National Sports Sedan Series
The National Series for Sports Sedans the Australian Sports Sedan Championship, is a CAMS sanctioned national motor racing title for drivers of cars complying with Australian Sports Sedan regulations. This class a silhouette racing car class, caters for cars of free construction but utilising some of the bodywork of a closed, series production vehicle; the category emerged following the replacement of Appendix J Touring Cars by the more restricted Group C Improved Production Touring Cars at the end of 1964. Promoters of circuits such as Winton and Oran Park allowed the redundant Appendix J cars to run with Sports Cars under the name Sports Racing Closed. By 1966 cars were competing with extensive modifications including engine swaps. By 1971 restrictions were placed on bodywork modifications ensuring that the original silhouette of the car had to be maintained; the term Sports Sedans had been in common usage for the cars and in 1973 CAMS gave the name official recognition when it introduced Group B Sports Sedans as a new racing classification.
The category became Group 2D Sports Sedans in 1988, Group 3D Sports Sedans in 2000. An Australia-wide championship was run each year from 1976 to 1981, it was discontinued for 1982 with the introduction of an Australian GT Championship, although Sports Sedans were invited to compete in this new series, which many did as it was the only national series their cars were eligible for, but the older Sports Sedans were un-competitive against the new GT cars such as the Porsche 935 or the converted Chevrolet Monza's. While the power of the top Sports Sedans, which ran 5.0L or 6.0L Chevrolet V8 engines, was not far shy of the GT cars, the Sports Sedans were restricted to running 10" wheels while the GT cars such as the 935's were allowed up to 18" of rubber. This enabled them to go much faster through turns; the Sports Sedan category itself was retained for state level racing. The Australian Sports Sedan Championship title was revived in 1991 and was contested annually through to 2003; each championship was decided over a series of races, with the exception of the 1994 title, contested over two races at one meeting at Sandown Raceway in Victoria.
A National Series for Sports Sedans replaced the Australian Sports Sedan Championship for 2004 and has been included in the CAMS Nationals Racing Championships since its inception in 2006. Winners of the Australian Sports Sedan Championship are shown below. A Sports Sedan series has been run each year from 2004, this being recognised by CAMS as a National Series rather than as an official Australian Championship; each series has been open to cars built to American Transam or New Zealand TraNZam rules as well as cars complying with CAMS Group 3D Sports Sedan regulations. Series winners have been: CAMS Manual of Motor Sport Current National Sports Sedan Series
Alfa Romeo GTA
The Alfa Romeo GTA is a coupé automobile manufactured by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1965 to 1971. It was made for road use. In 1962, the successor for the popular Giulietta series was introduced; this car was the Alfa Romeo Giulia, internally called the "Series 105". The coupé of the 105 series, used the shortened floorpan from the Giulia Berlina and was designed by Bertone; the name of the car evolved from Giulia Sprint GT to Giulia Sprint and to GTJ and GTV in the late 1960s. At the time, Alfa Romeo was active in motorsport. Autodelta, the racing division of Alfa, developed a car for competition that resembled to the roadgoing model; these cars were named the'A' standing for "Alleggerita", Italian for lightweight. The GTA was produced first in 1965 as a 1.6 L and as a 1300 Junior version. The GTA automobiles were manufactured in either street or pure race trim; the GTA had aluminium outer body panels instead of steel, magnesium alloy wheels, clear plastic side windows, an aluminium rear upper control arm, different door handles and quarter window mechanisms, lightweight interior trim.
The engine had a new double ignition cylinder head cylinder head with a Marelli distributor from a Ferrari Dino, 2-barrel 45 mm Weber carburetors instead of 40 mm and magnesium camshaft cover, timing cover and bell housing. The transmission gear ratios were closer than standard and the gears were machined for lightness and quicker shifting. Dry weight of the 1600 was 1,640 pounds. In stradale form this car boasted 115 PS and a maximum torque of 142 N⋅m at 3,000 rpm. In full race form this engine could produce up to 170 PS; the 1600 GTA had a thicker radiator than the standard vehicle. For homologation 500 cars were made for road use. According to Maurizio Tabucchi; the GTA 2000 was a kind of test mule for the GTAm engine. That is the GTAm motor with Lucas injection developing 208 bhp at 6,500 rpm, fitted to a GTA 1300 Junior chassis. Tabucchi states that the first outing of these car was at the Tour de Corse in 1969 - this took place November 8–9, 1969. Wheels were 14x7 with TA3 tires. Cars were entered by Autodelta and drivers were Pinto/Santonacci who suffered a puncture and suspension breakage at Guitera.
