Livingston Manor, New York
Livingston Manor is a hamlet in Sullivan County, New York, United States. The population was 1,221 at the 2010 census. Livingston Manor is located in the southern part of the town of Rockland. New York State Route 17 runs by it. In the late 19th century, this community renamed itself as Livingston Manor, after descendants of the prominent Livingston family who had a house there, but it was not part of the original manor, a huge estate granted by the English Crown about 60 miles east in present-day Dutchess and Columbia counties. That extended on both sides of the Hudson River. In the early 18th century, the original manor was the site of work camps along the Hudson, where Palatine German refugees worked off their passage to New York paid by the Crown, they produced timber and supplies for the English navy. They were allowed to settle in the Schoharie and Mohawk valleys; the Sullivan County community was part of the Hardenbergh patent in 1716, which included much of the Catskill Mountains. In 1750 Robert Livingston bought 95,000 acres in this area, shortly after becoming the third Lord of the Manor of Livingston Manor.
He sold or leased most of the land by 1780. Robert's third son, John Robert Livingston, deeded 8,441 acres to his nephew, Dr. Edward R. Livingston, in 1822 around the area called Purvis, New York. Edward Livingston died in 1864. Purvis residents in 1882 chose the new name of Livingston Manor. Edward Livingston's residence, according to a sign in the village, was on a site now occupied by the village firehouse. Another town source says that it was on a site developed as the Rockland, New York Town Hall. In the 1930s a Livingston descendant arrived in Livingston Manor claiming title to his ancestral land, held by tenants under lease, he won his case in court. The people whose ancestors had been tenants had to purchase the property they had been living on for years. Other early settlers were the Benton family, their immigrant ancestors had come from Essex, England, in the mid-17th century, settling in Guilford, Connecticut. Records show some of their descendants migrated to in Sullivan County in the late 18th century from Connecticut, purchasing a large tract of land in what is now known as the Township of Liberty.
They were Scots-Irish in ancestry. They took on many jobs in Sullivan County. Other families who acquired land and settled in the surrounding area were the Bascoms, Wests, Williams, Motts, Darbees, Woodards and Joselyns; some descendants of these families still reside in the area. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the village attracted immigrants from eastern Europe. Ashkenazy Jewish immigrants founded the Agudas Achim Synagogue, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1998. The area claims to be the "birthplace of fly-fishing in the United States" because of trout fishing on the 27-mile -long Willowemoc Creek, it flows between Roscoe, New York, where it intersects the Beaver Kill. The Catskill Fly Fishing Center and Museum is on the north edge of the town on the Willowemoc Creek. Today fish stocks in the Catskills are managed by state wildlife agents. All of the stocked fish for the Catskills, as well all the reservoirs in the New York City water supply, are bred at the Catskill Fish Hatchery just northeast of Livingston Manor in DeBruce, New York.
Since 2004, the community has sponsored an annual Trout Parade. It has been compared to the Mermaid Parade. Livingston Manor Central School District manages the public schools in the township, they consist of Livingston Manor Elementary School. Livingston Manor's Varsity softball team won the Class D Section 9 State title in 2010 and 2011; the Boys Varsity baseball team won the Class D Section 9 State title in 2011. Livingston Manor is located at 41°53′46″N 74°49′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.1 square miles, all land. The downtown of Livingston Manor along Main Street, has several restaurants, a large grocery store, several art and antique shops, it is the scene of an annual "trout parade" in June that draws marching bands, fire trucks and other local amusements. The Catskill Art Society runs a non-profit multi-arts venue on Main Street, the CAS Arts Center, which offers exhibits on view in their galleries and fine arts classes to the community.
