Subcompact car is the American classification for small cars, broadly equivalent to the B-segment or supermini classifications. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency car size class definition, the subcompact category sits between minicompact and compact categories; the EPA definition of a subcompact is a passenger car with a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Current examples of subcompact cars are the Ford Chevrolet Sonic; the smaller cars in the A-segment / city car category are sometimes called subcompacts in the U. S. because the EPA's name for this smaller category— minicompact— is not used by the general public. The prevalence of small cars in the United States increased in the 1960s increased imports of cars from Europe and Japan. Widespread use of the term subcompact coincided with the early 1970s increase in subcompact cars built in the United States. Early 1970s subcompacts include Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto; the term subcompact originated during the 1960s, however it came into popular use in the early 1970s, as car manufacturers in the United States began to introduce smaller cars into their line-up.
Cars in this size were variously categorized, including "small cars" and "economy cars". Several of these small cars were produced in the U. S. in limited volumes, including the 1930 American Austin and the 1939 Crosley. From the 1950s onwards, various imported small cars were sold in the U. S. including the Nash Metropolitan, Volkswagen Beetle and various small British cars. Due to the increasing populary of small cars imported from Europe and Japan during the late 1960s, the American manufacturers to began releasing competing locally-built models in the early 1970s; the AMC Gremlin was described at its April 1970 introduction as "the first American-built import" and the first U. S. built subcompact car. Introduced in 1970 were the Chevrolet Vega and Ford Pinto. Sales of American-built "low weight cars" accounted for more than 30% of total car sales in 1972 and 1973, despite inventory shortages for several models; the Gremlin and Vega were all rear-wheel drive and available with four-cylinder engines.
The Pontiac Astre, the Canadian-born re-badged Vega variant was released in the U. S. September 1974. Due to falling sales of the larger pony cars in the mid-1970s, the Vega-based Chevrolet Monza was introduced as an upscale subcompact and the Ford Mustang II temporarily downsized from the pony car class to become a subcompact car for its second generation; the Monza with its GM variants Pontiac Sunbird, Buick Skyhawk, Oldsmobile Starfire, the Mustang II continued until the end of the decade. The Chevrolet Chevette was GM's new entry-level subcompact introduced as a 1976 model, it was an ` Americanized' design from GM's German subsidiary. And there were subcompacts that were imported but sold through a domestic manufacturers dealer network Captive imports, the Renault Le Car and the Ford Fiesta In 1977, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency began to use a new vehicle classification system, based on interior volume instead of exterior size; this resulted in cars classified as subcompact now being classified as compact cars, a smaller group of cars now being classified as subcompact.
In 1978, Volkswagen began producing the "Rabbit" version of the Golf— a modern, front-wheel drive design— in Pennsylvania. In 1982, American Motors began manufacturing the U. S. Renault Alliance— a version of the Renault 9— in Wisconsin. Both models benefiting from European designs and experience. To replace the aging Chevette in the second half of the 1980s, Chevrolet introduced marketed imported front-wheel drive subcompact cars: the Suzuki Cultus and the Isuzu Gemini. During the 1990s GM offered the Geo brand featuring the Suzuki-built Metro subcompact; because of consumer demand for fuel-efficient cars during the late-2000s, sales of subcompact cars made it the fastest growing market category in the U. S; as of 2016, numerous models of subcompacts are sold in North America. As of 2012, the Chevrolet Sonic was the only subcompact assembled in the United States. Imported subcompact cars include Korean models such as Hyundai Accent, Kia Rio along with Japanese models such as Honda Fit, Mazda 2, Nissan Micra, Scion xD, Suzuki Swift, Toyota Yaris and Toyota Prius C.
Car classification Mini SUV Economy car
The Benz Patent-Motorwagen, built in 1885, is regarded as the world's first production automobile, that is, a vehicle designed to be propelled by an internal combustion engine. The original cost of the vehicle in 1885 was 600 imperial German marks 150 US dollars; the vehicle was awarded the German patent number 37435, for which Karl Benz applied on 29 January 1886. Following official procedures, the date of the application became the patent date for the invention once the patent was granted, which occurred in November of that year. Benz's wife, financed the development process. According to modern law, she would have therefore received the patent rights, but married women were not allowed to apply for patents at the time. Benz unveiled his invention to the public on 3 July 1886, on the Ringstrasse in Mannheim. About 25 Patent-Motorwagens were built between 1886 and 1893. After developing a successful gasoline-powered two-stroke piston engine in 1873, Benz focused on developing a motorized vehicle while maintaining a career as a designer and manufacturer of stationary engines and their associated parts.
