Injection moulding is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould. Injection moulding can be performed with a host of materials including metals, elastomers and most thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Material for the part is fed into a heated barrel and injected into a mould cavity, where it cools and hardens to the configuration of the cavity. After a product is designed by an industrial designer or an engineer, moulds are made by a mould-maker from metal either steel or aluminium, precision-machined to form the features of the desired part. Injection moulding is used for manufacturing a variety of parts, from the smallest components to entire body panels of cars. Advances in 3D printing technology, using photopolymers which do not melt during the injection moulding of some lower temperature thermoplastics, can be used for some simple injection moulds. Parts to be injection moulded must be carefully designed to facilitate the moulding process.
The versatility of injection moulding is facilitated by this breadth of design considerations and possibilities. Injection moulding is used to create many things such as wire spools, bottle caps, automotive parts and components, pocket combs, some musical instruments, one-piece chairs and small tables, storage containers, mechanical parts, most other plastic products available today. Injection moulding is the most common modern method of manufacturing plastic parts. Injection moulding uses a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mould cavity, it is most used to process both thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, with the volume used of the former being higher. Thermoplastics are prevalent due to characteristics which make them suitable for injection moulding, such as the ease with which they may be recycled, their versatility allowing them to be used in a wide variety of applications, their ability to soften and flow upon heating. Thermoplastics have an element of safety over thermosets.
Injection moulding consists of the high pressure injection of the raw material into a mould which shapes the polymer into the desired shape. Moulds can be of multiple cavities. In multiple cavity moulds, each cavity can be identical and form the same parts or can be unique and form multiple different geometries during a single cycle. Moulds are made from tool steels, but stainless steels and aluminium moulds are suitable for certain applications. Aluminium moulds are ill-suited for high volume production or parts with narrow dimensional tolerances, as they have inferior mechanical properties and are more prone to wear and deformation during the injection and clamping cycles. Many steel moulds are designed to process well over a million parts during their lifetime and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to fabricate; when thermoplastics are moulded pelletised raw material is fed through a hopper into a heated barrel with a reciprocating screw. Upon entrance to the barrel, the temperature increases and the Van der Waals forces that resist relative flow of individual chains are weakened as a result of increased space between molecules at higher thermal energy states.
This process reduces its viscosity, which enables the polymer to flow with the driving force of the injection unit. The screw delivers the raw material forward and homogenises the thermal and viscous distributions of the polymer, reduces the required heating time by mechanically shearing the material and adding a significant amount of frictional heating to the polymer; the material feeds forward through a check valve and collects at the front of the screw into a volume known as a shot. A shot is the volume of material, used to fill the mould cavity, compensate for shrinkage, provide a cushion to transfer pressure from the screw to the mould cavity; when enough material has gathered, the material is forced at high pressure and velocity into the part forming cavity. The exact amount of shrinkage is a function of the resin being used, can be predictable. To prevent spikes in pressure, the process uses a transfer position corresponding to a 95–98% full cavity where the screw shifts from a constant velocity to a constant pressure control.
Injection times are well under 1 second. Once the screw reaches the transfer position the packing pressure is applied, which completes mould filling and compensates for thermal shrinkage, quite high for thermoplastics relative to many other materials; the packing pressure is applied until the gate solidifies. Due to its small size, the gate is the first place to solidify through its entire thickness. Once the gate solidifies, no more material can enter the cavity.
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
The mini-DIN connectors are a family of multi-pin electrical connectors used in a variety of applications. Mini-DIN is similar to the older DIN connector. Both are standards of the German standards body. Mini-DIN connectors are 9.5 millimetres in diameter and come in seven patterns, with the number of pins from three to nine. Each pattern is keyed in such a way that a plug with one pattern cannot be mated with any socket of another pattern. An important aspect of why each of these 7 mini-DIN connectors are official standards is that they are each drastically different from the other, with no and directly overlapping similarities in pin arrangement, square key size and position, circular shielding metal skirt notches and metallic additions - unlike the nonstandard mini-DIN connectors which may have directly overlapping characteristics to each other or to the standard mini-DIN connectors; the pin numbering for the plugs shown above is done left to bottom row to top row. Pin 1 will be on the lower left, the highest pin number will be on the upper right.
Some notable examples of standard mini-DIN connectors include: Mini-DIN-3 connectors were used in early implementations of Apple LocalTalk. Mini-DIN-4 connectors are used for S-video, were used for Apple Desktop Bus. Mini-DIN-6 connectors were used for IBM PC compatible PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports and for Acorn Archimedes keyboards. Mini-DIN-8 connectors were used for Sun Microsystems keyboard and mouse ports, as well as for serial printer and Apple LocalTalk connections, it was used as the game pad connector for the PC Engine video game system and its variants Mini-DIN-9 connectors were used for Acorn Archimedes Quadrature Mice and Microsoft InPort Bus Mice. It is used as the Audio/Video output port of Sega Genesis/Mega Drive gaming consoles on Model 2 variants, as well as their 32X addon. Mini-DIN-7 and Mini-DIN-9 connectors have been used for a variety of video applications. IRobot Roomba Vacuum cleaning robots use a Mini-DIN-7 to expose an interface for custom sensing and control. Mini-DIN-6 and Mini-DIN-8 connectors are used in ham radio applications to interface with computers for data packet communications and radio programming.