The Willowemoc Creek that runs through town cause flooding issues with the rain and storms that hit Livingston Manor. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,355 people, 515 households, 330 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 437.6 per square mile. There were 619 housing units at an average density of 199.9/mi2. The racial makeup of the CDP was 85.39% White, 6.20% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 5.09% from other races, 2.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.81% of the population. There were 515 households out of which 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.4% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.21. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
Administrative divisions of New York (state)
The administrative divisions of New York are the various units of government that provide local government services in the state of New York. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages. Cities and villages are municipal corporations with their own governments that provide most local government services. Whether a municipality is defined as a city, town, or village is dependent not on population or land area, but rather on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the state legislature; each such government is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York has various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are local governments, such as school and fire districts. New York has 62 counties, which are subdivided into 62 cities. In total, the state has more than 3,400 active local governments and more than 4,200 taxing jurisdictions. Counties and incorporated municipal governments in New York State have been granted broad home rule powers enabling them to provide services to their residents and to regulate the quality of life within their jurisdictions.
They do so while adhering to the United States Constitution and the Constitution of the State of New York. Articles VIII and IX of the state constitution establish the rights and responsibilities of the municipal governments; the New York State Constitution provides for democratically elected legislative bodies for counties, cities and villages. These legislative bodies are granted the power to enact local laws as needed in order to provide services to their citizens and fulfill their various obligations; the county is the primary administrative division of New York. There are sixty-two counties in the state. Five of the counties are boroughs of the city of New York and do not have functioning county governments. While created as subdivisions of the state meant to carry out state functions, counties are now considered municipal corporations with the power and fiscal capacity to provide an array of local government services; such services include law enforcement and public safety and health services, education.
Every county outside of New York City has a county seat, the location of county government. Nineteen counties operate under county charters, while 38 operate under the general provisions of the County Law. Although all counties have a certain latitude to govern themselves, "charter counties" are afforded greater home rule powers; the charter counties are Albany, Chautauqua, Dutchess, Herkimer, Nassau, Onondaga, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, Tompkins and Westchester. Sixteen counties are governed through an assembly with the power of a board of supervisors, composed of the supervisors of its constituent towns and cities. In most of these counties, each supervisor's vote is weighted in accordance with the town's population in order to abide by the U. S. Supreme Court mandate of "one person, one vote". Other counties have legislative districts of equal population. Most counties in New York do not use the term "Board of Supervisors." 34 counties have a County Legislature, six counties have a Board of Legislators, one county has a Board of Representatives.
The five counties, or boroughs, of New York City are governed by a 51-member City Council. In non-charter counties, the legislative body exercises executive power as well. Although the legislature can delegate certain functions and duties to a county administrator, who acts on behalf of the legislature, the legislature must maintain ultimate control over the actions of the administrator. Many, but not all, charter counties have an elected executive, independent of the legislature. In New York, each city is a autonomous incorporated area that, with the exceptions of New York City and Geneva, is contained within one county. Cities in New York are classified by the U. S. Census Bureau as incorporated places, they provide all services to their residents and have the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over their residents. The main difference between a city and a village is that cities are organized and governed according to their charters, which can differ among cities, while most villages are subject to a uniform statewide Village Law.
Villages are part of a town, with residents who pay taxes to and receive services from the town. Cities are neither part of nor subordinate to towns except for the city of Sherrill, which for some purposes is treated as if it were a village of the town of Vernon; some cities are surrounded by a town of the same name. There are sixty-two cities in the state; as of 2000, 54.1% of state residents were living in a city. In 1686, the English colonial governor granted the cities of New York and Albany city charters, which were recognized by the first State Constitution in 1777. All other cities have been established by act of the state legislature and have been granted a charter. Cities have been granted the power to revise the
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Narrowsburg, New York
Narrowsburg is a hamlet in Sullivan County, New York, United States. The population was 431 at the 2010 census. Narrowsburg is in the western part of the Town of Tusten at the junction of Routes 52 and 97; the community was first called "Homans Eddy" after the first settler in the town. The Arlington Hotel, Kirk House, Narrowsburg Methodist Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Narrowsburg is located at 41°36′25″N 75°3′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.5 square miles, of which, 1.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The community is on the east shore of the Delaware River, adjacent to the border of Pennsylvania, it is between the Pocono Mountains. As of the census of 2010, there were 431 people, 190 households, 119 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 300.7 per square mile. There were 254 housing units at an average density of 184.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.9% White, 1.6% African American, 2.6% Asian, 1.6% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0% of the population. There were 189 households out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.8% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.6% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.80. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.7% under the age of 18, 3.6% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 24.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $35,694, the median income for a family was $44,688. Males had a median income of $33,500 versus $26,563 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,577. About 5.3% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.3% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over.