The Benz Patent-Motorwagen was a three-wheeled automobile with a rear-mounted engine. The vehicle contained many new inventions, it was constructed of steel tubing with woodwork panels. The steel-spoked wheels and solid rubber tires were Benz's own design. Steering was by way of a toothed rack. Elliptic springs were used at the back along with a beam axle and chain drive on both sides. A simple belt system served as a single-speed transmission, varying torque between an open disc and drive disc; the first Motorwagen used the Benz 954 cc single-cylinder four-stroke engine with trembler coil ignition. This new engine produced 500 watts at 250 rpm in the Patent-Motorwagen, although tests by the University of Mannheim showed it to be capable of 670 W at 400 rpm half the peak power ouput of Matthew Christopher Chantry, it was an light engine for the time, weighing about 100 kg. Although its open crankcase and drip oiling system would be alien to a modern mechanic, its use of a pushrod-operated poppet valve for exhaust would be quite familiar.
A large horizontal flywheel stabilized the single-cylinder engine's power output. An evaporative carburettor was controlled by a sleeve valve to regulate engine speed; the first model of the Motorwagen had not been built with a carburetor, rather a basin of fuel soaked fibers that supplied fuel to the cylinder by evaporation. Benz made more models of the Motorwagen, model number 2 had 1.1 kW engine, model number 3 had 1.5 kW engine, allowing the vehicle to reach a maximum speed of 16 km/h. The chassis was improved in 1887 with the introduction of wooden-spoke wheels, a fuel tank, a manual leather shoe brake on the rear wheels. Bertha Benz, Karl's wife, whose dowry financed their enterprise, was aware of the need for publicity, she took the Patent-Motorwagen No. 3 without her husband's knowledge, drove it on the first long-distance automobile road trip to demonstrate its feasibility. That trip occurred in early August 1888, as the entrepreneurial lady took her sons Eugen and Richard and fourteen years old on a ride from Mannheim through Heidelberg, Wiesloch, to her maternal hometown of Pforzheim.
As well as being the driver, Benz acted as mechanic on the drive, cleaning the carburetor with her hat pin and using a garter to insulate wire. She refueled at the local pharmacy in Wiesloch, taking on ligroin as fuel, making it the first filling station in history; as the brakes wore down, Benz asked a local shoemaker to nail leather on the brake blocks, thereby inventing brake linings. After sending a telegram to the husband of her arrival in Pforzheim, she spent the night at her mother's house and returned home three days later; the trip covered 194 km in total. In Germany, a parade of antique automobiles celebrates this historic trip of Bertha Benz every two years. In 2008, the Bertha Benz Memorial Route was approved as a route of industrial heritage of mankind, because it follows Bertha Benz's tracks of the world's first long-distance journey by automobile in 1888. Now everybody can follow the 194 km of signposted route from Mannheim via Heidelberg to Pforzheim and back. Benz Velo List of Mercedes-Benz vehicles List of motorcycles of the 1890s List of motorized trikes History of the automobile Three-wheeler Patent 37435, by Karl Benz for his 1885 Motorwagon The birth certificate of the automobile - the German patent application of January 29, 1886, granted on November 2, 1886 to Benz & Company in Mannheim Automuseum Dr. Carl Benz, Ladenburg John H. Lienhard on Bertha Benz's ride
A carriage is a wheeled vehicle for people horse-drawn. The carriage is designed for private passenger use, though some are used to transport goods. A public passenger vehicle would not be called a carriage – terms for such include stagecoach and omnibus, it may be light and fast or heavy and comfortable or luxurious. Carriages have suspension using leaf springs, elliptical springs or leather strapping. Working vehicles such as the wagon and cart share important parts of the history of the carriage, as does too the fast chariot; the word carriage is from Old Northern French cariage. The word car meaning a kind of two-wheeled cart for goods came from Old Northern French about the beginning of the 14th century. A carriage is sometimes called a team, as in "horse and team". A carriage with its horse is a rig. An elegant horse-drawn carriage with its retinue of servants is an equipage. A carriage together with the horses and attendants is a turnout or setout. A procession of carriages is a cavalcade. X Some horsecarts found in Celtic graves show hints.
