Forestry is the science and craft of creating, using and repairing forests and associated resources for human and environmental benefits. Forestry is practiced in natural stands; the science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, social and managerial sciences. Modern forestry embraces a broad range of concerns, in what is known as multiple-use management, including the provision of timber, fuel wood, wildlife habitat, natural water quality management, recreation and community protection, aesthetically appealing landscapes, biodiversity management, watershed management, erosion control, preserving forests as "sinks" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Other common terms are: a silviculturalist. Silviculture is narrower than forestry, being concerned only with forest plants, but is used synonymously with forestry. Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as the most important component of the biosphere, forestry has emerged as a vital applied science and technology.
Forestry is an important economic segment in various industrial countries. For example, in Germany, forests cover nearly a third of the land area, wood is the most important renewable resource, forestry supports more than a million jobs and about €181 billion of value to the German economy each year; the preindustrial age has been dubbed by Werner Sombart and others as the'wooden age', as timber and firewood were the basic resources for energy and housing. The development of modern forestry is connected with the rise of capitalism, economy as a science and varying notions of land use and property. Roman Latifundiae, large agricultural estates, were quite successful in maintaining the large supply of wood, necessary for the Roman Empire. Large deforestations came with after the decline of the Romans; however in the 5th century, monks in the Byzantine Romagna on the Adriatic coast, were able to establish stone pine plantations to provide fuelwood and food. This was the beginning of the massive forest mentioned by Dante Alighieri in his 1308 poem Divine Comedy.
Similar sustainable formal forestry practices were developed by the Visigoths in the 7th century when, faced with the ever-increasing shortage of wood, they instituted a code concerned with the preservation of oak and pine forests. The use and management of many forest resources has a long history in China as well, dating back to the Han dynasty and taking place under the landowning gentry. A similar approach was used in Japan, it was later written about by the Ming dynasty Chinese scholar Xu Guangqi. In Europe, land usage rights in medieval and early modern times allowed different users to access forests and pastures. Plant litter and resin extraction were important, as pitch was essential for the caulking of ships and hunting rights and building, timber gathering in wood pastures, for grazing animals in forests; the notion of "commons" refers to the underlying traditional legal term of common land. The idea of enclosed private property came about during modern times. However, most hunting rights were retained by members of the nobility which preserved the right of the nobility to access and use common land for recreation, like fox hunting.
Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber began in Portugal in the 13th century when Afonso III of Portugal planted the Pinhal do Rei near Leiria to prevent coastal erosion and soil degradation, as a sustainable source for timber used in naval construction. His successor Dom Dinis continued the forest exists still today. Forest management flourished in the German states in the 14th century, e.g. in Nuremberg, in 16th-century Japan. A forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; as timber rafting allowed for connecting large continental forests, as in south western Germany, via Main, Neckar and Rhine with the coastal cities and states, early modern forestry and remote trading were connected. Large firs in the black forest were called "Holländer ``. Large timber rafts on the Rhine were 200 to 400m in length, 40m in width and consisted of several thousand logs; the crew consisted of 400 to 500 men, including shelter, bakeries and livestock stables. Timber rafting infrastructure allowed for large interconnected networks all over continental Europe and is still of importance in Finland.
Starting with the sixteenth century, enhanced world maritime trade, a boom in housing construction in Europe and the success and further Berggeschrey of the mining industry increased timber consumption sharply. The notion of'Nachhaltigkeit', sustainability in forestry, is connected to the work of Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a mining administrator in Saxony, his book Sylvicultura oeconomica, oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und Naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht was the first comprehensive treatise about sustainable yield forestry. In the UK, and, to an extent, in continental Europe, the enclosure movement and the clearances favored enclosed private property; the Agrarian reformers, early economic writers and scientists tried to get rid of the traditional commons. At the time, an alleged tragedy of the commons together with fears of a Holznot, an imminent wood shortage played a watershed role in the controversies about cooperative land use patterns; the practice of establishing tree plantations in the British Isles was promoted by John Evelyn, though it had acquired some populari
Kelowna is a city on Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley in the southern interior of British Columbia, Canada. It serves as the head office of the Regional District of the Central Okanagan; the name Kelowna derives from an Okanagan language term for "grizzly bear". The Kelowna metropolitan area has a population of 194,882. Additionally, the City of Kelowna is the seventh-largest city in the province, it ranks as the 22nd-largest in Canada and is the largest city in British Columbia, located inland. Kelowna's city proper contains 211.82 square kilometres, the census metropolitan area contains 2,904.86 square kilometres. In 2016, the population of Kelowna consisted of 127,380 individuals occupying 53,903 private dwellings. Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, Peachland to the southwest, further to the south and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9,000 years ago.
