Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, United States. The city's population was 93,064 at the 2010 census, up from the 2000 census population of 77,515. Yuma is the principal city of the Yuma, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Yuma County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the 2014 estimated population of the Yuma MSA is 203,247. More than 85,000 retirees make Yuma their winter residence. Yuma is in the Sonoran Desert, Yuma Desert sub-region; the area's first settlers for thousands of years were historic tribes. Their descendants now occupy the Quechan reservations. In 1540, Spanish colonial expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area and recognized the natural crossing of the Colorado River as an ideal spot for a city; the Colorado River narrows to under 1,000 feet wide in one area. Military expeditions that crossed the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing include Juan Bautista de Anza, the Mormon Battalion and the California Column.
During and after the California Gold Rush to the late 1870s, the Yuma Crossing was known for its ferry crossings for the Southern Emigrant Trail. This was considered the gateway to California, as it was one of the few natural spots where travelers could cross the otherwise wide Colorado River. Following the United States establishing Fort Yuma, two towns developed one mile downriver; the one on the California side was called Jaeger City, named after the owner of Jaeger's Ferry, which crossed the river there. It was for a time the larger of the two, with the Butterfield Overland Mail office and station, two blacksmiths, a hotel, two stores, other dwellings; the other was called Colorado City. Developed on the south side of the river in what is now Arizona by speculator Charles Poston, it was the site of the custom house; when started, it was just north of the border between Mexican-ruled Sonora and California. After the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico.
This area was designated as the Territory of Arizona in 1863. The Colorado City site at the time was duly registered in San Diego; the county of San Diego collected taxes from there for many years. From 1853 a smaller settlement, Arizona City, grew up on the high ground across from the fort and was organized under the name of its post office in 1858, it had two stores and two saloons. Colorado City and Jaeger City were completely destroyed by the Great Flood of 1862 and had to be rebuilt on higher ground. At that time Colorado City became part of Arizona City, it took the name Yuma in 1873. From 1854, Colorado City was the major steamboat stop for traffic down the Colorado River. After the 1862 flood, it became part of Arizona City; the steamboats transported passengers and equipment for the various mines and military outposts along the Colorado. They offloaded the cargo from ships at the mouth of the Colorado River at Robinson's Landing and from 1864 at Port Isabel. From 1864, the Yuma Quartermaster Depot, today a state historic park, supplied all forts in present-day Arizona, as well as large parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
After Arizona became a separate territory, Yuma became the county seat for Yuma County in 1871, replacing La Paz, the first seat. The Southern Pacific Railroad bridged the river in 1877, acquired George Alonzo Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, the only steamboat company on the river. Yuma became the new base of navigation on the river, ending the need for Port Isabel, abandoned in 1879; the warehouses and shipyard there were moved to Yuma. The city of Yuma operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Yuma; the elected government of the city is the City Council which follows the mayor–council government system and whose members include: The Mayor of the City of Yuma acts as the chief executive officer of the city, is elected for a period of four years. The mayor is elected from the city at large; the mayor has the following powers and responsibilities: act as an ex officio chairman of the city council and preside over meetings, administer oaths and issue proclamations.
The mayor is recognized as the official head of the city by the courts and has the power to take command of the police and govern the city by proclamation during times of great danger. The City of Yuma City Council is the governing body of the City of Yuma and is vested with all powers of legislation in municipal affairs; the council is composed of six council members elected from the city at large for four-year terms, as well as the Mayor of Yuma. A deputy mayor is elected by the Council who shall act as Mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor; the current council members are Gary Knight, Leslie McClendon, Jacob Miller, Edward Thomas, Mike Shelton, Karen Watts. The next election is the August 2019 Primary for the three city council seats that are held by Miller and Shelton; the City Council appoints a city administrator who acts as the chief administrative officer of the city. The city administrator is directly responsible to the City Council for the administration of all city affairs placed in his charge by the City Charter, or by ordinances passed by the Council.