Several non-standard sockets are designed to mate with standard mini-DIN plugs. These connectors provide extra conductors, are used to save space by combining functions in one connector that would otherwise require two standard connectors. Other non-standard connectors mate only with their matching connectors, are mini-DIN connectors only in the sense of sharing the 9.5 mm plug body. These mini-DIN style plugs are not approved by the Deutsches Institut für Normung, the German standards body, many applications could be considered proprietary. JVC Mini-DIN 8 Allen-Bradley Micrologix PLC Mini-DIN 8 Beyerdynamic microphone connector Some 3-pin and 4-pin DC power connectors look similar enough to Mini-DIN connectors to be erroneously referred to as "Mini-DIN" connectors sometimes. DIN connector DC connector S-Video
Yao is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on April 1, 1948; as of 2017, the city has an estimated population of 268,013 and a population density of 6,400 persons per km². The total area is 41.71 km². Yao is home to Yao Airport; the city is the birthplace of the Kawachi ondo style of folk singing. A festival of the style held. Yao Airport West Japan Railway Company Yamatoji Line: Shiki Station - Yao Station - Kyuhoji Station Kintetsu Railway Osaka Line: Kyuhojiguchi Station - Kintetsu Yao Station - Kawachi-Yamamoto Station - Takayasu Station - Onji Station Shigi Line: Hattorigawa Station - Shigisanguchi Station Nishi-Shigi Cable Line: Takayasuyama Station Osaka Metro Tanimachi Line: Yaominami Station Kinki Expressway Route 25 Route 170 Taiseishōgun-ji, Buddhist temple founded in 587 Usa, Ōita Wake, Okayama Shingu, Wakayama Gojo, Nara Bellevue, Washington, U. S. - Sister city agreement concluded in 1969 Jiading District, China - Sister city agreement concluded in 1986 Dōkyō, Buddhist monk Toyokawa Etsushi, actor Kawachiya Kikusuimaru, musician Masumi Kuwata, former baseball player Takashi Miike, film director Tokushichi Nomura, founder of the Nomura zaibatsu Yui Okada, singer Jimmy Onishi and comedian Noboru Rokuda, manga artist Shota Shimizu, singer Tawa Kazue, painter artist Yao City official website Yao Monozukuri Net is the place to search and contact for manufacturing businesses in Yao City
National Health Service
The NHS in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, the affiliated Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War. The founding principles were that services should be comprehensive and free at the point of delivery; each service provides a comprehensive range of health services, free at the point of use for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom, apart from dental treatment and optical care. Dr Somerville Hastings, President of the Socialist Medical Association proposed a resolution at the 1934 Labour Party Conference that the party should be committed to the establishment of a State Health Service. Conservative MP and Health Minister, Henry Willink, first proposed the National Health Service in 1944 with the publication of a White Paper "A National Health Service", distributed in full and short versions as well as in newsreel by Henry Willink himself. Henry Willink's National Health Service received cross party support and became Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, the Northern Ireland Parliament's Public Health Services Act 1947.
NHS Wales was split from NHS in 1969 when control was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales before transferring to the Welsh Executive and Assembly under devolution in 1999. Calls for a "unified medical service" can be dated back to the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909, but it was following the 1942 Beveridge Report's recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease" that cross-party consensus emerged on introducing a National Health Service of some description; when Clement Attlee's Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the official historian of the NHS, Charles Webster, called an "audacious campaign" to take charge of the form the NHS took; the NHS was born out of the ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. Although being accessible regardless of wealth maintained Henry Willink's principle of free healthcare for all, Conservative MPs were in favour of maintaining local administration of the NHS through existing arrangements with local authorities fearing that an NHS which owned hospitals on a national scale would lose the personal relationship between doctor and patient.
Conservative MPs voted in favour of their amendment to Bevan's Bill to maintain local control and ownership of hospitals and against Bevan's plan for national ownership of all hospitals. The Labour government defeated Conservative amendments and went ahead with the NHS as it remains today. Bevan's principle of ownership with no private sector involvement has since been diluted, with Labour governments implementing large scale financing arrangements with private builders in private finance initiatives and joint ventures. At its launch by Bevan on 5 July 1948 it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses; the following year, Winston Churchill's Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history. From its earliest days, the cultural history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons and literature; the NHS had a prominent slot during the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony directed by Danny Boyle, being described as "the institution which more than any other unites our nation". Each of the UK's health service systems operates independently, is politically accountable to the relevant government: the Scottish Government. NHS Wales was part of the same structure as that of England until powers over the NHS in Wales were firstly transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969 and thereafter, in 1999, to the Welsh Assembly as part of Welsh devolution; some functions may be performed by one health service on behalf of another. For example, Northern Ireland has no high-security psychiatric hospitals and depends on hospitals in Great Britain at Carstairs hospital in Scotland for male patients and Rampton Secure Hospital in England for female patients.
Patients in North Wales use specialist facilities in Manchester and Liverpool which are much closer than facilities in Cardiff, more routine services at the Countess of Chester Hospital. There have been issues about cross-border payments. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043; this broke down into 1,789,586 in England, 198,368 in Scotland, 110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. In 2017, there were 691,000 nurses registered in the UK, down 1,783 from the previous year. However, this is the first time nursing numbers have fallen since 2008. Although there has been increasing policy divergence between the four National Health Services in the UK, it can b