The other team was Barayller/Fayel. Tony Adriaensens reports GTA 2000 race results, albeit later. Circuit of Benguela, Angola April 10, 1970, Peixinho GTA2000 - 1st overall Circuit of Cabinda, Angola April 26, 1970, Peixinho - 1st and Bandeira/Viera - 2nd both cars are described as GTA2000 São Paulo, May 1–3, 1970, Zambello/Fernandez - 2nd, GTA2000 Interlagos, August 9, 1970, Catapani - 1st overall, GTA2000 Nova Lisboa, August 9–10, 1970 - 6h Intercacionais do Huamba, Fraga/Resende - 2nd place, Santos "Peras"/Flavio Santos car# 8 - 3rd place, both cars are described as GTA 1300 Juniors with 2 liter motor There are some doubts whether the Brazilian cars were 2000cc, as both Zambello and Fernandez are reported to have won events in 1969 with a GTA1900, a different 1,840 cc engine, though it can not be ruled out that their car was upgraded to 2000cc for 1970. Regardless, given the dates of the events in Brazil, the Angolan and Brazilian cars are different; the GTA 1300 Junior had a 1300 cc engine, based on the 1600 engine but with a short stroke crankshaft.
The GTA Junior in stradale form did not have many of the light weight features of the 1600 GTA, such as the plastic windows, magnesium engine components and alloy wheels. At the start the engine produced 96 PS but was soon raised to 110 PS. Autodelta prepared fuel injected racing cars had 165 PS. 450 GTA Juniors were produced. The GTAm could produce up to 240 PS in the 2000 cc car—a car related to the GTA, but unlike the GTA derived from the GTV 1750; the 1750 GTAm was created in 1969. There are two schools of thought about the "Am" moniker, neither one having been confirmed by Alfa Romeo: one expands Am to Alleggerita Maggiorata, the other America Maggiorata; the car had a full steel body modified with / or plastic parts. Because of an increased minimum weight in 1971, up from 920 to 940 kg, the GTAm's had less need for aluminium and / or plastic parts; the base for the GTAm was the 1750 GTV with a SPICA mechanical fuel injection system. The majority of the genuine GTAm's built by Autodelta have a chassis number starting with 105.51.
XXXXXX. The European market 1750 GTV with dual carburettors from Dell'Orto or Weber carburetor and chassisnumbers starting with 105.44. XXXXXX was used as a base; the same goes for the 2000 GTV and the 1300 GT Junior bodyshell, lighter. Note that some racing teams and private workshops ordered the parts from Autodelta and other tuners and assembled the cars themselves on a new or existing bodyshell; the original 1750 engine block was used and by inserting a monosleeve instead of four individual cylinderliners, received 1,985 cc and to 1,999 cc (2.0
Alfa Romeo 105/115 Series Coupés
The Alfa Romeo 105 and 115 series coupés were a range of cars made by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1963 until 1977, based on a shortened floorpan from the Giulia saloon. They were the successors to the Giulietta Sprint coupé; the basic body shape shared by all models was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro for Bertone. It was one of his first major projects for Bertone, borrowed from his earlier design for the Alfa Romeo 2000 Sprint/2600 Sprint; the balance of glass and metal, the influence of the shape of the front and rear glass on the shape of the cabin, the flat grille with incorporated headlamps were groundbreaking styling features for the era. A limited production convertible was a modification from the standard car by Touring of Milan, offered as a catalogue model by Alfa Romeo called the Giulia Sprint GTC. A small number of the GT Junior Zagato were built with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan; these too were offered by Alfa Romeo as catalogue models, as the GT 1300 Junior Zagato and GT 1600 Junior Zagato.