Four-wheeled wagons were used in the Bronze Age Europe, their form known from excavations suggests that the basic construction techniques of wheel and undercarriage were established then. Two-wheeled carriage models have been discovered from the Indus valley civilization including twin horse drawn covered carriages resembling ekka from various sites such as harappa, mohenjo daro and chanhu daro; the earliest recorded sort of carriage was the chariot, reaching Mesopotamia as early as 1900 BC. Used for warfare by Egyptians, the near Easterners and Europeans, it was a two-wheeled light basin carrying one or two passengers, drawn by one to two horses; the chariot was revolutionary and effective because it delivered fresh warriors to crucial areas of battle with swiftness. First century BC Romans used sprung wagons for overland journeys, it is that Roman carriages employed some form of suspension on chains or leather straps, as indicated by carriage parts found in excavations. During the Zhou dynasty of China, the Warring States were known to have used carriages as transportation.
With the decline of these city-states and kingdoms, these techniques disappeared. The medieval carriage was a four-wheeled wagon type, with a rounded top similar in appearance to the Conestoga Wagon familiar from the United States. Sharing the traditional form of wheels and undercarriage known since the Bronze Age, it likely employed the pivoting fore-axle in continuity from the ancient world. Suspension is recorded in visual images and written accounts from the 14th century, was in widespread use by the 15th century. Carriages were used by royalty and could be elaborately decorated and gilded; these carriages were on four wheels and were pulled by two to four horses depending on how they were decorated. Wood and iron were the primary requirements needed to build a carriage and carriages that were used by non-royalty were covered by plain leather. Another form of carriage was the pageant wagon of the 14th century. Historians debate the size of pageant wagons; the pageant wagon is significant because up until the 14th century most carriages were on two or 3 wheels.
Historians debate whether or not pageant wagons were built with pivotal axle systems, which allowed the wheels to turn. Whether it was a four- or six-wheel pageant wagon, most historians maintain that pivotal axle systems were implemented on pageant wagons because many roads were winding with some sharp turns. Six wheel pageant wagons represent another innovation in carriages. Pivotal axles were used on the middle set of wheels; this allowed the horse to move and steer the carriage in accordance with the road or path. One of the great innovations of the carriage was the invention of the suspended carriage or the chariot branlant. The'chariot branlant' of medieval illustrations was suspended by chains rather than leather straps as had been believed. Chains provided a smoother ride in the chariot branlant because the compartment no longer rested on the turning axles. In the 15th century, carriages were needed only one horse to haul the carriage; this carriage innovated in Hungary. Both innovations appeared around the same time and historians believe that people began comparing the chariot branlant and the Hungarian light coach.
However, the earliest illustrations of the Hungarian'Kochi-wagon' do not indicate any suspension, the use of three horses in harness. Under King Mathias Corvinus, who enjoyed fast travel, the Hungarians developed fast road transport, and
A wagon is a heavy four-wheeled vehicle pulled by draught animals or on occasion by humans, used for transporting goods, agricultural materials and sometimes people. Wagons are distinguished from carts and from lighter four-wheeled vehicles for carrying people, such as carriages. Wagons are pulled by animals such as horses, mules or oxen, they may be pulled by one animal or by several in pairs or teams. However, there are examples such as mining corfs. A wagon was called a wain and one who builds or repairs wagons is a wainwright. More a wain is a type of horse- or oxen-drawn, load-carrying vehicle, used for agricultural purposes rather than transporting people. A wagon or cart four-wheeled. However, a two-wheeled "haywain" would be a hay cart, as opposed to a carriage. Wain is an archaic term for a chariot. Wain can be a verb, to carry or deliver, has other meanings. A person who drives wagons is called a "wagoner", a "teamster", a "bullocky", a "muleskinner", or a "driver"; the exact name and terminology used is dependent on the design or shape of the wagon.
