National Natural Landmark
The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States. It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership; the program was established on May 18, 1962, by United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. The program aims to encourage and support voluntary preservation of sites that illustrate the geological and ecological history of the United States, it hopes to strengthen the public's appreciation of the country's natural heritage. As of November 2016, 599 sites have been added to the National Registry of National Landmarks; the registry includes nationally significant geological and ecological features in 48 states, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; the National Park Service administers the NNL Program and if requested, assists NNL owners and managers with the conservation of these important sites.
Land acquisition by the federal government is not a goal of this program. National Natural Landmarks are nationally significant sites owned by a variety of land stewards, their participation in this federal program is voluntary; the legislative authority for the National Natural Landmarks Program stems from the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. The NNL Program does not have the protection features of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Thus, designation of a National Natural Landmark presently constitutes only an agreement with the owner to preserve, insofar as possible, the significant natural values of the site or area. Administration and preservation of National Natural Landmarks is the owner's responsibility. Either party may terminate the agreement; the NNL designation is made by the Secretary of the Interior after in-depth scientific study of a potential site. All new designations must have owner concurrence; the selection process is rigorous: to be considered for NNL status, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural region's characteristic biotic or geologic features.
Since establishment of the NNL program, a multi-step process has been used to designate a site for NNL status. Since 1970, the following steps have constituted the process. A natural area inventory of a natural region is completed to identify the most promising sites. After landowners are notified that the site is being considered for NNL status, a detailed onsite evaluation is conducted by scientists other than those who conducted the inventory; the evaluation report is peer reviewed by other experts to assure its soundness. The report is reviewed further by National Park Service staff; the site is reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's National Park Advisory Board to determine that the site qualifies as an NNL. The findings are provided to the Secretary of the Interior who declines. Landowners are notified a third time informing them that the site has been designated an NNL. Prospective sites for NNL designation are aquatic ecosystems; each major natural history "theme" can be further subdivided into various sub-themes.
For example, sub-themes suggested in 1972 for the overall theme "Lakes and ponds" included large deep lakes, large shallow lakes, lakes of complex shape, crater lakes, kettle lake and potholes, oxbow lakes, dune lakes, sphagnum-bog lakes, lakes fed by thermal streams, tundra lakes and ponds and marshy areas, sinkhole lakes, unusually productive lakes, lakes of high productivity and high clarity. The NNL program does not require designated properties to be owned by public entities. Lands under all forms of ownership or administration have been designated—federal, local and private. Federal lands with NNLs include those administered by the National Park Service, National Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and Wildlife Service, Air Force, Marine Corps, Army Corps of Engineers and others; some NNL have been designated on lands held by Native tribes. NNLs have been designated on state lands that cover a variety of types and management, as forest, game refuge, recreation area, preserve.
Private lands with NNLs include those owned by universities, scientific societies, conservation organizations, land trusts, commercial interests, private individuals. 52% of NNLs are administered by public agencies, more than 30% are privately owned, the remaining 18% are owned or administered by a mixture of public agencies and private owners. Participation in the NNL Program carries no requirements regarding public access; the NNL registry includes many sites of national significance that are open for public tours, but others are not. Since many NNLs are located on federal and state property, permission to visit is unnecessary; some private property may be open to public visitation or just require permission from the site manager. On the other hand, some NNL private landowners desire no visitors whatever and might prosecute trespassers; the reasons for this viewpoint vary: potential property damage or liability, fragile or dangerous resources, desire for solitude or no publicity. NNL designation is an agreement between the federal government.
NNL designation does not change ownership of the property nor induce any encumbrances on the property. NNL status does not transfer with changes in ownership. Participation in the NNL Program involve
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Au Sable River (Michigan)
The Au Sable River in Michigan, United States runs 138 miles through the northern Lower Peninsula, through the towns of Grayling and Mio, enters Lake Huron at Au Sable. It is considered one of the best brown trout fisheries east of the Rockies and has been designated a blue ribbon trout stream by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. In French, au sable means "at the sand." A 1795 map calls it the Beauais River. The Au Sable has a drainage basin of 1,932 square miles and an average flow of 1,100 ft3/s at its mouth; the river drops 650 feet from its source at the junction of Bradford Creeks. The main stream of the river is formed at 44°48′21″N 84°45′29″W in Frederic Township in Crawford County by the confluence of Kolke and Bradford Creeks, which both rise in Otsego County; the river flows south turns east through Grayling, where it is joined by the East Branch Au Sable River at 44°39′55″N 84°42′13″W. The East Branch rises in Lovells Township, Crawford County at 44°49′46″N 84°35′59″W; the Au Sable continues eastward and is joined by the South Branch Au Sable River at 44°39′23″N 84°28′06″W in South Branch Township.
The South Branch rises out of Lake St. Helen in Richfield Township, Roscommon County at 44°22′54″N 84°26′38″W and flows northwest into Roscommon northeast to the main branch of the Au Sable; the North Branch Au Sable River joins within 5 miles in eastern Crawford County at 44°40′14″N 84°22′51″W near the boundary with Oscoda County. The North Branch rises in Otsego County, near Lake Otsego; the Au Sable flows east through Oscoda County south and east through Alcona County and Iosco County. The river's watershed drains portions of Montmorency County and Ogemaw County. Most of the main branch of the Au Sable flows through or adjacent to the Huron-Manistee National Forest. 23 miles of the river, from the Mio Pond downstream to the Alcona Pond, was designated as a National Wild and Scenic River on October 4, 1984. The watershed provides habitat for the endangered Kirtland's warbler. Five percent of the land in the watershed is 29 % is state forest, it is a designated trout stream, many canoe liveries exist along the river, which offer canoe trips from a few hours to as long as a week.
The river was a grayling fishery with brook trout being released in the 1880s. By 1908 the grayling were gone although they were reintroduced in 1987. Brown trout is the current main catch; the Lumberman's Monument, in honor of the lumberjacks that first populated the area, is located on the river about 15 miles west of Oscoda. Lumbering along the river began in the 1860s and was finished by the 1910s; the Au Sable River is the site of a yearly 120-mile pro-am canoe race, the Au Sable River Canoe Marathon, which begins at 9:00 p.m. and runs through the night into the next day. Winning times have ranged from 14 to 21 hours; the race was first run in 1947. River Road, running parallel with the Au Sable River, is a designated National Scenic Byway. There are six hydro-electric power plants in the Au Sable River basin, with a total installed capacity of 41 MW and an average annual energy output of 500 GJ; the six reservoirs were constructed between 1911 and 1924. The Au Sable has about 350 miles of tributary streams including the Pine River.
Arbutus Beach, Michigan Au Sable, Michigan Curtisville, Michigan Glennie, Michigan Grayling, Michigan Lewiston, Michigan Lovells, Michigan Mio, Michigan Oscoda, Michigan Roscommon, Michigan Ordered from upriver to downriver, all belonging to the power company Consumers Energy: Mio Dam Alcona Dam Loud Dam Five Channels Dam Cooke Dam Foote Dam The river has five historical markers on it: Cooke Hydroelectric Plant Five Channels Dam Workers Camp The Louis Chevalier Claim Mio Hydroelectric Plant Chief Shoppenagen The Michigan AuSable Valley Railroad is located in Fairview. It is a 1/4 scale, 16 in gauge ridable miniature railway, which offers rides on a passenger train through the scenic Northern Michigan landscape, it operates in jack pine country during the summer months. Riders travel through parts of the Huron National Forest and overlook the beautiful Comins Creek Valley. Au Sable River Canoe Marathon, ends in Oscoda 120 miles down the river, it is one of three marathon races. The race is always held the last full weekend in July.
First Dam Canoe Race is a yearly event. Six miles west of Oscoda, on River Road Scenic Byway, the Au Sable River Queen offers paddle boat excursions. Within this area is Kirtland's warbler habitat, so it is an important center for bird watchers; the Lumberman's Monument is adjacent to the river. River Road, running parallel with the river, is a designated National Scenic Byway for the 23 miles that go into Oscoda. Canoer's Memorial Iargo Springs Ausable River, an Ontario tributary of Lake Huron Map of Au Sable River watershed Anglers of the Au Sable Au Sable Canoe Marathon Huron-Manistee National Forest Lumberman's Monument Lumberman's Monument at the U. S. Forest Service River Road Scenic Byway at America's Byways
National Military Park
National Military Park, National Battlefield, National Battlefield Park, National Battlefield Site are four designations for 25 battle sites preserved by the United States federal government because of their national importance. The designation applies to "sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States...."There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, one National Battlefield Site. The National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress; these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, although "park" appears to be reserved for the larger sites.