Narrowsburg is the home of the Delaware Valley Arts Alliance, the Arts Council for Sullivan County, which offers art exhibitions, Big Eddy Film Festival and concerts at the Tusten Theatre. Art gallery Forage Space is located at Narrowsburg. Featuring new artists each month, with openings every second Saturday. Ten Mile River Boy Scout Camp Forage Space Art Gallery Narrowsburg Chamber of Commerce Town of Tusten Upper Delaware River Photography Delaware Valley Opera
Sullivan County, New York
Sullivan County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,547; the county seat is Monticello. The county's name honors Major General John Sullivan, a hero in the American Revolutionary War; the county was the site of hundreds of Borscht Belt hotels and resorts, which had their heyday from the 1920s through the 1970s. In 2010, New York's center of population was at the southern edge of Sullivan County; when the Province of New York established its first twelve counties in 1683, the present Sullivan County was part of Ulster County. In 1809, Sullivan County was split from Ulster County. In the late 19th century, the Industrial Revolution and the advent of factories driven by water power along the streams and rivers led to an increase in population attracted to the jobs. Hamlets enlarged into towns; as industry restructured, many of those jobs left before the middle of the twentieth century. The economy changed again after that, shifting to a more tourist-based variety and benefiting from resorts established by European Jewish immigrants and their descendants in what became called the Borscht Belt of the 20th century.
Resort hotels featured a wide variety of some nationally known. At the beginning of this period, visitors traveled to the area by train, by automobile; the area's natural resources provided a setting for numerous summer camps frequented by the children of immigrants and their descendants. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 997 square miles, of which 968 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water. Sullivan County is in the southern part of New York State, southeast of Binghamton and southwest of Albany, it is separated from Pennsylvania along its southwest boundary by the Delaware River. The county, which starts about 70 miles northwest of New York City, is in the Catskill Mountains, its northeastern corner is within the Catskill Park. The highest point in the county is a 3,118-foot peak unofficially known as Beech Mountain, near Hodge Pond, a subsidiary summit to Mongaup Mountain across the Ulster County line; the lowest point is along the Delaware River.
Delaware County - north Ulster County - northeast Orange County - southeast Pike County, Pennsylvania - southwest Wayne County, Pennsylvania - west Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Sullivan County is a swing county, backing the national winner in all but 2 presidential elections from 1952 to the present. In 2004, Republican George Bush defeated Democrat John Kerry by a margin of 49.47% to 48.55% or a difference of 285 votes. In 2008, however, it was won by Democrat Barack Obama over Republican John McCain by a margin of 54% to 45%. In 2016, it was won by Republican Donald Trump over Democrat Hillary Clinton by a margin of 53% to 42%. There are thirty six village courts in Sullivan County. Legislative authority is vested in the county legislature which consists of 9 members each elected from single member districts. There are 5 Republican and 4 Democrats; as of the census of 2000, there were 73,966 people, 27,661 households, 18,311 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile.
There were 44,730 housing units at an average density of 46 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.31% White, 8.51% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 1.12% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.89% from other races, 1.87% from two or more races. 9.25% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.6% were of German, 13.9% Irish, 12.5% Italian, 7.3% American and 6.2% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 86.6% spoke English, 7.4% Spanish and 1.0% German as their first language. A small population of Russians, late twentieth-century immigrants, live in the villages. There were 27,661 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.10% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.80% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 7.30% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, 14.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 103.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,998, the median income for a family was $43,458. Males had a median income of $36,110 versus $25,754 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,892. About 11.60% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.60% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. Eldred Central Schools Fallsburg Central Schools Liberty Central School District Livingston Manor Central School District Monticello Central Schools Roscoe Central Schools Sullivan West Central School Tri-Valley Central School Sullivan County Community College is located in the hamlet of Loch Sheldrake in the town of Fallsburg.