Some of the administrator's duties include: see that all laws and provisions of the City Charter are faithfully executed and submit the annual budget and capital
Washer pitching is a game, similar to horseshoes, that involves teams of players that take turns tossing washers towards a box or hole. The game has many variations, may be called washer pitching, washer toss, huachas or washoes; the object of the game is to earn points by tossing metal washers around two inches in diameter, 1/8 inch thick, toward a hole denoted by a can or PVC pipe, known as the cooter in a box. Washer pits and boxes vary in size and shape, but a standard for one-hole washers is 16 in × 16 in × 4 in, with a cylindrically-shaped cup located in its upper surface. Boxes are placed 20 feet away from each other, a distance determined by a string attached to the front of each box. However, if a string is not attached to the box, one may take 10 paces from box-to-box, this will denote 20 feet; the throwing player stands next to or behind one box and tosses washers toward the other using an underhand throw. Scoring is similar to horseshoes in that the second team to throw can wash-out/rebut any points that the first team may have scored add to their own total.
3 points are awarded to a non-rebutted ringer. 1 point is awarded to each non-rebutted washer inside the box. Games are played to 21 points. Numerous variants are practiced that vary the size of the washers, the distance they must be thrown, the configuration of the boxes, or the size and number of holes. In Alberta, the game is called Washers, boxes are not used; the washers are 2 1/2" diameter with a 1" hole. The scoring surface is a 1/2 in thick board 20 in wide × 24 in long with a 4 1/2 in hole in the middle. A 2x8, is nailed to the end of the scoring surface to form a "T" shape; the scoring surface is angled towards the pitcher. Alberta Scoring Scoring pictures Single: 1 point is awarded for a washer that comes to rest on the scoring surface. Hanger: 2 points are awarded for a washer that comes to rest with a portion of the washer hanging off the playing surface. Hole Shot: 3 points are awarded for a washer that ends up in the hole, Leaner: 4 points are awarded if the washer comes to rest on an angle against the upright piece of the board but not lying flat on the scoring surface.
Upper Decker: 5 points are awarded if the washer comes to rest lying flat on top of the back board. Leaner and upper deckers are rare. No points are awarded for close throws; the scoring surfaces are placed 20 ft apart. The first game's first throw is decided by a best-of-1 game of rock-paper-scissors; the winner chooses whether they want to throw second. Once the order is determined, players on one side take alternating turns throwing a washer, The washers cancel each other out, much like in curling. Games go up to 11. If a team goes over 11, they go back down to zero. Like "the hammer" in curling, the team who scored the previous round shoots first in the next round, giving the advantage to the team who did not score in the previous round. Sample Game using Alberta Boards and Scoring The game is popular at Slo-Pitch tournaments and other outdoor festivities. In Nova Scotia, the game is an East Coast favourite called washer toss, Sewers, or South Mountain Horseshoes; the game consists of two open 35 cm boxes, each with a 10 cm length of PVC pipe mounted in the centre.
The scoring surface is lined with red other fabrics. The boxes are separated by a distance of 6 metres. 1 point is awarded for a washer that comes to rest on the scoring surface, 3 points are awarded for a washer that ends up in the hole, the player wins the game if the washer comes to rest lying flat on top of the upright board or they reach 21. No points are awarded for close throws; some people throw pitch with their non-dominant hand. The game is popular at community events, camping or at the cottage. In Ontario, the game is played at social gatherings like barbecues or campingrounds with alcohol involved; the game is known as washer toss and sewers, or washers and cooters. Rules and equipment vary, but there is a common theme to use the word'cooter' as much as possible throughout the game. Overhand throws are allowed and some believe offer greater accuracy. In the Sai Kung area of Hong Kong, a variant of the game known as Hong Kong "Holeyboard" has become popular amongst local expatriates living in the area.