The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, they continue to live in the region. Father Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" in reference to the sandy shoreline. Kelowna was incorporated on May 4, 1905. In May 2005, Kelowna celebrated its centennial. In the same year, construction began on a new five-lane William R. Bennett Bridge to replace the three-lane Okanagan Lake Bridge, it was part of a plan to alleviate traffic problems experienced during the summer tourist season. The new bridge was completed in 2008. Stubbs House is a historic house in Kelowna. On 3 July 1877, George Mercer Dawson was the first geologist to visit Kelowna. On 6 August 1969, a sonic boom from a nearby air show produced an expensive broken glass bill of a quarter million dollars while at least six people were injured; the incident was caused by a member of America's Blue Angels during a practice routine for the Kelowna Regatta festival: he accidentally went through the sound barrier while flying too low.
The last time the lake froze over was in the winter of 1969 and it may have frozen over in the winter of 1986. On 25 November 2005, the First National Aboriginal Leaders signed the Kelowna Accord. 2009, Kelowna built the tallest building between Vancouver and Calgary: Skye at Waterscapes, a 27-story residential tower. On 7 May 1992, a forest fire consumed 60 hectares of forest on Mount Boucherie in West Kelowna across Okanagan Lake from Kelowna proper. In August 2003, a nearby wildfire destroyed 239 homes and forced the temporary evacuation of about 30,000 residents. During the 2003 fire, many trestles of the historic Kettle Valley Railway were destroyed. All the trestles have been rebuilt to look like the originals. In late August 2005, a 30-ha fire caused multiple evacuations in the Rose Valley subdivision across the lake in West Kelowna. In July 2009, wildfires destroyed hundreds of hectares of forest and a number of buildings in West Kelowna. In July 2009, a 100-ha fire near Rose Valley resulted in the evacuation of 7,000 people.
No structures were lost. In July 2009, a 9,200-ha fire behind Fintry resulted in the evacuation of 2,500 people. No structures were lost. On 12 July 2010, a 30-ha fire in West Kelowna caused multiple evacuations. September 2011, a 40-ha fire in West Kelowna's Bear Creek Park caused the evacuation of over 500 people. In July 2012, a 30-ha fire caused the evacuation of the small community of Wilson's Landing just north of West Kelowna. In September 2012, a late-season, 200-ha fire destroyed seven buildings and resulted in the evacuation of 1,500 people in the community of Peachland. In July 2014, a 340-ha fire behind the West Kelowna subdivision of Smith Creek caused the evacuation of 3,000 people. In August 2014, a 40-ha fire above Peachland resulted in the evacuation of one home. In July 2015, a 55-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 100 properties. In July 2015, a 560-ha fire near Shelter Cove caused the evacuation of 70 properties. In August 2015, a 130-ha fire burned near Little White Mountain just south of Kelowna.
In August 2017, a 400-ha fire in the Joe Rich area caused the evacuation of over 474 properties. Kelowna's official flower is Balsamorhiza sagittata known as arrowleaf balsamroot. Kelowna is classified as a humid continental climate per the Köppen climate classification system due to its coldest month having an average temperature above −3.0 °C, with dry and sunny summers, cloudy winters, four seasons. The official climate station for Kelowna is at the Kelowna International Airport, at a higher altitude than the city core, with higher precipitation and cooler nighttime temperatures; the moderating effects of Okanagan Lake combined with mountains separating most of BC from the prairies moderates the winter climate, but Arctic air masses do penetrate the valley during winter for short periods. The coldest recorded temperature in the city was −36.1 °C recorded on 30 December 1968. Weather conditions during December and January are the cloudiest in Canada outside of Newfoundland due to persistent valley cloud.