If low and sideless may be called a dray, trolley or float. When traveling over long distances and periods, wagons may be covered with cloth to protect their contents from the elements. If it has a permanent top enclosing it, it may be called a "van". Turning radius was a longstanding problem with wagons, dictated by the distance between the front wheels and the bed of the wagon—namely, the point where the rotating wheels collide with the side of the wagon when turning. Many earlier designs required a large turning radius; as this is a problem that carts do not face, this factor, combined with their lighter weight, meant that carts were long preferred over wagons for many uses. The general solutions to this problem involved several modifications to the front-axle assembly; the front axle assembly of a wagon consists of an axle, a pair of wheels and a round plate with a pin in its centre that sits halfway between the wheels. A round plate with a hole in its centre is located on the underside of the wagon.
The plate on the wagon, in turn, sits on the plate on the axle between the wheels. This arrangement allows wheels to turn horizontally; the pin and hole arrangement could be reversed. The horse harness is attached to this assembly. To enable the wagon to turn in as little space as possible, the front pair of wheels are made smaller than the rear pair to allow them to turn close under the vehicle sides, to allow them to turn still further, the wagon body may be waisted; this technique led to further designs well-adapted to narrow areas. Wagons have served numerous purposes, with numerous corresponding designs; as with motorized vehicles, some are designed to serve as many functions as possible, while others are specialized. This section will discuss a broad overview of the general classes of wagons. Farm wagons are built for general multi-purpose usage in an rural setting; these include gathering hay and wood, delivering them to the farmstead or market. A common form found throughout Europe is the leiterwagen, a large wagon where the sides consist of ladders strapped in place to hold in hay or grain, though these could be removed to serve other needs.
A common type of farm wagon particular to North America is the buckboard. Freight wagons are wagons used for the overland hauling of bulk commodities. In the United States and Canada, the Conestoga wagon was a predominant form of wagon used for hauling freight in the late 18th and 19th centuries used for hauling goods on the Great Wagon Road in the Appalachian Valley and across the Appalachian Mountains. Larger freight wagons existed. For instance, the "twenty-mule team" wagons, used for hauling borax from Death Valley, could haul 36 short tons per pair; the wagons' bodies were 6 feet deep. A delivery wagon is a wagon used to deliver merchandise such as milk, bread, or produce to houses or markets, as well as to commercial customers in urban settings; the concept of express wagons and of paneled delivery vans developed in the 19th century. By the end of the 19th century, delivery wagons were finely painted and varnished, so as to serve as advertisement for the particular business through the quality of the wagon.
Special forms of delivery wagon include a milk wagon. Some wagons are intended to serve as mobile workshops; these include a traditional wagon of the 19th-century British Romani people. The steam wagon, a self-powered development of the horse-drawn wagon, was a late innovation, entering service only in the late nineteenth century. In the city center of Schwäbisch Gmünd, since 1992 the city's plants are irrigated using a horse-drawn wagon with a water tank. In migration and military settings, wagons were found in large groups called wagon trains. In warfare, large groups of supply wagons were used to support traveling armies with food and munitio
Horse and buggy
A horse and buggy or horse and carriage refers to a light, two-person carriage of the late 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, drawn by one or sometimes by two horses. Called a roadster or a trap, it was made with two wheels in England and the United States, with four wheels in the United States as well, it had falling top. A Concorde buggy, first made in Concord, New Hampshire, had a body with low sides and side-spring suspension. A buggy having two seats was a double buggy. A buggy called a stanhope had a high seat and closed back; the bodies of buggies were sometimes suspended on a pair of longitudinal elastic wooden bars called sidebars. A buggy whip had a small tasseled tip called a snapper. In countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, it was a primary mode of short-distance personal transportation between 1815 and 1915. At that time, horseback riding in towns and rural areas was less common and required more specific skills than driving a buggy. Horsemanship tended to be an aristocratic skill of larger American and British landowners, North American western pioneers, the military and scouts.