It is a derivative of original washers, was brought over to Hong Kong by North Americans who moved to the area some years ago. It is played on the roof terrace of a participant's home and a unique set of rules have evolved over the years; each player, or team must stand on a three holed "Holeyboard" placed ten feet apart. Each player is given three washers each; the closest hole is 1 point, the middle hole 3 and the furthest hole 5, with 3 washers landing on the board scoring 1. The game is to 21.'Wash outs' apply and the player must finish on 21. If a player's washer bounces back and is within the player's grasp, the player may attempt to reach the washer while standing on the board. If the player picks up the washer, he gets to throw it again. A "cycle" is the highest accolade in Holeyboard, it is when a player manages to hit each of the three holes with their three washers; this results in an instant win and is rewarded by the player being able to sign his na
Ancestry.com LLC is a held online company based in Lehi, Utah. The largest for-profit genealogy company in the world, it operates a network of genealogical, historical record and genetic genealogy websites; as of November 2018, the company claimed to provide access to 10 billion historical records, to have 3 million paying subscribers and to have sold 14 million DNA kits to customers. In 1990, Paul B. Allen and Dan Taggart, two Brigham Young University graduates, founded Infobases and began offering Latter-day Saints publications on floppy disks. In 1988, Allen had worked at Folio Corporation, founded by his brother Curt and his brother-in-law Brad Pelo. Infobases' first products were floppy disks and compact disks sold from the back seat of the founders' car. In 1994, Infobases was named among Inc. magazine's 500 fastest-growing companies. Their first offering on CD was the LDS Collectors Edition, released in April 1995, selling for $299.95, offered in an online version in August 1995. Ancestry went online with the launch of Ancestry.com in 1996.
On January 1, 1997, Infobases' parent company, Western Standard Publishing, purchased Ancestry, Inc. publisher of Ancestry magazine and genealogy books. Western Standard Publishing's CEO was Joe one of the principal owners of Geneva Steel. In July 1997, Allen and Taggart purchased Western Standard's interest in Inc.. At the time, Brad Pelo was president and CEO of Infobases, president of Western Standard. Less than six months earlier, he had been president of Folio Corporation, whose digital technology Infobases was using. In March 1997, Folio was sold to Open Market for $45 million; the first public evidence of the change in ownership of Ancestry magazine came with the July/August 1997 issue, which showed a newly reorganized Ancestry, Inc. as its publisher. That issue's masthead included the first use of the Ancestry.com web address. More growth for Infobases occurred in July 1997, when Ancestry, Inc. purchased Bookcraft, Inc. a publisher of books written by leaders and officers of the LDS Church.
Infobases had published many of Bookcraft's books as part of its LDS Collector's Library. Pelo announced that Ancestry's product line would be expanded in both CDs and online. Alan Ashton, a longtime investor in Infobases and founder of WordPerfect, was its chairman of the board. Allen and Taggart began running Ancestry, Inc. independently from Infobases in July 1997, began creating one of the largest online subscription-based genealogy database services. In April 1999, to better focus on its Ancestry.com and MyFamily.com Internet businesses, Infobases sold the Bookcraft brand name and its catalog of print books to its major competitor in the LDS book market, Deseret Book. Included in the sale were the rights to Infobases' LDS Collectors Library on CD. A year earlier, Deseret Book had released a competing product called GospeLink, the two products were combined as a single product by Deseret Book; the MyFamily.com website launched in December 1998, with additional free sites beginning in March 1999.
The site generated one million registered users within its first 140 days. The company raised more than US$90 million in venture capital from investors and changed its name on November 17, 1999, from Ancestry.com, Inc. to MyFamily.com, Inc. Its three Internet genealogy sites were called Ancestry.com, FamilyHistory.com, MyFamily.com. Sales were about US$62 million for 2002 and US$99 million for 2003. In March 2004, the company, which had outgrown its call center in Orem, opened a new call center, which accommodates about 700 agents at a time, in Provo. Heritage Makers was acquired by MyFamily.com in September 2005. While the company had been offering free access to Ancestry.com at LDS Family History Centers, that service was terminated on March 17, 2007, because the company and the LDS Church were unable to reach a mutually agreeable licensing agreement. In 2010, Ancestry restored access to its site at Family History Centers. In 2010, Ancestry sold its book publishing assets to Turner Publishing Company.
Ancestry.com became a publicly traded company on NASDAQ on November 5, 2009, with an initial public offering of 7.4 million shares priced at $13.50 per share, underwritten by Morgan Stanley, Bank of America, Merrill Lynch, Jefferies & Company, Piper Jaffray, BMO Capital Markets. In 2010, Ancestry.com expanded its domestic operations with the opening of an office in San Francisco, staffed with brand new engineering and marketing teams geared toward developing some of Ancestry's cutting-edge technology and services. In 2011, Ancestry launched an iOS app. In December 2011, Ancestry.com moved the Social Security Death Index search behind a paywall and stopped displaying the Social Security information of people who had died within the past 10 years, because of identity theft concerns. In March 2012, Ancestry.com acquired the collection of DNA assets from GeneTree. In September 2012, Ancestry.com expanded its international operations with the opening of its European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland.