As Okanagan Lake hardly freezes, warmer air rising from the lake climbs above colder atmospheric air, creating a temperature inversion which can cause the valley to be socked in by cloud. This valley cloud has a low ceil
The Cariboo Mountains are the northernmost subrange of the Columbia Mountains, which run down into the Spokane area of the United States and include the Selkirks and Purcells. The Cariboo Mountains are within the province of British Columbia, Canada; the range is 7,700 square kilometres in area and about 245 km in length and about 90 km at its widest. East of the range is the Rocky Mountain Trench, in this region the path of the upper Fraser River. To the west the range verges with the Cariboo Plateau through an intermediary "foothill" area known as the Quesnel Highland. Northwestwards the range drops to the Willow River area of the Nechako Plateau, which lies around Prince George. South of the range, northeast of Clearwater a plateau-like mountainous area between the range and the North Thompson River is part of the Shuswap Highland, which crosses the North Thompson and continues into the Shuswap Lake area. N. B; some classification systems assign the Cariboo Mountains to the Cariboo Plateau, which includes the small Marble and Clear Ranges but it is so large and so mountainous a range, with peaks that rival the highest in the Selkirks, that it does not warrant the "plateau" designation.
The Cariboo Mountains subranges include the Mowdish Range. Unlike the other three major subranges of the Columbia Mountains, the Cariboo Mountains have no contact with the Columbia River or its tributaries, but are bounded by the Fraser and its tributary, the North Thompson River (there is a small exception in the Canoe River, which runs into the Rocky Mountain Trench from the eastern end of the range; the Canoe River is on the north side of Albreda Pass, the divide between the North Thompson and the Rocky Mountain Trench. The highest summits in the range are in a group known as the Premier Range whose peaks carry the names of eleven Canadian Prime Ministers, one British Prime Minister, one Premier of British Columbia; the highest peak is Mount Sir Wilfrid Laurier at 3,516 m. The most added name to the group is that of Mount Pierre Elliott Trudeau; the highest peak in the Cariboo Mountains outside the Premiers Range is Quanstrom Mountain 3,038 m, the northernmost peak in the range over 3,000 m.
Mowdish Range Premier Range Wavy Range Much of the Cariboo Mountains lie in Wells Gray Provincial Park, created in 1939 and the 4th largest in British Columbia. Another section is in Bowron Lake Provincial Park, a popular canoeing circuit east of the preserved gold rush town of Barkerville. Another park in the range is Cariboo Mountains Provincial Park, between Wells Gray and Bowron Lake
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
The Cariboo is an intermontane region of British Columbia along a plateau stretching from the Fraser Canyon to the Cariboo Mountains. The name is a reference to the caribou; the Cariboo was the first region of the Interior north of the lower Fraser and its canyon to be settled by non-indigenous people, played an important part in the early history of the colony and province. The boundaries of the Cariboo proper in its historical sense are debatable, but its original meaning was the region north of the forks of the Quesnel River and the low mountainous basins between the mouth of that river on the Fraser at the city of Quesnel and the northward end of the Cariboo Mountains - an area, in the Quesnel Highland and focused on several now-famous gold-bearing creeks near the head of the Willow River, the richest of them all, Williams Creek, the location of Barkerville, the capital of the Cariboo Gold Rush and of government officialdom for decades afterwards; this area, the Cariboo goldfields, is underpopulated today but was once the most settled and most powerful of the regions of the province's Interior.
As settlement spread southwards of this area, flanking the route of the Cariboo Road and spreading out through the rolling plateaus and benchlands of the Cariboo Plateau and lands adjoining it along the Fraser and Thompson, the meaning changed to include a wider area than the goldfields. The grasslands of the Cariboo are home of the regionally endangered American badger. North Cariboo: Quesnel Wells Likely Barkerville McLeese LakeCentral Cariboo: Williams Lake Horsefly 150 Mile House Lac La HacheSouth Cariboo: 100 Mile House Forest Grove Interlakes Lone Butte 70 Mile House Clinton Cariboo Plateau Cariboo Gold Rush Information on the South Cariboo
Quesnel Lake is a glacial lake or fjord in British Columbia, is the major tertiary of the Fraser River. With a maximum depth of 610 meters, it is claimed to be the deepest fjord lake in the world, the fifth-deepest lake in BC, the deepest lake in the Cariboo region. On August 4, 2014, the tailings pond of Mount Polley mine burst, spilling tailings into Polley Lake and Quesnel Lake and temporarily depriving residents of Likely, British Columbia, of fresh water for household use. Forestry and fishing are popular in this area. Quesnel Lake is a trophy lake because live bait or barbed hooks are not allowed. Catch-and-release restrictions apply to Steelhead fish greater than 50 cm. Rainbow trout, dolly varden and other lake trout are common
Sockeye salmon called red salmon, kokanee salmon, or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it. This species is a Pacific salmon, red in hue during spawning, they can weigh 2.3 to 7 kg. Juveniles remain in freshwater until they are ready to migrate to the ocean, over distances of up to 1,600 km, their diet consists of zooplankton. Sockeye salmon are semelparous; some populations, referred to as kokanee, do not migrate to the ocean and live their entire lives in freshwater. Sockeye salmon is the third-most common Pacific salmon species, after chum salmon. Oncorhynchus comes from the Greek ὄγκος meaning "barb", ῥύγχος meaning "snout". Nerka is the Russian name for the anadromous form; the name "sockeye" is an anglicization of suk-kegh, its name in Halkomelem, the language of the indigenous people along the lower reaches of the Fraser River. Suk-kegh means "red fish"; the sockeye salmon is sometimes called red or blueback salmon, due to its color.
