Hematite spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron oxide, one of several iron oxides. It is the oldest known iron oxide mineral that has formed on Earth, is widespread in rocks and soils. Hematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral lattice system, it has the same crystal structure as ilmenite and corundum. Hematite and ilmenite form a complete solid solution at temperatures above 950 °C. Hematite is colored brown to reddish brown, or red, it is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, iron rose and specularite. While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is much more brittle. Maghemite is a hematite- and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations. Gray hematite is found in places that can have still standing water or mineral hot springs, such as those in Yellowstone National Park in North America; the mineral can precipitate out of water and collect in layers at the bottom of a lake, spring, or other standing water.
Hematite can occur without water, however as the result of volcanic activity. Clay-sized hematite crystals can occur as a secondary mineral formed by weathering processes in soil, along with other iron oxides or oxyhydroxides such as goethite, is responsible for the red color of many tropical, ancient, or otherwise weathered soils; the name hematite is derived from the Greek word for blood αἷμα haima, due to the red coloration found in some varieties of hematite. The color of hematite lends itself to use as a pigment; the English name of the stone is derived from Middle French: Hématite Pierre, imported from Latin: Lapis Hæmatites around the 15th century, which originated from Ancient Greek: αἱματίτης λίθος. Ochre is a clay, colored by varying amounts of hematite, varying between 20% and 70%. Red ochre contains unhydrated hematite; the principal use of ochre is for tinting with a permanent color. The red chalk writing of this mineral was one of the earliest in the history of humans; the powdery mineral was first used 164,000 years ago by the Pinnacle-Point man for social purposes.
Hematite residues are found in graves from 80,000 years ago. Near Rydno in Poland and Lovas in Hungary red chalk mines have been found that are from 5000 BC, belonging to the Linear Pottery culture at the Upper Rhine. Rich deposits of hematite have been found on the island of Elba that have been mined since the time of the Etruscans. Hematite is an antiferromagnetic material below the Morin transition at 250 K, a canted antiferromagnet or weakly ferromagnetic above the Morin transition and below its Néel temperature at 948 K, above which it is paramagnetic; the magnetic structure of a-hematite was the subject of considerable discussion and debate in the 1950s because it appeared to be ferromagnetic with a Curie temperature of around 1000 K, but with an tiny magnetic moment. Adding to the surprise was a transition with a decrease in temperature at around 260 K to a phase with no net magnetic moment, it was shown that the system is antiferromagnetic, but that the low symmetry of the cation sites allows spin–orbit coupling to cause canting of the moments when they are in the plane perpendicular to the c axis.
The disappearance of the moment with a decrease in temperature at 260 K is caused by a change in the anisotropy which causes the moments to align along the c axis. In this configuration, spin canting does not reduce the energy; the magnetic properties of bulk hematite differ from their nanoscale counterparts. For example, the Morin transition temperature of hematite decreases with a decrease in the particle size; the suppression of this transition has been observed in some of the hematite nanoparticles, the presence of impurities, water molecules and defects in the crystals were attributed to the absence of a Morin transition. Hematite is part of a complex solid solution oxyhydroxide system having various contents of water, hydroxyl groups and vacancy substitutions that affect the mineral's magnetic and crystal chemical properties. Two other end-members are referred to as hydrohematite. Enhanced magnetic coercivities for hematite have been achieved by dry-heating a 2-line ferrihydrite precursor prepared from solution.