All models feature the four cylinder, all-light-alloy Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine in various cubic capacities from 1290 cc to 1962 cc, all with two valves per cylinder. All versions of this engine fitted to the 105 series coupés featured twin carburettors, except for US market 1750 GTV and 2000 GTV cars which were fitted with mechanical port fuel injection by SPICA. Competition models featured cylinder heads with twin spark plugs. Common to all models was a 5-speed manual transmission and solid disc brakes on all four wheels, although in South Africa at the Brits plant a few Auto 2000 GTV were made for the local market; these featured the 3 speed ZF auto box. The rear suspension uses a solid axle with coil springs. Air conditioning and a limited slip rear differential were optional on the models. A limited slip differential was standard on the GTV 2000 for North America 1972-1974. Factory air conditioning was available on the 1973-1974 only in the USA; the 105 series coupés featured the GT model description, common to all models in one form or another.
The various models in this range can be considered in two broad categories. On one hand were Gran Turismo Veloces; these were meant to be the most sporting cars in the Alfa Romeo range and sold well to enthusiastic motorists around the world. The first model available was the Giulia Sprint GT which evolved into the Giulia Sprint GT Veloce, the 1750 GTV and the 2000 GTV, with engines increasing in cubic capacity from 1570 cc through 1779 cc to 1962 cc. A limited production convertible, the Giulia Sprint GTC, was based on the Giulia Sprint GT, modified by Touring of Milan, it was only made over two years from 1964 to 1966. On the other hand, was the GT Junior range, which featured engines with smaller cubic capacities. GT Juniors sold in great numbers to people who wanted a sporting, stylish car that handled well, but either did not require the maximum in engine power, or could not afford the taxation on larger engine capacities in some markets - most notably, Alfa Romeo's home Italian market. Junior models began with the first GT 1300 Junior in 1966.
The GT 1300 Junior continued until 1976 with the 1290 cc engine and various modifications incorporating features from the evolution of the GT's and GTV's. From 1972 a GT 1600 Junior model was available, with the 1570 cc engine; the 1300 Junior and 1600 Junior became available with a different, aerodynamic two-seater coupé body designed by Ercole Spada for Zagato of Milan. These models were GT 1600 Junior Zagato. Both categories were used to derive GTA models, which were intended for competition homologation in their respective engine size classes; the GTA's featured extensive modifications for racing, so they were priced much higher than the standard models and sold in much smaller numbers. All GTA's made were used in competition, where they had a long and successful history in various classes and category; these models included the Giulia Sprint GTA, GTA 1300 Junior, GTAm. Although not thought of as a 105 Series coupé variant, the Alfa Romeo Montreal used a strengthened and modified 105 series floorpan and suspension.
Tipo: 105.02, 105.04. Engine: 00502; the Alfa Romeo Giulia Sprint GT was the first Giulia sport model introduced, was manufactured from 1963 to 1965. It was revealed at a press event held at the newly opened Arese plant on 9 September 1963, displayed the same month at the Frankfurt Motor Show. In its original form the Bertone body is known as scalino or "step front", because of the leading edge of the engine compartment lid which sat 1/4 an inch above the nose of the car; the Giulia Sprint GT can be distinguished from the models by the following features: Exterior badging: Alfa Romeo logo on the front grille, a chrome script reading "Giulia Sprint GT" on the boot lid, rectangular "Disegno di Bertone" badges aft of the front wheel arches. Flat, chrome grille in plain, wide rectangular mesh without additional chrome bars. Single-piece chrome bumpers. Inside the cabin the padded vinyl dashboard was characterised by a concave horizontal fascia, finished in grey anti-glare crackle-effect paint. Four round instruments were inset in the fascia in front of the driver.
The larger diameter inner pair were speedometer.
Cooma is a town in the south of New South Wales, Australia. It is located 114 kilometres south of the national capital, via the Monaro Highway, it is on the Snowy Mountains Highway, connecting Bega with the Riverina. At the 2016 census, Cooma had a population of 6,742. Cooma is the main town of the Monaro region, it is 800 metres above sea level. The name could have derived from an Aboriginal word Coombah, meaning'big lake' or'open country'. Cooma was explored by Captain J. M. Currie in 1823, it was first surveyed in 1840, was gazetted in 1849. Cooma was proclaimed a municipality in 1879. Cooma is 5 kilometres south of the banks of the Murrumbidgee River, a main tributary of the Murray–Darling basin. Cooma sources its water from the river; the railway from Sydney was extended from Royalla to Cooma in 1889 under the supervision of John Whitton. The line was closed to rail passenger traffic in 1989; the estimated population of Cooma was 47 in 1851 and it grew to 2330, 1969, 2249, 9103, 7353 and 7978. In 1949, the town grew rapidly.