The Dublin office includes a new call centre for international customers, as well as product and engineering teams. In October 2012, Ancestry.com agreed to be acquired by a private equity group consisting of Permira Advisers LLP, members of Ancestry.com's management team, including CEO Tim Sullivan and CFO Howard Hochhauser, Spectrum Equity, for $32 per share or around $1.6 billion. At the same time, Ancestry.com purchased a photo digitization and sharing service called 1000Memories. On July 16, 2015, Ancestry launched AncestryHealth, announced the appointment of Cathy A. Petti as its Chief Health Officer. In April 2016 GIC Private Limited (a sovereign wealth fund owned by the Government of S
A lawn game is an outdoor game that can be played on a lawn. Many types and variations of lawn games exist, which includes games that use balls and the throwing of objects as their primary means of gameplay; some lawn games are historical in nature, having been devised and played in different forms for centuries. Some lawn games are traditionally played on a pitch; some companies market lawn games for home use in a front or backyard. The lawn game bowls dates back to the Middle Ages period in England. Many local forms of round ball throwing and rolling games, such as bocce in Italy and bowls in England became popular by the Renaissance, it has been suggested that a game similar to bowls was played around 5,000 BC in Ancient Egypt, based upon items found in ancient Egyptian tombs. However, it has been suggested that bowls itself originated from Ancient Rome, in a game played by Roman soldiers that involved rolling a ball "as close as possible to mark on the ground." Many types and varieties of ball games exist.
Several cultures have created forms of ball games. For example, the Maya and Aztec peoples played a ball game using a rubber ball; the Yanoama people in northwest Brazil played a game using a ball made from the bladder of a monkey, in which the ball would be hit upwards by participants, who would play the game in a circle. Bocce is played on a bocce court, involves rolling a ball on the ground in efforts to place it near a smaller ball. Bowls involves rolling a ball toward a smaller target ball to make the rolled ball stop as close as possible to the target. Croquet involves hitting plastic with a mallet through a series of hoops. Croquet became popular in England in the 1860s. In the United States, the game is governed by the National Croquet Association, which coordinates annual tournaments. Several variations of the game exist. Pétanque is a form of bowls and boules where the goal is to throw hollow metal balls as close as possible to a small wooden ball called a cochonnet or jack, while standing inside a circle with both feet on the ground.
Pétanque has been described as "the world's most played form of bowls." Backyard golf is a game played in the United States. Golf balls or whiffle balls may be used, targets may include lawn furniture and tree branches, among others. Sholf is a game, a cross between table shuffleboard and golf. Players take. Ball games Throwing games involve throwing various objects as the primary form of gameplay. Horseshoes involves players throwing horseshoes at stakes in the ground, with the goal of the horseshoe becoming wrapped around the stake or the nearest to the stake compared to the others. Washer pitching involves players in teams tossing washers toward a box. Many variations of the game exist, it has been described as similar to horseshoes. Lawn darts involves throwing large darts at targets. Lawn darts have been subjected to product recalls at times, due to children dying from head wounds from the darts or otherwise becoming injured by them. In the United States in 1988, the Consumer Product Safety Commission banned the sale of lawn darts.
They were banned in Canada in 1989. Ladder Toss involves throwing stringed balls at racks with three rungs, with points earned when the stringed balls are wrapped around a rung. Cornhole called bean bag, is a simple lawn game involving throwing bags of corn or beanbags at a raised board that has a hole atop it. Points are earned for bags remaining on the board. KanJam originated as a game called "Trash Can Frisbee," whereby a participant attempts to slam or slap a thrown flying disc into a garbage can; the game evolved into KanJam, which involves slamming the disc into a can, along with points earned for the thrown disc hitting the can. Crossbones is an Australian-invented throwing game that can be played either on grass or sand using 12 wooden bones. Throwing games Rowell, V.. Tag, Toss & Run: 40 Classic Lawn Games. Storey Publishing, LLC. ISBN 978-1-60342-809-5. 208 pages. Scott, Nate. "The definitive lawn game power rankings". USA Today. Retrieved 27 June 2015. "A Brief History of Lawn Games". United States National Arboretum.
