Horta is a single municipality and city in the western part of the Archipelago of the Azores, encompassing the island of Faial. The population in 2011 was 15,038 in an area of 173.06 km². The city of Horta itself has a population of about 7,000; the marina is a primary stop for yachts crossing the Atlantic, its walls, walkways are covered in paintings created by visitors who noted the names of their vessels and the years they visited. Peter's Cafe Sport, located across from the marina and houses the island's scrimshaw museum, a collection artifacts carved from whale tooth and jawbone, is a point of reference for trans-Atlantic yachtsmen and sailors. In 1467, the Flemish nobleman Josse van Huerter returned to Faial on a second expedition, this time disembarking along the shore of what would be known as Horta bay, he had a small chapel built, that would form the nucleus of a small community known as Horta. The infante D. Fernando, Duke of Viseu, granted Huerter the first captaincy of the island on February 2, 1468.
But, the settlement of the island was not chiefly by flemish peasantry or business interests. In fact settlers to the island were from hard-working farmers from continental Portugal, willing to work hard in new lands, from a cross-section of northern Portugal. But, Huerter cultivated new business opportunities, attracting a second wave of settlers under the stewardship of Willem van der Haegen, who brought administrators, tradesmen and other compatriots to settle on the island. Huerter's son, Joss de Utra, daughter, D. Joana de Macedo continued on Faial, long after van Huerter’s death. By 1498, Horta was elevated to the status of vila by decree of King D. Manuel I, as its center grew north from the area around the small chapel of Santa Cruz; the island prospered with exports of woad. On June 28, 1514 the parish of Matriz do São Salvador da Horta was constituted and services were begun. In 1567, the cornerstone of what would be the Fort of Santa Cruz was laid; the constant growth of the settlers in the villa compelled the creation of the parishes of Nossa Senhora da Conceição and Nossa Senhora da Angustias by the diocese of Angra.
As two nuclei developed around Santa Cruz and Porto Pim, growth had extended around the older Matriz and the public square. Public buildings were erected between Rua Visconde Leite Perry and Rua Arriage Nunes, the town hall and the court offices moved to the former Jesuit College, after the Jesuits were expelled from Portugal in 1758. In 1583, Spanish soldiers under the command of D. Pedro de Toledo landed in Pasteleiro in the southwestern part of the island. After some skirmishes at the doors of the fort, the Captain of Faial, António Guedes de Sousa, was executed. Four years the Earl of Cumberland commanding a fleet of 13 British ships in the Azores Voyage of 1589 captured a Spanish ship, plundered the town's churches and convents, profaning them and destroying reliquary and crucifixes, they set fire to the houses within the Fort of Santa Cruz. Two cannons, located in Porto Pim, were taken. In 1597, a new force, under Sir Walter Raleigh, second in command to Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex and burned the religious buildings and churches in Horta, as well as the neighboring parishes of Flamengos and Praia do Almoxarife.
The constant threat of privateers and pirates forced the construction of several lookouts. In 1643, Horta had about 2579 610 homes. D. Frei Lourenço, the Bishop of Angra, authorized the renovation of the chapel of Santa Cruz in 1675. In 1688, the final renovations and ornamentation of the church were realized. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Horta was a small town, it was peppered by various convents and churches, but little commerce and no industry. But, luckily due to its location, it prospered as a stopover on important commercial routes between Europe and the New World. For a time, Horta was a center of travel, it was a gateway for Azorean orange growing, the port for the export of wine from Pico Island, as well as an important stop for North American whalers, as a refueling port for coal-powered ships during their transatlantic passages. In 1804 John Bass Dabney, the U. S. Consul General in the Azores, married Roxanne Lewis, moved to a home in Horta, his son, Charles William Dabney who succeeded his father in this position, was to play an important part in the history and economy of Horta and Faial.