Those working on the Snowy Scheme depended on the railway and during construction of the scheme, the railways were one of the largest employers in the region. In 1959 the tenth anniversary of the scheme was celebrated with the erection of an avenue of flags representing the 27 nationalities of people working on the scheme. Cooma has developed a growing tourism industry as it became the main rest stop for many travellers heading to the NSW snow fields during the winter months; as a result, the town nicknamed itself the'Gateway to the Snowy Mountains'. The Aviation Pioneers' Memorial at Cooma contains artifacts recovered from the Avro 618 Ten aircraft Southern Cloud, which crashed on 21 March 1931 in the Toolong range of the Australian Alps; the wreck was not found until 26 October 1958. Cooma has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Bradley Street: Cooma railway station 59 - 61 Lambie Street: Royal Hotel Sharp Street: Rock Bolting Development Site According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 6,742 people in Cooma.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 3.2% of the population. 76.5% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 2.6%. 82.5% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 26.2%, No Religion 26.1% and Anglican 18.7%. Government schools include Monaro High School, a high school that serves the town and seven of the neighboring rural towns and villages including Peak View, Jindabyne, Nimmitabel and Dalgety; the other two government schools support primary education and are Cooma Public School and Cooma North Public School, both providing education for students in kindergarten to year 6. The Roman Catholic school is called St Patrick's Parish School and provides education from kindergarten to year 10; the Snowy Mountains Christian School, an independent Christian school provides education from kindergarten to year 10. Tertiary education is provided by TAFE NSW Illawarra Institute Cooma campus. Another Tertiary Education centre is the newly opened Cooma Universities Centre Cooma has a subtropical highland climate, owing to its elevation and high diurnal temperature variation.
Summers are warm with cool nights, winters are chilly with freezing nighttime lows. The area is dry, as it falls in a rain shadow. Despite its dryness, it only has 90.1 clear days annually, lower than the adjacent coastal areas of Wollongong and Sydney. Strong cold fronts push through the region in winter and snow is not uncommon in Cooma from June to August, however is light and settles for more than 24 hours. Severe thunderstorms are semi-frequent in summer and due to the towns elevation can carry large quantities of hail. Mean daily minimum temperatures range from −2.7 °C to 10.8 °C, with an annual mean daily minimum of 4.1 °C. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 11.4 °C to 27.3 °C, with an annual mean daily maximum of 19.4 °C. One newspaper operates in Cooma,The Monaro Post, which began in 2006, is independently owned by Gail Eastaway, Tracy Frazer and Louise Platts. 2XL 918 AM Snow FM 97.7 FM Triple J 100.1 FM ABC South-East 810 AM/1602 AM Radio National 95.3 FM/100.9 FM Classic FM 99.3 Monaro FM 90.5 Racing Radio 96.9 FM Vision Radio 88.0 FM Note: transmitters for 2XL and Snow FM, as well as some ABC services, are in place throughout the Snowy Mountains.
Cooma receives five free-to-air television networks including all the digital free-to-air channels relayed from Canberra, broadcast from the Telstra site Radio Hill translator in Cooma Common, off Polo Flat Road. Stations available include: ABC SBS Prime7 WIN Southern Cross NineAnother transmitter for the Cooma and surrounding Monaro region is located at Mount Roberts 30 km NNE of the town, broadcasting The Three Commercial Networks and the ABC services, but not SBS Television Services. Cooma is serviced by Cooma - Snowy Mountains Airport, 15 kilometres from the CBD. Cooma has a bus service connecting various areas of town three times a day run by Cooma Coaches. Snowliner Coaches operate services. Cooma has a taxi service run by Cooma Radio Taxis. NSW TrainLink operate road coach services from Canberra to Eden. Cooma was served by the Cooma Mail until May 1986 and the Canberra Monaro Express until September 1988; the Cooma Monaro Railway is a heritage railway using CPH railmotors built in the 1920s.