Only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, small, still bears that designation. Some battlefields are designated as National Monuments, such as Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument and Fort Pulaski National Monument; as with all historic areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. List of National Military Parks List of National Battlefield Parks List of National Battlefields Designation of National Park System Units The Origin & Evolution of the National Military Park Idea by Ronald F. Lee
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Hydrologically, it comprises the easterly portion of Lake Michigan–Huron, having the same surface elevation as its westerly counterpart, to which it is connected by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, it is shared on the north and east by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south and west by the state of Michigan in the United States. The name of the lake is derived from early French explorers who named it for the Huron people inhabiting the region; the Huronian glaciation was named due to evidence collected from Lake Huron region. The northern parts of the lake include the North Georgian Bay. Across the lake to the southwest is Saginaw Bay; the main inlet is the St. Marys River, the main outlet is the St. Clair River. By surface area, Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 23,007 square miles — of which 9,103 square miles lies in Michigan. By volume however, Lake Huron is only the third largest of the Great Lakes, being surpassed by Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.
When measured at the low water datum, the lake contains a volume of 850 cubic miles and a shoreline length of 3,827 mi. The surface of Lake Huron is 577 feet above sea level; the lake's average depth is 32 fathoms 3 feet. It has a greatest breadth of 183 statute miles. Cities with over 10,000 people on Lake Huron include Sarnia, the largest city on Lake Huron, Saugeen Shores in Canada and Bay City, Port Huron, Alpena in the United States. A large bay that protrudes northeast from Lake Huron into Ontario, Canada, is called Georgian Bay. A notable feature of the lake is Manitoulin Island, which separates the North Channel and Georgian Bay from Lake Huron's main body of water, it is the world's largest lake island. Major centres on Georgian Bay include Owen Sound, Wasaga Beach, Midland, Port Severn and Parry Sound. A smaller bay that protrudes southwest from Lake Huron into Michigan is called Saginaw Bay. Historic High Water The lake fluctuates from month to month with the highest lake levels in October and November.
The normal high-water mark is 2.00 feet above datum. In the summer of 1986, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their highest level at 5.92 feet above datum. The high-water records began in February 1986 and lasted through the year, ending with January 1987. Water levels ranged from 3.67 to 5.92 feet above Chart Datum. Historic Low Water Lake levels tend to be the lowest in winter; the normal low-water mark is 1.00 foot below datum. In the winter of 1964, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their lowest level at 1.38 feet below datum. As with the high-water records, monthly low-water records were set each month from February 1964 through January 1965. During this twelve-month period, water levels ranged from 1.38 to 0.71 feet below Chart Datum. The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Lake Huron has the largest shore line length of any of the Great Lakes, counting its 30,000 islands. Lake Huron is separated from Lake Michigan, which lies at the same level, by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, making them hydrologically the same body of water.
Aggregated, Lake Huron-Michigan, at 45,300 square miles, "is technically the world's largest freshwater lake." When counted separately, Lake Superior is 8,700 square miles higher. Lake Superior drains into the St. Marys River which flows southward into Lake Huron; the water flows south to the St. Clair River, at Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario; the Great Lakes Waterway continues thence to Lake St. Clair. Like the other Great Lakes, it was formed by melting ice as the continental glaciers retreated toward the end of the last ice age. Before this, Lake Huron was a low-lying depression through which flowed the now-buried Laurentian and Huronian Rivers; the Alpena-Amberley Ridge is an ancient ridge beneath the surface of Lake Huron, running between Alpena and Point Clark, Ontario. About 9,000 years ago, when water levels in Lake Huron were about 100 m below today's levels, the ridge was exposed and the land bridge was used as a migration route for large herds of caribou. Since 2008, archaeologists have discovered at least 60 stone constructions along the submerged ridge that are thought to have been used as hunting blinds by Paleo-Indians.