This was helped by the construction of a commercial port and the installation of transatlantic telegraph cables. The Dabney family steered the island's economy for 83 years, with good effect on the dynamic growth of the port, the export of oranges, the Verdelho wine from Pico, the commerce of the whaling industry. On September 26, 1814, the American privateer brig "General Armstrong", under the command of Captain Samuel Chester Reid, was sunk by three ships of the British Royal Navy under the command of Robert Lloyd. After being forced to scuttle his ship, Captain Reid made a formal protest over the ships destruction in a neutral port, the incapacity of the Portuguese to defend their own waters, her principal piece of naval artillery, the cannon "Long Tom", was recovered from Horta Bay. It was offered to General Bat
Salvador of Horta
Salvador of Horta, O. F. M. was a Spanish Franciscan lay brother from the region of Catalonia in Spain, celebrated as a miracle worker during his lifetime. He is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church, he was born Salvador Pladevall i Bien some time during December 1520 in the hospital of Santa Coloma de Farners, located in the Catalan Province of Girona, where his parents worked as servants. Orphaned at age 14, he moved with his sister Blasa to Barcelona, where he worked as a shoemaker to support them both; when his sister had married, Pladevall felt free to follow a religious calling. He first entered the famed Benedictine Abbey of Santa Maria de Montserrat, near Barcelona, to explore monastic life. Not feeling drawn there, desiring a more humble way of life, he entered the novitiate of the Observant branch of the Order of Friars Minor in Barcelona as a lay brother on 3 May 1541, he made his profession of vows in 1542, having become known among the friars for his asceticism and humility. Salvador was sent by his superiors to serve as the cook, designated beggar and porter at the friary at Tortosa.
There Salvador soon acquired a reputation as a healer, the friary became a destination for sick pilgrims. It was estimated by observers that the number of visitors to the friary numbered some 2,000 people per week; as a result, Salvador's superiors developed a suspicion of him, to shadow him for the rest of his life, they began moving him to different friaries: first Bellpuig Lleida, followed by the remote village of Horta de Sant Joan, the town with which he is most identified, residing there 1547-1559 in the Friary of Our Lady of the Angels. Salvador was moved to the friary of Reus and again to Madrid, where he was visited by King Philip II of Spain, followed by yet another move to the friary in Barcelona. While residing there, in 1560 he was denounced to the Spanish Inquisition for the many miracles attributed to his intercession. After some investigations, they chose to take no action against him. In 1565 Salvador was assigned to the Friary of St. Mary of Jesus in Cagliari, on the island of Sardinia under the rule of Spain, where he continued to serve as the cook for the community.
He continued to have cures take place at his intercession. It was there that he died on 18 March 1567. At the request of King Philip, Salvador was allowed to be venerated as "Blessed" on 5 February 1606 by Pope Paul V, confirmed on 29 January 1711 by Pope Clement XI, he was canonized on 17 April 1938 by Pope Pius XI. His feast day is celebrated on 18 March, the anniversary of his death, his remains were interred at the Church of St. Mary of Jesus attached to the friary where he died. In 1606 it had been decided to open his grave to provide his heart as a relic for the Franciscan community in Silke, near Sassari; when it was opened, his body was found to be still intact. Thus, when the Church of St. Mary of Jesus was demolished in 1718, his remains were interred first at another church of the Order in the city finally, in 1758, they were entombed in a glass coffin under the main altar of the Church of St. Rosalie in the city; this remains his shrine. Veneration of Salvador spread throughout his native Catalunya and in Calabria, long under Spanish rule.
Den Katolske Kirke Den hellige Salvator av Orta
José Manuel Ramos-Horta is an East Timorese politician, the President of East Timor from 20 May 2007 to 20 May 2012. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2006 and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007, he is a co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize along with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, for working "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor". As a founder and former member of Fretilin, Ramos-Horta served as the exiled spokesman for the East Timorese resistance during the years of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. While he continued to work with Fretilin, Ramos-Horta resigned from the party in 1988, becoming an independent politician. After East Timor achieved independence in 2002, Ramos-Horta was appointed as the country's first foreign minister, he served in this position until his resignation on 25 June 2006. On 26 June, following the resignation of Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri, Ramos-Horta was appointed as acting Prime Minister by President Xanana Gusmão.
Two weeks on 10 July 2006, he was sworn in as the second Prime Minister of East Timor. He was elected as President in 2007. On 11 February 2008, Ramos-Horta was shot during an assassination attempt. After leaving office as President in 2012, Ramos-Horta was appointed as the United Nations' Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau on 2 January 2013. Of mestiço ethnicity, Ramos-Horta was born in 1949 in Dili, capital of East Timor, to a Timorese mother and a Portuguese father, exiled to what was Portuguese Timor by the Salazar dictatorship, he was educated in a Catholic mission in the small village of Soibada chosen by Fretilin as headquarters after the Indonesian invasion. Of his eleven brothers and sisters, four were killed by the Indonesian military. Ramos-Horta studied Public International Law at the Hague Academy of International Law and at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio where he completed a Master of Arts degree in Peace Studies.
He was trained in Human Rights Law at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg. He completed Post-Graduate courses in American foreign policy at Columbia University in New York, he is a Senior Associate Member of the University of Oxford's St Antony's College and speaks fluently in five languages: Portuguese, plus English, French and the most spoken East Timorese language, Tetum. He is divorced from Ana Pessoa Pinto, East Timor's Minister for State and Internal Administration, with whom he has a son, Loro Horta, born in exile in Mozambique, he was involved in the development of political awareness in Portuguese Timor, which caused him to be exiled for two years in 1970–71 to Portuguese East Africa. His grandfather, before him, had been exiled, from Portugal to the Azores Islands Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea and to Portuguese Timor. A moderate in the emerging Timorese nationalist leadership, he was appointed Foreign Minister in the "Democratic Republic of East Timor" government proclaimed by the pro-independence parties in November 1975.
When appointed minister, Ramos-Horta was only 25 years old. Ramos-Horta left East Timor three days before the Indonesian troops invaded to plead the Timorese case before the UN. Ramos-Horta arrived in New York to address the UN Security Council and urge them to take action in the face of the Indonesian occupation during which an estimated 102,000 East Timorese would die. Ramos-Horta was the Permanent Representative of Fretilin to the UN for the next ten years, his friends at that time mentioned that he arrived in the United States with a total of $25 in his pocket. His pecuniary situation was straitened in that period. Further, he was obliged to travel worldwide to explain his party's position. In 1993, the Rafto Prize was awarded to the people of East Timor. Foreign-minister-in-exile Ramos-Horta represented his nation at the prize ceremony. In May 1994, Philippine President Fidel Ramos, bowing to pressure from Jakarta, tried to ban an international conference on East Timor in Manila and blacklisted Ramos-Horta, with the Thai government following suit that year by declaring him persona non grata.
In December 1996, Ramos-Horta shared the Nobel Peace Prize with fellow Timorese, Bishop Ximenes Belo. The Nobel Committee chose to honour the two laureates for their "sustained efforts to hinder the oppression of a small people", hoping that "this award will spur efforts to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict of East Timor based on the people's right to self-determination"; the Committee considered Ramos-Horta "the leading international spokesman for East Timor's cause since 1975". Ramos-Horta played a leading role in negotiating the institutional foundations for independence, he led the Timorese delegation at an important joint workshop with UNTAET on 1 March 2000 to tease out a new strategy, identify institutional needs. The outcome was an agreed blueprint for a joint administration with executive powers, including leaders of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction. Further details were worked out in a conference in May 2000; the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in East Timor, Sérgio Vieira de Mello, presented the new blueprint to a donor conference in Lisbon, on 22 June 2000, to the UN Security Council on 27 June 2000.
On 12 July 2000, the NCC adopted a regulation establishing a Transitional Cabinet composed of four East Timorese and four UNTAET representatives. The revamped joint administration laid the institutional foundation
Horta of Valencia
The Horta of Valencia is a historical comarca and urban area of Valencian Community. The Horta of Valencia consists of Valencia and three comarcas: Horta Nord, Horta Sud, Horta Oest, it is the most populated region of País Valencià. The Horta of Valencia has experienced the greatest increase in population as an immigrant receiver, its urban expansion has motivated the creation of several urbanisations, the incorporation to the urban nucleus of the metropolis of the earlier towns. Nowadays, the expansion has contributed to its separation in four regions that are considered sub-regions; the region is located within Puçol, the Albufera, Paterna and Montcada. It is a lowland region, it might be surprising that people preserve the Valencian agricultural traditions so near the city of Valencia and the presence of traditional cabins for agricultural purposes, called barraques"", as well as the traditional paths along the Horta if the city has caused negative effects because of the building of many landfills, waste ground, workshops.
This situation, together with the construction of new high-speed rails and dual carriageways, has cut up the Horta into different parts. It has left little areas of countryside surrounded by huge infrastructures; that is a problem that has an impact not only in farmers' lives, but in neighbours'. Here is a list of the different areas in the territory of Valencia: Horta of Campanar The Horta of Campanar is located in the North West of the Campanar district. In the north, it shares its border with the dual carriageway that connects Paterna. In the west, it is in front of Horta of Paterna, in the south, it borders with Horta of Quart de Poblet and the river Turia. In the east, it shares border with Ronda Nord of Valencia and the neighbourhoods of Beniferri and Campanar. Horta of Faitanar The Horta of Faitanar is the section of Horta of Valencia, located in the south of the new river bed of the Turia River and in the west of Forn d'Alcedo. In the south, it borders with Picanya and Paiporta, in the north west, it is in front of Xirivella where the Horta continues without cracking.