Retrieved 27 June 2015
A horseshoe is a fabricated product made of metal, although sometimes made or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear. Shoes are attached on the palmar surface of the hooves nailed through the insensitive hoof wall, anatomically akin to the human toenail, although much larger and thicker. However, there are cases where shoes are glued; the fitting of horseshoes is a professional occupation, conducted by a farrier, who specializes in the preparation of feet, assessing potential lameness issues, fitting appropriate shoes, including remedial features where required. In some countries, such as the U. K. horseshoeing is restricted to only people with specific qualifications and experience. In others, such as the United States, where professional licensing is not required, professional organizations provide certification programs that publicly identify qualified individuals. Horseshoes are available in a wide variety of materials and styles, developed for different types of horse and for the work they do.
The most common materials are steel and aluminium, but specialized shoes may include use of rubber, magnesium, titanium, or copper. Steel tends to be preferred in sports in which a strong, long-wearing shoe is needed, such as polo, show jumping, western riding events. Aluminium shoes are lighter; some horseshoes have "caulkins", "caulks", or "calks": protrusions at the toe or heels of the shoe, or both, to provide additional traction. When kept as a talisman, a horseshoe is said to bring good luck. A stylized variation of the horseshoe is used for horseshoes. Since the early history of domestication of the horse, working animals were found to be exposed to many conditions that created breakage or excessive hoof wear. Ancient people recognized the need for the walls of domestic horses' hooves to have additional protection over and above any natural hardness. An early form of hoof protection was seen in ancient Asia, where horses' hooves were wrapped in rawhide, leather or other materials for both therapeutic purposes and protection from wear.
From archaeological finds in Great Britain, the Romans appeared to have attempted to protect their horses' feet with a strap-on, solid-bottomed "hipposandal" that has a slight resemblance to the modern hoof boot. Historians differ on the origin of the horseshoe; because iron was a valuable commodity, any worn out items were reforged and reused, it is difficult to locate clear archaeological evidence. Although some credit the Druids, there is no hard evidence to support this claim. In 1897 four bronze horseshoes with what are nail holes were found in an Etruscan tomb dated around 400 B. C; the assertion by some historians that the Romans invented the "mule shoes" sometime after 100 BC is supported by a reference by Catullus who died in 54 BC. However, these references to use of horseshoes and muleshoes in Rome, may have been to the "hipposandal"—leather boots, reinforced by an iron plate, rather than to nailed horseshoes. Existing references to the nailed shoe are late, first known to have appeared around AD 900, but there may have been earlier uses given that some have been found in layers of dirt.
There are no extant references to nailed horseshoes prior to the reign of Emperor Leo VI and by 973 occasional references to them can be found. The earliest clear written record of iron horseshoes is a reference to "crescent figured irons and their nails" in AD 910. There is little evidence of any sort that suggests the existence of nailed-on shoes prior to AD 500 or 600, though there is a find dated to the 5th century A. D. of a horseshoe, complete with nails, found in the tomb of the Frankish King Childeric I at Tournai, Belgium. Around 1000 AD, cast bronze horseshoes with nail holes became common in Europe. Common was a design with six nail holes; the 13th and 14th centuries brought the widespread manufacturing of iron horseshoes. By the time of the Crusades, horseshoes were widespread and mentioned in various written sources. In that period, due to the value of iron, horseshoes were accepted in lieu of coin to pay taxes. By the 13th century, shoes could be bought ready-made. Hot shoeing, the process of shaping a heated horseshoe before placing it on the horse, became common in the 16th century.
From the need for horseshoes, the craft of blacksmithing became "one of the great staple crafts of medieval and modern times and contributed to the development of metallurgy." A treatise titled "No Foot, No Horse" was published in England in 1751. In 1835, the first U. S. patent for a horseshoe manufacturing machine capable of making up to 60 horseshoes per hour was issued to Henry Burden. In the mid 19th century Canada, marsh horseshoes kept horses from sinking into the soft intertidal mud during dike-building. In a common design, a metal horseshoe holds a flat wooden shoe in place. Many changes brought about by the domestication of the horse have led to a need for shoes for numerous reasons linked to management that results in horses' hooves hardening less and being more vulnerable to injury. In the wild, a horse may travel up to 50 miles per day to obtain adequate forage. While horses in the wild cover large areas of terrain, they do so at slow speeds, unless being chased by a predator, they tend to live in arid steppe climates.