Hematite exhibited temperature-dependent magnetic coercivity values ranging from 289 to 5,027 Oe. The origin of these high coercivity values has been interpreted as a consequence of the subparticle structure induced by the different particle and crystallite size growth rates at increasing annealing temperature; these differences in the growth rates are translated into a progressive development of a subparticle structure at the nanoscale. At lower temperatures, single particles crystallize however. Hematite is present in the waste tailings of iron mines. A developed process, uses magnets to glean waste hematite from old mine tailings in Minnesota's vast Mesabi Range iron district. Falu red is a pigment used in traditional Swedish house paints, it was made from tailings of the Falu mine. The spectral signature of hematite was seen on the planet Mars by the infrared spectrometer on the NASA Mars Global Surveyor and 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars; the mineral was seen in abundance at two sites on the planet, the Terra Meridiani site, near the Martian equator at 0° longitude, the Aram
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Glen Canyon Dam
Glen Canyon Dam is a concrete arch-gravity dam on the Colorado River in northern Arizona, United States, near the town of Page. The 710-foot high dam was built by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation from 1956 to 1966 and forms Lake Powell, one of the largest man-made reservoirs in the U. S. with a capacity of 27 million acre feet. The dam is named for a series of deep sandstone gorges now flooded by the reservoir. A dam in Glen Canyon was studied as early as 1924, but these plans were dropped in favor of the Hoover Dam, located in the Black Canyon. By the 1950s, due to rapid population growth in the seven U. S. and two Mexican states comprising the Colorado River Basin, the Bureau of Reclamation deemed the construction of additional reservoirs necessary. However, the USBR faced opposition when it proposed the Echo Park Dam in Utah's Dinosaur National Monument, which the nascent environmental movement saw as a legal threat to the status of protected lands. After a long fight, the USBR agreed not to build the dam in Dinosaur National Monument, but only if the environmentalists did not oppose the proposed dam in Glen Canyon.
Since first filling to capacity in 1980, Lake Powell water levels have fluctuated depending on water demand and annual runoff. Operation of Glen Canyon Dam helps ensure an equitable distribution of water between the states of the Upper Colorado River Basin and the Lower Basin. During years of drought, Glen Canyon guarantees a water delivery to the Lower Basin states, without the need for rationing in the Upper Basin. In wet years, it captures extra runoff for future use; the dam is a major source of hydroelectricity, averaging over 4 billion kilowatt hours per year. The long and winding Lake Powell, known for its scenic beauty and recreational opportunities including houseboating and water-skiing, attracts millions of tourists each year to the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. In addition to its flooding of the scenic Glen Canyon, the dam's economic justification was questioned by some critics, it became "a catalyst for the modern environmental movement," and was one of the last dams of its size to be built in the United States.
The dam has been criticized for the large evaporative losses from Lake Powell and its impact on the ecology of the Grand Canyon, which lies downstream. Water managers and utilities state that the dam is a major source of renewable energy and provides a vital defense against severe droughts; the Colorado River is the single largest source of water in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. Annual discharge from the Colorado River and its tributaries ranges from 4 to 22 million acre feet, 10-year averages may fluctuate as much as 1 million acre feet. Flooding, the river's enormous silt or sediment load, created problems for settlements in the Lower Colorado River Valley and navigation on the lower portion of the river. During droughts, there was too little water available for irrigation. In 1904, the Colorado River was accidentally redirected after it damaged a canal gate in Mexico, causing the river to flood part of California's Imperial Valley and create the Salton Sea. After this catastrophe and Arizona began to call for a dam to control the tempestuous river.
In 1922, six U. S. states signed the Colorado River Compact to allocate the flow of the Colorado River and its tributaries. Each half of the Colorado River Basin – the Upper Basin, comprising Colorado, New Mexico and Wyoming – and the Lower Basin, with California and Nevada – was allotted 7.5 million acre feet of water annually, a treaty between the U. S. and Mexico was signed in 1944 allocating 1.5 million acre feet to Mexico. The third lower basin state, did not ratify the Compact until 1944 because it was concerned that California might seek to appropriate a portion of its share before it could be put to use; the total, 16.5 million acre feet, was based on only thirty years of streamflow records starting in the late 1890s. It was believed to represent the annual flow as measured at Lee's Ferry, Arizona, 16 miles downstream of present-day Glen Canyon Dam; as it turned out, the early 20th century was one of the wettest periods in the last 800 years. The dependable natural flow past Lees Ferry is now believed to be about 13.5 to 14.6 million acre feet.