Until operations were suspended in
Alfa Romeo Giulia
Alfa Romeo Giulia is the name of three not directly related models by the Italian car manufacturer Alfa Romeo. The first is a line of sporty four-door compact executive cars produced from 1962 to 1978, the second is an updated up-engined Spider and Sprint Speciale Giuliettas, the third Giulia is a compact executive car unveiled in 2015. Alfa Romeo was one of the first mainstream manufacturers to put a powerful engine in a light-weight 1 tonne four-door car for mass production; the Type 105 Giulia was equipped with a light alloy twin overhead camshaft four-cylinder engine similar to that of the earlier Giulietta range, available in 1.3-litre and 1.6-litre versions. Various configurations of carburetors and tuning produced power outputs from about 80 to about 110 bhp, coupled in most cases to 5-speed manual transmission. Giulia sedans were noted for lively handling and impressive acceleration among small European four-door sedans of their era considering modest engine sizes offered; the popular Super version with the twin carburettor 1.6 litre engine had a top speed of 170 km/h and accelerated from 0 to 100 km/h in about 12 seconds, better than many sports cars of the late 1960s and early 1970s.
When leaving the factory all variations of the Giulia fitted either Pirelli Cinturato 165HR14 tyres or Pirelli Cinturato 155HR15 tyres. The styling of the boxy four-door notchback saloon was somewhat wanting; the engine bay and boot were all square shaped, buffered somewhat by details on the grill, roofline and boot. Use of a wind tunnel during development led to a aerodynamic shape that produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.34 low for a saloon of the era. The Giulia Spider was succeeded by the Alfa Romeo Spider in 1966. Note: chassis and engine type numbers displayed in italic for each model are sourced from Fusi 1978, pages 841–848. Tipo: 105.14, 105.08, 105.09. Engine: 00514. Unveiled on 27 June 1962 at the Autodromo Nazionale Monza, the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI was the first of the Giulia family of cars to be introduced, its 1,570 cc Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was fitted with a single Solex 33 PAIA 7 twin-choke down-draft carburettor, produced 92 DIN-rated PS or 106 SAE-rated PS at 6,200 rpm. The "TI" nomenclature referred to a class of Italian saloon car racing known as "Turismo Internazionale", had been applied to higher-performance versions of the 1900 and Giulietta saloons in the 1950s.
However, for the Giulia saloon, the TI was at first the only version available, with the introduction of the TI Super and Super, the TI became the base version in the 1.6-litre engine class. A distinguishing feature of the original Giulia were drum brakes on all corners, the front ones of the three-shoe type like on late Giuliettas; the car was marketed as a six-seater, thanks to a standard column-mounted shifter and a split bench front seat—though Italian car magazine Quattroruote found it rather a comfortable four-seater. Other notable interior features of the early models were mottled cloth and vinyl upholstery, a grey, trapezoid instrument panel including a strip speedometer, a black steering wheel with two ivory-coloured spokes and a chrome half horn ring. In May 1964 a floor shifter became available, to be ordered in conjunction with the newly introduced separate front seats. Around the same time a right hand drive model variant entered production, with floor shifter only. In February 1966 several changes were made.
The floor shifter became standard. From outside these TIs can be recognized by L-shaped chrome strips around the tail lights which supplanted the previous C-shaped ones. Production of the Giulia TI ceased during 1967. Tipo: 105.16. Engine: 00516; the Alfa Romeo Giulia TI Super was a special road-going sports model produced in limited numbers, fitted with a more powerful engine and a number of weight saving components, intended for racing use. It was introduced to the press at the Monza race track on 24 April 1963. In total only 501 were made, 178 in 1963 and 323 1964. On 2 May 1964 the TI Super received international FIA and Italian CSAI homologation for racing, was extensively campaigned in the European Touring Car Challenge. Today the Giulia TI Super is rare and considered desirable by collectors; the TI Super's 1,570 cc engine was the same installed on the Giulia Sprint Speciale coupé—though bearing a different type code. It was fitted with two twin-choke horizontal Weber 45 DCOE 14 carburettors and, as on the Sprint Speciale, produced 112 DIN-rated PS or 129 SAE-rated PS at 6,500 rpm, pushing top speed to over 185 km/h.