Sullivan County has some service provided by Coach USA to New York City. It has some local service provided by the county itself, as well as community organizations. Sullivan County has been a popular vacation spot since the 19th Century, with mountain climbing and other outdoor activities, the Monticello Raceway being among the attractions; the majority of the tourism occurs in the summer months. It was the site of the hundreds of resort complexes of the Borscht Belt (with their golf courses, social e
Woodridge, New York
Woodridge is a village in Sullivan County, New York, United States. The population was 847 at the 2010 census; the Village of Woodridge is in the Town of Fallsburg at the junction of Routes 53, 54, 58, 158. The postal code is 12789; the village was called "Centreville." A history of the village, Centreville to Woodridge by Erna W. Elliott, was published by Exposition Press in 1976. Centreville was a station stop along the old New York and Western Railway Woodridge is located in the Catskills Borscht Belt resort area. In its heyday it was home to numerous summer hotels, bungalow colonies, boarding houses. Fallsburgh Central School's High School was in Woodridge; the last graduating class was in 1958. The new High School was built in Fallsburg. During the 1950s, Woodridge had: 4 Bars, 3 Hardware Stores, 2 Dental Offices, 1 Amusement Business, 6 Gasoline Stations, 3 Produce Markets, 2 Bus Lines, 5 Automobile Repair Shops, 5 Groceries, 1 Fish Market, 2 Taxi Services, 2 Dry Cleaners, 4 Luncheonettes, 2 Drug Stores, 1 Bank, 1 Movie Theatre, 3 Clothing Stores, 1 Liquor Store, 1 Shoe Store, 1 Steam Laundry, 2 Barber Shops, 3 Automobile Dealerships, 1 Mattress Manufacturer, 3 Butcher Shops, 2 Medical Doctor's Offices, 3 Lumber Yards, In addition, there were numerous trades and professionals including: painters, electricians, carpenters, auto body repair, CPAs, lawyers, flooring contractors, sign painters and chicken dealers.
A small percentage of the permanent population is still Orthodox Jewish. There are two active synagogues in Woodridge as of today. Ohave Shalom Synagogue was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. K'hal Yerim of Woodridge on 25 Highland Avenue was founded in 1985 by the Grand Rabbi Yitzchok Lebovits. On July 16, 2010, an eruv was erected in Woodridge under the supervision of Rabbi Yechiel Steinmetz of Monsey, New York. Rabbi Yechiel Steinmetz's Eruv was functional only for that summer. Silver Lake Dam was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. Palms Hotel Olympic Hotel Avon Lodge Glory Hotel Hotel Israel Vegetarian Hotel The Biltmore Sunny Oaks The Claremore Country Club Sunny Acres Dude Ranch The Rosemond The Alamac Country Club Rubinstein's Hotel Saperstein's Bungalow's Hotel Weingerson Shines Hotel Mayor- Joan Collins Trustees- Ronald Kates, Yits Kantrowitz, Leni Binder, Steve Levy Village Clerk- Myra Bennett Village Justice- Eddie Hernandez Acting Village Justice- Bart Rasnick Justice Court Clerk- Amanda Dole Woodridge is located at 41°42′29″N 74°34′11″W.
Woodridge is bordered by the Hamlet of Fallsburg or Old Falls, the Hamlet of Mountaindale, the Hamlet of Glen Wild. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which, 1.5 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 902 people, 351 households, 228 families residing in the village; the population density was 583.9 people per square mile. There were 473 housing units at an average density of 306.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 72.84% White, 12.42% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.00% Asian, 0.22% Pacific Islander, 8.98% from other races, 4.32% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.61% of the population. There were 351 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.10. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $23,750, the median income for a family was $29,167. Males had a median income of $30,357 versus $25,694 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,993. About 25.4% of families and 31.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.9% of those under age 18 and 24.4% of those age 65 or over
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai