australian working age men were members of one or more Friendly Society.
From the mid-nineteenth century, mutual organisations embraced these ideas in economic enterprises, firstly amongst tradespeople, in cooperative stores, educational institutes, financial institutions and industrial enterprises. The common thread (enacte
A vacuum cleaner known as a sweeper or hoover, is a device that uses an air pump, to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt from floors and from other surfaces such as upholstery and draperies. The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for disposal. Vacuum cleaners, which are used in homes as well as in industry, exist in a variety of sizes and models—small battery-powered hand-held devices, wheeled canister models for home use, domestic central vacuum cleaners, huge stationary industrial appliances that can handle several hundred litres of dust before being emptied, self-propelled vacuum trucks for recovery of large spills or removal of contaminated soil. Specialized shop vacuums can be used to suck up liquids. Although vacuum cleaner and the short form vacuum are neutral names, in some countries hoover is used instead as a genericized trademark, as a verb; the name comes from the Hoover Company, one of the first and more influential companies in the development of the device.
The device is sometimes called a sweeper although the same term refers to a carpet sweeper, a similar invention. The vacuum cleaner evolved from the carpet sweeper via manual vacuum cleaners; the first manual models, using bellows, were developed in the 1860s, the first motorized designs appeared at the turn of the 20th century, with the first decade being the boom decade. In 1860 a manual vacuum cleaner was invented by Daniel Hess of Iowa. Called a'carpet sweeper', It gathered dust with a rotating brush and had a bellows for generating suction. Another early model was the "Whirlwind", invented in Chicago in 1868 by Ives W. McGaffey; the bulky device worked with a belt driven fan cranked by hand that made it awkward to operate, although it was commercially marketed with mixed success. A similar model was constructed by Melville R. Bissell of Grand Rapids, Michigan in 1876, who manufactured carpet sweepers; the company added portable vacuum cleaners to its line of cleaning tools. The end of the 19th century saw the introduction of powered cleaners, although early types used some variation of blowing air to clean instead of suction.
One appeared in 1898 when John S. Thurman of St. Louis, Missouri submitted a patent for a "pneumatic carpet renovator" which blew dust into a receptacle. Thurman's system, powered by an internal combustion engine, traveled to the customers residence on a horse-drawn wagon as part of a door to door cleaning service. Corrine Dufour of Savannah, Georgia received two patents in 1899 and 1900 for another blown air system that seems to have featured the first use of an electric motor. In 1901 powered vacuum cleaners using suction were invented independently by British engineer Hubert Cecil Booth and American inventor David T. Kenney. Booth may have coined the word "vacuum cleaner". Booth's horse drawn combustion engine powered "Puffing Billy", maybe derived from Thurman's blown air design," relied upon just suction with air pumped through a cloth filter and was offered as part of his cleaning services. Kenney's was a stationary 4,000 lb. steam engine powered system with pipes and hoses reaching into all parts of the building.
The first vacuum-cleaning device to be portable and marketed at the domestic market was built in 1905 by Walter Griffiths, a manufacturer in Birmingham, England. His Griffith's Improved Vacuum Apparatus for Removing Dust from Carpets resembled modern-day cleaners. In 1906 James B. Kirby developed his first of many vacuums called the "Domestic Cyclone", it used water for dirt separation. Revisions came to be known as the Kirby Vacuum Cleaner. In 1907 department store janitor James Murray Spangler of Canton, Ohio invented the first portable electric vacuum cleaner, obtaining a patent for the Electric Suction Sweeper on June 2, 1908. Crucially, in addition to suction from an electric fan that blew the dirt and dust into a soap box and one of his wife's pillow cases, Spangler's design utilized a rotating brush to loosen debris. Unable to produce the design himself due to lack of funding, he sold the patent in 1908 to local leather goods manufacturer William Henry Hoover, who had Spangler's machine redesigned with a steel casing and attachments, founding the company that in 1922 was renamed the Hoover Company.
Their first vacuum was the 1908 Model O, which sold for $60. Subsequent innovations included the beater bar in 1919, disposal filter bags in the 1920s, an upright vacuum cleaner in 1926. In Continental Europe, the Fisker and Nielsen company in Denmark was the first to sell vacuum cleaners in 1910; the design could be operated by a single person. The Swedish company Electrolux launched their Model V in 1921 with the innovation of being able to lie on the floor on two thin metal runners. In the 1930s the Germany company Vorwerk started marketing vacuum cleaners of their own design which they sold through direct sales. For many years after their introduction, vacuum cleaners remained a luxury item, but after the Second World War, they became common among the middle classes. Vacuums tend to be more common in Western countries because in most other parts of the world, wall-to-wall carpeting is uncommon and homes have tile or hardwood floors, which are swept, wiped or mopped manually without power assist.
The last decades of the 20th century saw the more widespread use of technologie