Sockeye are blue tinged with silver in color while living in the ocean. When they return to spawning grounds, their bodies become their heads turn green. Sockeye can weigh from 2.3 to 7 kg. Two distinguishing features are their long, serrated gill rakers that range from 30 to 40 in number, their lack of a spot on their tail or back. Sockeye salmon range as far south as the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific and in northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, they range as far north as the Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west. The farthest inland sockeye salmon travel is to Redfish Lake, over 900 miles from the ocean and 6,500 feet in elevation. Landlocked populations of the same species are known; some sockeye live and reproduce in lakes and are called kokanee, red-fish name in the Sinixt Interior Salish language and silver trout in the Okanagan language. They are much smaller than the anadromous variety and are over 35 cm long.
In the Okanagan Lake and many others, there are two kinds of kokanee populations – one spawns in streams and the other near lake shores. Landlocked populations occur in the Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, as well as, in Alaska, Oregon, New York, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Wyoming in the United States. Nantahala Lake is the only place in North Carolina; the fish, native to western North America, was stocked in Nantahala Lake in the mid-1960s by the NC Wildlife Resources Commission in an attempt to establish the species as a forage fish for other predator fishes in the lake. This stock has become a favorite target for anglers. In Japan, a landlocked variety termed black kokanee, or "kunimasu" in Japanese, was deemed to be extinct after 1940, when a hydroelectric project made its native lake in northern Akita Prefecture more acidic; the species seems to have been saved by transferring eggs to Saiko Lake, 500 kilometers to the south, however. This fish has been treated as a subspecies of sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka kawamurae, or an independent species Oncorhynchus kawamurae.
Sockeye salmon use patterns of limnetic feeding behavior, which encompasses vertical movement, diel feeding chronology, zooplankton prey selectivity. They can change their position in the water column and length of feeding, school formation, choice of prey to minimize the likelihood of predation; this ensures they still get at least the minimum amount of food necessary to survive. All of these behaviors contribute to the survivability, therefore fitness of the salmon. Depending on location and threat of predation, the levels of aggressive feeding behavior can vary. Sockeye salmon, unlike other species of Pacific salmon, feed extensively on zooplankton during both freshwater and saltwater life stages, they tend to feed on small aquatic organisms such as shrimp. Insects are part of their diets at the juvenile stage. Sockeye salmon exhibit many different life histories with the majority being anadromous where the juvenile salmon migrate from freshwater lakes and streams to the ocean before returning as adults to their natal freshwater to spawn.
Similar to most Pacific salmon, sockeye salmon are semelparous, meaning they die after spawning once. Some sockeye, called kokanee, do not migrate to the ocean and live their entire lives in freshwater lakes; the majority of sockeye spawn in rivers near lakes and juveniles will spend one to two years in the lake before migrating to the ocean, although some populations will migrate to saltwater in their first year. Adult sockeye will spend two to three years in the ocean before returning to freshwater. Females will spawn in 3–5 redds over a period of several days; the eggs hatch within six to nine weeks and the fry rear in lakes before migrating to the ocean. Males partake in competitive and sneaking tactics, formation of hierarchies, non-hierarchical groupings around females who are ready to mate. Reproductive success varies more in males than females; the greater variability in male reproduction is associated with the greater average size and exaggerated shape of males. Reproductive success in females is determined by the number of eggs she lays, her bo