San Miguel de Allende
San Miguel de Allende is the name of a municipality and its principal city, both located in the far eastern part of Guanajuato, Mexico. A part of the Bajío region, the city lies 274 km from Mexico City, 86 km from Querétaro, 97 km from the state capital of Guanajuato; the city's name derives from two persons: 16th-century friar Juan de San Miguel, a martyr of Mexican Independence, Ignacio Allende, born in a house facing the city's central plaza. San Miguel de Allende was a critical epicenter during the historic Chichimeca War where the Chichimeca Confederation defeated the Spanish Empire in the initial colonization war. Today, an old section of the town is part of a proclaimed World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists and new residents from abroad every year. At the beginning of the 20th century, the town was in danger of becoming a ghost town after an influenza pandemic, its Baroque/Neoclassical colonial structures were "discovered" by foreign artists who moved in and began art and cultural institutes such as the Instituto Allende and the Escuela de Bellas Artes.
This gave the town a reputation, attracting artists such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, who taught painting. This attracted foreign art students former U. S. soldiers studying on the G. I. Bill after the Second World War. Since the town has attracted a significant number of foreign retirees, artists and tourists, which has shifted the area's economy from agriculture and industry to commerce catering to outside visitors and residents; the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization designated the Protective town of San Miguel and the Sanctuary of Jesús Nazareno de Atotonilco as a World Heritage Site in 2008. The area of designation includes part of the town San Miguel de Allende and part of the town of Atotonilco, which are about 14 kilometers apart; the World Heritage Site is highlighted by a core zone of 43 hectares in San Miguel de Allende's well-preserved historic center, filled with buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries. The other part of the World Heritage Site fourteen kilometers north, at the Sanctuary of Atotonilco, which has a core zone of.75 hectares surrounded by a buffer zone of about 4.5 hectares.
Before the arrival of the Spanish in the early 16th century, San Miguel was an indigenous Chichimeca village called Izcuinapan. A small chapel was built near Izcuinapan by Juan de San Miguel, he decided to dedicate the Spanish town to the Archangel Michael. However, Spanish colonization and attempts to enslave women and children to work the silver mines created a hostile environment with the Chichimeca Confederation natives; the Chichimecas began defending their ancestral lands against invasion by Spanish soldiers and colonizers. In 1551, the Guamare people of the Chichimeca Confederation attacked Spanish military posts and settlements; this overt hostility, along with multiple failed attempts by the Spanish to provide water to their own settlements in the area, caused the original location to be pushed out. The village was re-established in 1555 by Juan de San Miguel's successor, Bernardo Cossin, indigenous leader Fernando de Tapia, it was refounded both as a military outpost. The new site was a mile east of the old one at a place with two fresh water springs and with terrain better suited for defense.
The two springs supplied all of the town's water until the 1970s. By the mid-16th century, silver had been discovered in Guanajuato and Zacatecas, a major road between this area and Mexico City passed through San Miguel. Indigenous attacks on caravans continued and San Miguel became an important military and commercial site; this led to the forty-year Chichimeca War. The viceroy in Mexico City granted lands and cattle to a number of Spaniards to motivate them to settle the area, he gave indigenous groups limited self-rule and excused them from taxation. The location of the town would make it a melting pot as Spanish, indigenous peoples, criollos exchanged cultural influences. Major roads would connect the town with the mining communities in San Luis Potosí, the rest of the state of Guanajuato. Serving travelers' needs and providing supplies to mining camps made the town rich. Textile manufacture was a major industry in the town. Locals claim. By the mid-18th century the city was at its height, this was when most of its large mansions and religious buildings were constructed.
Most still remain. The town was home to the area's wealthy hacienda owners. At that time, it was one of the most important and prosperous settlements in New Spain with a population reaching 30,000. By comparison, in the mid-18th century Boston had a population of only 16,000 and New York 25,000; the town's apogee came during the transition period between Baroque and Neoclassical architecture, many of the mansions and churches show both influences. Mansions built in San Miguel are larger than normal for a settlement of its size; the prominence of the city declined at the beginning of the 19th century due to the Mexican War of Independence. However, it played an important early role in this conflict, it is the birthplace of two significant figures of Juan Aldama and Ignacio Allende. Both were involved in a conspiracy against the colonial government in Mexico City, along with Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez; when this conspiracy was discovered, the warning to Hidalgo and Allende passed through this town and onto Dolores, just to the north.
This prompted Hidalgo's "Grito de Dolores" assembling the insurgent army on 15 and 16 September 1810. The
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
An orphanage was a residential institution, or group home, devoted to the care of orphans and other children who were separated from their biological families. Examples of what would cause a child to be placed in orphanages are when the biological parents were deceased, the biological family was abusive to the child, there was substance abuse or mental illness in the biological home, detrimental to the child, or the parents had to leave to work elsewhere and were unable or unwilling to take the child; the role of legal responsibility for the support of children whose parent have died or are otherwise unable to provide care differs internationally. The use of government-run orphanages has been phased out in the United States, the United Kingdom, in the European Union member-states during the latter half of the 20th century but continue to operate in many other regions internationally. While the term "orphanage" is no longer used in the United States, nearly every US state continues to operate residential group homes for children in need of a safe place to live and in which to be supported in their educational and life-skills pursuits.