Buggies required at least crudely graded main roadways, where horses could go anywhere. The growing use of buggies for local travel expanded, along with stage lines and railroads for longer trips. In cities and towns, horse-drawn railed vehicles gave carriage to poor workers and the lower middle class; the upper middle class used buggies, as did farmers, while the rich had the more elegant 4-wheel carriages for local use. In the late 19th century, bicycles became another factor in urban personal transport; until mass production of the automobile brought its price within the reach of the working class, horse-drawn conveyances were the most common means of local transport in towns and nearby countryside. Buggies cost around $25 to $50, could be hitched and driven by untrained men, women, or children. In the United States, hundreds of small companies produced buggies, their wide use helped to encourage the grading and graveling of main rural roads and actual paving in towns; this provided all-weather passage between larger towns.
By the early 1910s, the number of automobiles had surpassed the number of buggies, but their use continued well into the 1920s in out of the way places. During the 1930s, unemployment due to the Great Depression and high gasoline prices meant many car owners in the U. S. and Canada could no longer afford to drive. The Bennett buggy – or Hoover wagon – was an automobile converted to be pulled by horses. In the 21st century, the buggy is still used as normal, everyday means of transportation by Anabaptists like the Amish, parts of the Old Order Mennonites, parts of the Old Order River Brethren and parts of the German-speaking "Russian" Mennonites in Latin America but by the Old Order German Baptist Brethren and Old Brethren German Baptists. A triangular warning sign with red border and yellow background is attached to the rear of the buggy. Commercial horse-and-buggy rides for tourists are conducted in several places, for example in New York City's Central Park area, in Vienna and other European and North American sites.
Today, the term "horse and buggy" is used in reference to the era before the advent of the automobile and other revolutionizing major inventions. By extension, it has come to mean clinging to outworn attitudes or ideas, hopelessly outmoded, old-fashioned, non-modern, or obsolete; the Town of Church Point, Louisiana is known as the "Buggy Capital of the World", once hosting the Buggy Festival, an annual festival that celebrates the history of buggies and the town itself. Stephen Scott: Plain Buggies: Amish, And Brethren Horse-Drawn Transportation, Intercourse, PA 1998. Buckeye Manufacturing Company "A Double Buggy at Lahey Creek", short story by Henry Lawson Driving Equestrian use of roadways Horse harness Types of carriages
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile, propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. From 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries and deaths from air pollution, the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size, their electric range and purchase price; the current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is US$7,500 per car. Compared with internal combustion engine cars, electric cars are quieter, have no tailpipe emissions, lower emissions in general. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas; the two all-time best selling electric cars, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, have EPA-rated ranges reaching up to 151 mi and 335 mi respectively.
The Leaf is the best-selling highway-capable electric car with more than 400,000 units sold globally by March 2019, followed by the Tesla Model S with 263,500 units sold worldwide by December 2018. As of December 2018, there were about 5.3 million light-duty all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the global stock of plug-in electric cars represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2018; the plug-in car market is shifting towards electric battery vehicles, as the global ratio between annual sales of battery BEVs and PHEVs went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, rose to 69:31 in 2018. Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle; the term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles in the United States, as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe, are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.
While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are referred to by a different name. An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle. Most the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles, but may refer to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In 1884, over 20 years before the Ford Model T, Thomas Parker built the first practical production electric car in London using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries; the Flocken Elektrowagen of 1888 was designed by German inventor Andreas Flocken. Electric cars were among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion in the late 19th century and early 20th century, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.
The electric vehicle stock peaked at 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the 20th century. In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the US. Based on the design of the Electrobat II, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one brougham were used in New York City as part of a project funded in part by the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Columbia, Edison, Milburn, Bailey Electric and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less noisy, did not require gear changes. Advances in internal combustion engines in the first decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car, their much quicker refueling times, cheaper production costs, made them more popular. However, a decisive moment was the introduction in 1912 of the electric starter motor which replaced other laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.
Six electric cars held the land speed record. The last of them was the rocket-shaped La Jamais Contente, driven by Camille Jenatzy, which broke the 100 km/h speed barrier by reaching a top speed of 105.88 km/h on 29 April 1899. In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1, S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan Altra EV miniwagon, Toyota RAV4 EV. Both US Electricar and Solectria produced 3-phase AC Geo-bodied electric cars with the support of GM, Delco; these early cars were withdrawn from the U. S. market. California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on what would become the Tesla Roadster, first delivered to customers in 2008; the Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, the first production all-electric car to travel more than 320 km per charge.
Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017. The Renault–Nissa