The consequence of slow but nonstop travel in a dry climate is that horses' feet are worn to a small, s
Quoits is a traditional game which involves the throwing of metal, rope or rubber rings over a set distance to land over or near a spike. The sport of quoits encompasses several distinct variations, it is not until the 19th century. The official rules first appeared in the April 1881 edition of The Field, having been defined by a body formed from pubs in Northern England. A game played with metal discs, traditionally made of steel, thrown across a set distance at a metal spike; the spike is centrally, vertically, positioned in a square of moist clay measuring three feet across. This version uses the 15 rules published in The Field in 1881 and has remained unchanged since that time. Played under the auspices of The National Quoits Association, formed in 1986. In this game, the pins are 11 yards apart, with their tops protruding three to four inches above the clay. Quoits weigh around 5 1/2 pounds. Sometimes called the old game, this version is played in Scotland. In this game, the top of the spike is flush with the clay, so encircling the pin is not a significant part of the game.
The long game has similarities to the game of bowls, in that a player scores a point for each quoit nearer to the pin than his opponent. The hobs are 18 yards apart, while the quoits are around nine inches in diameter and weigh up to 11 pounds double that of the northern game. An English version of the long game, played using quoits of reduced weight; as with the long game, the hobs are 18 yards apart, but their tops are raised above the level of the clay. Quoits that land cleanly over the hob score two points, regardless of the opponent's efforts, are removed prior to the next throw. Quoits which land on their backs, or inclined in a backwards direction, are removed Traditional American 4lb quoits; the standard for American Quoits is governed by the United States Quoiting Association. The USQA was created in April 2003; the USQA unified a specific standard for the 4 Lb quoit. Each regulation set of USQA Quoits includes 4 foundry-cast steel quoits in perfect proportion to the historical Traditional American Quoit.
Each quoit weighs 4 pounds and is 6 1/2 inches in diameter, has a 3-inch diameter hole, stands 1 inch high. Since 2003 the USQA has conducted annual tournaments culminating in a World Championship in both singles and doubles as well as a season ending points champion. Mexican Americans play this game in the U. S. southwest and call it "wacha". A pub game, this variant is predominantly played in mid and south Wales and in England along its border with Wales. Matches are played by two teams and consist of four games of singles, followed by three games of doubles. Players take it in turns to pitch four rubber rings across a distance of around 8½ feet onto a raised quoits board; the board consists of a central pin or spike and two recessed sections: an inner circular section called the dish and a circular outer section. Five points are awarded for a quoit landing cleanly over the pin, two points for a quoit landing cleanly in the dish, one point for a quoit landing cleanly on the outer circular section of the board.
The scoreboard consists of numbers running from 1 to 10, 11 or 12, the object of the game is to score each of these numbers separately using four or fewer quoits, the first side to achieve this being the winner. Deck quoits is a variant, popular on cruise ships; the quoits are invariably made of rope, so as to avoid damaging the ship's deck, but there are no universally agreed standards or rules - because of the game's informal nature and because the game has to adapt to the shape and area of each particular ship it is played upon. Players take it in turn to throw three or four hoops at a target which though not always, consists of concentric circles marked on the deck; the centre point is called the jack. This may take the form of a raised wooden peg, but more it is marked on the surface in the same way that the concentric circles are; this is a popular outdoor variation played principally in and around Pennsylvania, USA. This game uses two one-pound rubber quoits per player, which are pitched at a short metal pin mounted on a heavy 24x24x1 inch slab of slate.
The common pronunciation of quoits in the Slate Belt region is. Players take; the quoit nearest the pin gets one point. If one player has two quoits nearer the pin than either of his opponent's quoits, he gets two points. A quoit that encircles the pin gets three points. If all four quoits are ringers, the player who threw the last ringer gets three points only. For two or four players; this version of the game exists as a form of recreation, or as a game of skill found at fairgrounds and village fetes. There are no leagues or universally accepted standards of play and players agree upon the rules before play commences. Garden quoit and hoopla sets can be purchased in shops and involve players taking it in turns to throw rope or wooden hoops over one or more spikes; the fairground version involves a person paying the stallholder for the opportunity to throw one or more wooden hoops over a prize, which if done successfu