The general consensus among inhabitants of the Colorado River basin and government officials was that a high dam had to be built on the Colorado to control floods and provide carry-over water storage for times of drought. Possible locations for this dam were debated for years, in fact the Bureau of Reclamation's first study for a dam at Glen Canyon was made in 1924, in addition to studies for locations at Black and Boulder Canyons lower on the Colorado, below Grand Canyon; these studies found that the lower Colorado sites had stronger foundation rock which might result in less reservoir seepage. The Glen Canyon site, was so remote that delivering supplies and transporting workers there would be infeasible at the time. However, what killed the first Glen Canyon proposal was the fact that it lies upstream of the Lee's Ferry dividing line, thus would be considered the Upper Basin's water. With its substantial Congressional clout, Cal
Lee's Ferry and Lonely Dell Ranch
The Lee's Ferry and Lonely Dell Ranch Historic District includes the ranch homesteaded by Mormon pioneer John D. Lee at Lee's Ferry and now in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, it is notable for its association with Lee, the ferry and the ranch's extensive irrigation facilities. The district was designated the Lonely Dell Ranch Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, but was expanded to include Lee's Ferry in 1997. Lee's Ferry occupies an area on either side of the Colorado River, while Lonely Dell Ranch nearby on the west bank of Paria Canyon, leaving a space of fertile bottomland available for cultivation; the period of significance for the district extends from the 1871 arrival of the Lees to the last run of the ferry in 1928, superseded by the new Navajo Bridge. Lee was a practicing polygamist who built cabins for two of his families at Lee's Ferry, in what became known as "Lonely Dell". Lee's ferry started service on January 1873, ferrying Mormon settlers across the river.
Tensions rose between the settlers and the Navajo, whose lands were being occupied by the settlers, resulting in the construction of the Lee's Ferry Fort at the crossing in 1874. No conflict arose at the ferry, so the fort became a trading post a residence. In 1877 Lee was executed for his role in the Mountain Meadows massacre. In 1879, the LDS Church bought the ferry rights from Emma Lee, granting the ferry service to Warren Marshall Johnson and his families. A number of structures remain in the district from the polygamist period of the Lee and Johnson families; the American Placer Corporation office was established at Lee's Ferry in 1910 and abandoned the next year. In that interval, the company constructed a steamboat, the "Charles H. Spencer", named for the company's founder, to transport coal mined farther up the river to the company's amalgamation operation at Lee's Ferry; the boat, in use for one year, was docked and sank in a 1921 flood. Its remains are visible in the river, it is separately listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
In 1922 the office building was re-occupied as the Lee's Ferry Post Office, but was abandoned in 1924. Another brief use came in 1931. Lee started construction of the first earthen dam on the Paria River in January 1872 and by March irrigated his first crop. By April this first dam washed out. Lee soon replaced the dam reinforced with a large base log packed with brush and dirt; the dam was subsequently rebuilt many times over the coming years. In 1883, in order to bring water to an upper field, Warren Johnson constructed a dam on a second site higher up the Paria. By 1900, the dams were replaced with new ones made of sandbags. In 1905, Irving Pierce constructed a tunnel-and-flume delivery system to replace the ditches bringing water from the upper dam to the fields. By the time Leo Weaver bought the ranch in 1935, several more dams had been washed out. Weaver's attempt to replace the dams failed. Gus and Warren Griffin made improvements including a stone lined ditch. Most of what exists today is related to the Griffin improvements In 1965, the consortium that owned the ranch created two holding ponds for irrigation water against the west wall of Paria canyon.
In 1977, the National Park Service pumped water from the Colorado River instead of the Paria. The Park Service constructed a new holding tank near the south end of the site, at the same time removing remains of the flume system and valve platform for a trail; this system remains in use as of 1999. In January 2002 a lead plate, or scroll, was found in the Lee's Ferry Fort with an etching purporting to be by John D. Lee in 1872, it was discovered by a National Parks worker while cleaning up inside the structure, restricted from public access. The brief writing accused Mormon leaders Brigham Young and George A. Smith of ordering the Mountain Meadows Massacre, for which Lee was convicted and sentenced to die. Despite some evidence suggesting this is a forgery, historian Will Bagley claims it fits with the historical context and Lee's writing style, he wrote, "If the scroll is a fake, it is a good one--so good that only a few people could have pulled it off." Forensic investigator George Throckmorton, who helped crack the Mark Hofmann forgeries, examined the plate in 2003 and took samples for chemical analysis in 2007.
NPS−Glen Canyon National Recreation Area: Lee's Ferry History Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-58, "Lee's Ferry, U. S. Route Alternate 89, Page vicinity, Coconino County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-58-A, "Lee's Ferry, Fort" HABS No. AZ-58-B, "Lee's Ferry, Post Office" HABS No. AZ-58-C, "Lee's Ferry, Chicken House" HABS No. AZ-58-D, "Lee's Ferry, Root Cellar" HABS No. AZ-58-E, "Lee's Ferry, Old Spencer Cabin"