Dry weight was 910 kilograms compared to 1,000 kg of the standard Giulia TI. Parts contributing to the weight reduction were mesh grilles replacing the inner pair of head lamps, bumpers without overriders, fixed front quarter windows, Plexiglas rear windows, magnesium alloy wheels with hubcaps similar in appearance to the standard steel wheels of the TI. Braking was by discs all around. Cars built from August 1964 used the bodyshell of the TI with mounting points for the brake servo, but wer
Government of Australia
The Government of Australia is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is commonly referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, Her Majesty's Government, or the Federal Government; the Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states. The terms of this contract are embodied in the Australian Constitution, drawn up at a Constitutional Convention and ratified by the people of the colonies at referendums; the Australian head of state is the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General of Australia, with executive powers delegated by constitutional convention to the Australian head of government, the Prime Minister of Australia. The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia is divided into three branches: the executive branch, composed of the Federal Executive Council, presided by the Governor-General, which delegates powers to the Cabinet of Australia, led by the Prime Minister.
Separation of powers is implied by the structure of the Constitution, the three branches of government being set out in separate chapters. The Australian system of government combines elements of the Westminster and Washington systems with unique Australian characteristics, has been characterised as a "Washminster mutation". Section 1 of the Australian Constitution creates a democratic legislature, the bicameral Parliament of Australia which consists of the Queen of Australia, two houses of parliament, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Section 51 of the Constitution provides for the Commonwealth Government's legislative powers and allocates certain powers and responsibilities to the Commonwealth government. All remaining responsibilities are retained by the six States. Further, each State has its own constitution, so that Australia has seven sovereign Parliaments, none of which can encroach on the functions of any other; the High Court of Australia arbitrates on any disputes which arise between the Commonwealth and the States, or among the States, concerning their respective functions.
The Commonwealth Parliament can propose changes to the Constitution. To become effective, the proposals must be put to a referendum of all Australians of voting age, must receive a "double majority": a majority of all votes, a majority of votes in a majority of States; the Commonwealth Constitution provides that the States can agree to refer any of their powers to the Commonwealth. This may be achieved by way of an amendment to the Constitution via referendum. More powers may be transferred by passing other acts of legislation which authorise the transfer and such acts require the legislative agreement of all the state governments involved; this "transfer" legislation may have a "sunset clause", a legislative provision that nullifies the transfer of power after a specified period, at which point the original division of power is restored. In addition, Australia has several "territories", two of which are self-governing: the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory; these territories' legislatures, their Assemblies, exercise powers devolved to them by the Commonwealth.
Australian citizens in these territories are represented by members of both houses of the Commonwealth Parliament. The territory of Norfolk Island was self-governing from 1979 until 2016, although it was never represented as such in the Commonwealth Parliament; the other territories that are inhabited—Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands—have never been self-governing. The federal nature of the Commonwealth and the structure of the Parliament of Australia were the subject of protracted negotiations among the colonies during the drafting of the Constitution; the House of Representatives is elected on a basis that reflects the differing populations of the States. Thus New South Wales has 48 members, but the Senate is elected on a basis of equality among the States: all States elect 12 Senators, regardless of population. This was intended to allow the Senators of the smaller States to form a majority and thus be able to amend or reject bills originating in the House of Representatives.
The ACT and the NT each elect two Senators. The third level of government after Commonwealth and State/Territory is Local government, in the form of shires and cities; the Councils of these areas are composed of elected representatives serving part-time. Their powers are devolved to them by the Territory in which they are located. Government at the Commonwealth level and the State/Territory level is undertaken by three inter-connected arms of government: Legislature: The Commonwealth Parliament Executive: The Sovereign of Australia, whose executive power is exercisable by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister and their Departments Judiciary: The High Court of Australia and subsidiary Federal courts. Separation of powers is the principle whereby the three arms of government undertake their activities separately from each other: the Legislature proposes laws in the form of Bills, provides a legislative framework for the operations of the other two a