The extent of development among Eastern Woodlands Native American societies on the eve of European contact is indicated by the archaeological evidence of a town on or near Lake Huron that contained more than one hundred large structures housing a total population of between 4,000 and 6,000. The French, the first European visitors to the region referred to Lake Huron as La Mer Douce, "the fresh-water sea". In 1656, a map by French cartographer Nicolas Sanson
Straits of Mackinac
The Straits of Mackinac are narrow waterways in the U. S. state of Michigan between Michigan's Lower and Upper Peninsulas. The main strait flows under the Mackinac Bridge and connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron; the main strait has a maximum depth of 295 feet. Hydrologically, the two connected lakes can be considered one lake, called Lake Michigan–Huron; the native Odawa people called the region around the Straits Michilimackinac. The Straits of Mackinac is "whipsawed by currents unlike anywhere else in the Great Lakes". Islands forming the edge of Straits of Mackinac include the two populated islands, Bois Blanc and Mackinac, one, uninhabited: Round island; the Straits of Mackinac is a major shipping lane, providing passage for raw materials and finished goods and connecting, for instance, the iron mines of Minnesota to the steel mills of Gary, Indiana. Before the railroads reached Chicago from the east, most immigrants arrived in the Midwest and Great Plains by ships on the Great Lakes.
The straits is five miles wide at its narrowest point. Before the bridge was built, car ferries transported vehicles across the straits. Today passenger-only ferries carry people to Mackinac Island. Visitors can take their vehicles on a car ferry to Bois Blanc Island; the straits are narrow enough to freeze over in the winter. Navigation is ensured for year-round shipping to the Lower Great Lakes by the use of icebreakers; the straits were an important Native American and fur trade route. The Straits of Mackinac are named after Mackinac Island; the local Ojibwe Native Americans in the Straits of Mackinac region likened the shape of the island to that of a turtle, so they named the island Mitchimakinak, meaning "Big Turtle". When the British explored the area, they shortened the name to its present form: Mackinac. Located on the southern side of the straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671.
The eastern end of the straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. A French Catholic mission to the Indians was founded at St. Ignace in 1671. In 1715, Fort Michilimackinac was built by the French on the south end of the straits' narrow. Michilimackinac was replaced in 1781 by Fort Mackinac, on Mackinac Island. Enbridge Line 5 was built in 1953 as an extension of the one-thousand-one-hundred-and-fifty-mile Interprovincial Pipe Line Company line West of the iconic Mackinac Bridge bringing oil from Alberta to Lake Superior. On December 12, 2018, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder signed a bill establishing the Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority and appointed its first members; the straits are patrolled by a detachment of the United States Coast Guard based at Graham Point, St. Ignace. A shipping channel through the winter ice is maintained by the Coast Guard's Great Lakes icebreaker, USCGC Mackinaw, based in Cheboygan near the eastern edge of the Straits.
This vessel went into service during the 2005/06 ice season. Most of the Straits have been set aside by the state of Michigan as the Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve, a riparian public space dedicated to those personnel who were lost aboard the boats and ships that sank in these dangerous shipping lanes. Lighthouses in the Straits of Mackinac include: The McGulpin Point Light, on McGulpin Point, three miles west of Fort Michilimackinac; the Old Mackinac Point Light, in Mackinaw City, open to the public. The Round Island Light on Round Island, not open to the public but which can be viewed from the Mackinac Island ferry channel. West of the iconic Mackinac Bridge is Enbridge's pipeline, called Enbridge Line 5, built in 1953 as an extension of the one-thousand-one-hundred-and-fifty-mile Interprovincial Pipe Line Company line bringing oil from Alberta to Lake Superior; the 1953 pipeline enters the Straits of Mackinac water on the north shore at St. Ignace and lies along the bottom of the Straits, nearly two hundred and fifty feet in places.
By 2013 Enbridge had increased the "maximum capacity on the lines to 540,000 barrels per day". In selling the idea of the pipeline to residents living near the Straits, the pipeline developers claimed, it was "essential to the defense of the United States and the whole North American continent". A University of Michigan study studied the risks of a leak, leading to experts and local governments calling for the shutdown of the pipeline. On December 12, 2018, Michigan Governor Rick Snyder signed a bill establishing the Mackinac Straits Corridor Authority, charged with overseeing construction and operation of a tunnel to hold a new Enbridge Line 5 under the lake bed in the straits. Snyder appointed its first members: Geno Alessandrini of Iron Mountain, Anthony England of Ypsilanti and Michael Zimmer of Dimondale, who serve six-year terms. Huron Lightship Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Preserve Enbridge Line 5 Mackinac Falls Straits of Mackinac Shipwreck Lighthouses in the Mackinac Strait Lighthouses of the Straits of Mackinac