Horta of the Moreres or of the Punta The Horta of the Moreres or of the Punta belongs to the farmland of the towns La Font de Sant Lluis, La Font d'Encorts, La Punta and Natzaret. It extends its territory from Ronda Sud and the City of Arts and Sciences to the new river bed of the Turia River. Horta of the Castellar-l'Oliveral In the neighbourhood of Castellar-l'Oliveral, there is a territory of the Horta between the new river bed of the Turia River and Sedaví. Horta of Vera The Horta of Vera is the ancient Horta of Alboraia. Nowadays, the south belongs to the north to Alboraia. A great part of it has been urbanised and transformed into the neighbourhoods of Camí of Vera and Vega Baixa. In the north, there are still some barraques. Horta of Orriols In the north of the neighbourhoods of Orriols and of Sant Llorenç, between the limit of Alboraia and Ronda Nord of Valencia, Horta of Orriols lives on and continues all along until the city of Alboraia. Horta of Pobles del Nord Thanks to the isolation from the big cities, big areas of the Horta live on in the region of Pobles del Nord.
Pinedo and El Palmar Although all the land is dedicated to the cultivation of rice, a significant number barraques and other elements related to the Horta, such as ditches, live on in the villages of Pinedo and El Palmar. The Valencian Horta came up in the time of the Roman Empire; the city of Valentia was founded as the logistics centre and the hibernation place for the Roman campaigns for the conquest of the Iberia. The Romans contributed to these lands with the crops they knew, such as the cultivation of cereals, olive or vine. On account of the typical conditions of the environment, the crops were not productive enough. Still, the crops were useful in supplying the Roman armies and for the campaigns of the Visigoths, who left the fields and the cityFS]; the Valencian Horta as we know it today was developed in the medieval times, during the Islamic period. An important fluvial infrastructure was created thanks to the construction of ditches and assuts. Different activities were boosted and developed near those infrastructures, such as the watermills, which profited the water flow of the ditches and the washbasins near the houses and farmsteads.
Thanks to those infrastructures, the city of Valencia, as well as its surrounding villages, was able to expand successfully. A rich production area was created; the origin of Horta of Valencia comes from the Al-Alandalus period, as a consequence of the introduction of the Arabic irrigation tradition, just like the North African berebers did. The cultivations were unequal, due to an independent and tributary society. In addition to the typical crops of the Roman period, the rice and the tiger nut and new vegetables from Al-Andalus, such as aubergine, etc; those new crops are typical from the damp zones. The crops par excellence are the horticultural products, hence the name of this environment. There are eight principal ditches: Montcada, Mestalla, Quart-Benàger-Faitanar, Misla
Horta (Barcelona Metro)
Horta is a station in the Barcelona metro network, served by L5, located under carrer de Lisboa, in the Horta-Guinardó district of Barcelona. It was opened in 1967, when an extension of the line into the neighbourhood of the same name from Vilapicina was opened; the curved island-platform station has a ticket hall at either end, one with two accesses, the other with one. Horta was the terminus before the line was extended in July 2010 towards Vall d'Hebron, meeting L3. List of Barcelona Metro stations Horta station at Trenscat.com
The Devil in the Dark
"The Devil in the Dark" is the twenty-fifth episode of the first season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek. Written by Gene L. Coon and directed by Joseph Pevney, it first aired on March 9, 1967. In the episode, Captain Kirk and Spock face off with a deadly subterranean creature. William Shatner wrote in his memoirs that "The Devil in the Dark" was his favorite original Star Trek episode, he thought it was "exciting, thought-provoking and intelligent, it contained all of the ingredients that made up our best Star Treks". In the documentary 50 Years of Star Trek, Leonard Nimoy named "The Devil in the Dark" as an "interesting episode", stating "I thought was a wonderful episode about the fear of the unknown, how we fear and hate something that we don't know anything about, learn who your enemy is, it's not, maybe it's not no longer your enemy." The starship Enterprise arrives at the pergium mining colony on planet Janus VI to help the colony deal with an unknown creature that has killed 50 miners and destroyed equipment with a strong corrosive substance.
Kirk, McCoy meet with the mine supervisor, Chief Engineer Vanderberg and an engineer, who describe the amorphous creature and its behavior. During the briefing, Spock's attention is drawn to a silicon nodule on Vanderberg's desk, which Vanderberg dismisses as a geological oddity, they are alerted to a problem in the colony's main nuclear reactor, find its guard killed and the main circulating pump stolen. Chief Engineer Scott rigs a temporary replacement, but the crude improvisation fails shortly thereafter. Either the missing part or a more-effective replacement must be found within 48 hours. Captain Kirk and his security team begin to search for the creature. Spock, suspecting the creature may be a silicon-based lifeform, modifies their phasers to be effective against it, they encounter the creature, which has the appearance of molten rock, fire upon it, breaking a piece of its skin off. Spock analyzes the fragment, he deduces that it is able to burrow through solid rock by secreting the same corrosive substance that has killed the miners.
They adjust their tricorders to scan for silicon-based life, confirm that the creature is the only such lifeform for miles. Spock advises the captain that killing what appears to be the only creature of its species would be a crime against science, though Kirk believes that the creature has proven too dangerous to keep alive; as all nonessential personnel are evacuated from the colony before the temporary pump fails and Spock continue to search for the creature, happening upon a chamber containing thousands of the silicon nodules. The creature arrives, causing a cave-in that separates the creature from Spock. Though Spock now urges Kirk to kill it, Kirk observes the creature has not attacked him, instead presenting its wound to him. Spock joins Kirk, observing the creature. Spock perceives little but intense pain; the creature etches the words "NO KILL I" into the rock having gained some knowledge from the meld. Spock attempts a second meld, learns that the creature is called a Horta, that its species dies out every fifty thousand years, save for one individual that remains alive to protect the eggs of the next generation.
The Horta, through Spock, tells them the location of the stolen pump. Vanderberg and the remaining miners threaten to attack the creature when they see Kirk and McCoy caring for it, but Kirk explains that it was only protecting its eggs, the silicon nodules they have found; the miners fear the prospect of thousands of Horta, but Kirk convinces them that the Horta are peaceful and would be willing to cooperate with the miners. Kirk, McCoy return to the Enterprise, prepare to leave orbit, learn from Vanderberg that the eggs have hatched and the new Horta have found uncovered rich veins of pergium and other valuable metals, he adds. Spock remarks that the mother Horta felt about humans, though she found his pointed ears quite attractive; the Horta was played by stuntman and acrobat Janos Prohaska, who designed the costume. Prohaska was promised that if he created something good enough, the producers would rent the costume and pay Prohaska to play the part. Episode writer Gene Coon was convinced of the costume's effectiveness after an impromptu demonstration by Prohaska in the studios.
William Shatner says. His father died during its filming, but Shatner insisted on going through with production, felt closer to the cast and crew for helping him through the difficult time; this episode marks the first appearance of Doctor McCoy's catchphrase, "I'm a doctor, not a!" In this case, the line is, "I'm a doctor, not a bricklayer!", said by McCoy when Kirk orders him to heal the Horta. The catchphrase has become so indelibly associated with Star Trek doctors that in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Doctor's Orders," Dr. Phlox, facing the challenge of firing up the warp reactor by himself and engaging the warp drive, blurted out, "I'm a physician, not an engineer!" Zack Handlen of The A. V. Club gave the episode an'A' rating, describing it as a classic and noting the well-written roles of Kirk, Spock and McCoy. "Home Soil", the eighteenth episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, where a occurring crystalline lifeform is encountered HORTA — a backronym used in the mining industry, based on the Horta in this Star Trek episode "The Devil in the Dark" at StarTrek.com "The Dev
A huerta or horta, from Latin hortus, "garden", is a fertile area, or a field within a fertile area, common in Spain and Portugal, where a variety of common vegetables and fruit trees are cultivated for family consumption and sale. Huertas belong to different people, huertas are located in groups, or around rivers or other water sources because of the amount of irrigation required, it is a kind of market garden. Elinor Ostrom has defined huertas as "well-demarked irrigation areas surrounding or near towns". Acequia Irrigation district Glick, Thomas F. 1970. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Maass and Raymond Lloyd Anderson. 1978....and the Desert Shall Rejoice: Conflict and Justice in Arid Environments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262131346 Ostrom, Elinor. "Huerta Irrigation Institutions." Pp.69-82 in Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107569782