Homes like the Milton Hershey School in Pennsylvania, Mooseheart in Illinois and the Crossnore School and Children's Home in North Carolina continue to provide care and support for children in need. While a place like the Milton Hershey School houses nearly 2,000 children, each child lives in a small group-home environment with "house parents" who live many years in that home. Children who grow up in these residential homes have higher rates of high school and college graduation than those who spend equivalent numbers of years in the US Foster Care system, wherein only 44 to 66 percent of children graduate from high school. Research from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project is cited as demonstrating that residential institutions negatively impact the wellbeing of children; the BEIP selected orphanages in Bucharest, Romania that raised abandoned children in and deprived environments in order to study the changes in development of infants and children after they had been placed with specially trained foster families in the local community.
This powerful study demonstrated how the lack of loving attention provided to children by their parents or caregivers is pivotal for optimal human development of the brain. Further research of children who were adopted from institutions in Eastern European countries to the US demonstrated that for every 3.5 months that an infant spent in the institution, they lagged behind their peers in growth by 1 month. Further, a meta-analysis of research on the IQs of children in orphanages found lower IQs among the children in many institutions, but this result was not found in the low-income country setting. Worldwide, residential institutions like orphanages can be detrimental to the psychological development of affected children. In countries where orphanages are no longer in use, the long-term care of unwarded children by the state has been transitioned to a domestic environment, with an emphasis on replicating a family home. Many of these countries, such as the United States, utilize a system of monetary stipends paid to foster parents to incentivize and subsidize the care of state wards in private homes.
A distinction must be made between foster care and adoption, as adoption would remove the child from the care of the state and transfer the legal responsibility for that child's care to the adoptive parent and irrevocably, whereas in the case of foster care, the child would remain a ward of the state with the foster parent acting only as caregiver. Most children who live in orphanages are not orphans. Developing countries and their governments rely on kinship care to aid in the orphan crisis, because it is cheaper to financially help extended families in taking in an orphaned child it is to institutionalize them. Additionally, developing nations are lacking in child welfare and their well-being because of lack of resources. Research, being collected in the developing world shows that these countries focus purely on survival indicators instead of a combination of their survival and other positive indicators like a developed nation would do; this speaks to the way that many developed countries treat an orphan crisis, as the only focus is to obtain a way to insure their survival.
In the developed nations orphans can expect to find not only a home but these countries will try an ensure a secure future as well. Furthermore, orphans in developing nations are seen as a problem that needs to be solved, this makes them vulnerable to exploitation or neglect. In Pakistan, alternative care for orphans falls on to extended families and Pakistan society as the government feels puts the burden of caring for orphans on them. Although it is common for Pakistan citizens to take in orphans because of their culture and religion only orphans whose parents have died are taken in; this neglects a population of children who need alternative care either due to abuse or parents who are unable to care for their child because of poverty, mental, or physical issues. A few large international charities continue to fund orphanages, but most are still founded by smaller charities and religious groups. In developing countries, orphanages may prey on vulnerable families at risk of breakdown and recruit children to ensure continued funding.
Orphanages in developing countries are run by the state. However, not all orphanages that are state-run are less corrupted.
Santiago de Querétaro, known as Querétaro, is the capital and largest city of the state of Querétaro, located in central Mexico. It is part of the macroregion of Bajío, it is located 213 kilometers northwest of Mexico City, 63 kilometers southeast of San Miguel de Allende and 200 kilometers south of San Luis Potosí. The city of Querétaro is divided into seven boroughs: Josefa Vergara y Hernández, Felipe Carrillo Puerto, Centro Histórico, Cayetano Rubio, Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Félix Osores Sotomayor and Epigmenio González. In 1996, the historic center of Querétaro was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Querétaro has been recognized as the metro area with the best quality of life and as the safest city in Mexico and as the most dynamic in Latin America, it is a strong business and economic centre and a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and economic revitalization. Querétaro has seen an outstanding economic development since the mid-1990s. Querétaro metropolitan area has the 2nd highest GDP per capita among Mexico's metropolitan areas with 20,000 USD after Monterrey.
The city is the fastest-growing in the country, basing its economy on IT and data centers, logistics services, aircraft manufacturing and maintenance, call centers, the automotive and machinery industries, the production of chemicals and food products. The region of Querétaro has a growing vineyards agriculture and hosts the famous wine producer from Spain Freixenet. Wine production in Querétaro is now the second largest in Mexico after that of the Baja California region. All this has caused the city and the metropolitan area to attract many migrants from other parts of Mexico. Querétaro is the host for major corporations such as Bombardier Aerospace, Kellogg's, Samsung Electronics, Colgate-Palmolive, Harman International Industries, General Electric, Tetra Pak, Siemens Mexico, New Holland, Faurecia, ABC Group, Autoliv, TRW Automotive, Valeo, Procter & Gamble, Nestlé, Pilgrim's Pride, Santander Bank's call center for Latin America, Mabe Mexico, Scania, Kostal, Dana, Dow Chemical, Alpha Hilex, Saint-Gobain, Flex-N-Gate, ThyssenKrupp, among others.
In the Otomi language, it is referred to as "Maxei" or "Ndamaxei", which means ball game and the grand ball game respectively. In the Purépecha language it is referred to as "Créttaro", meaning place of crags, referring to the rocky hills of La Cañada. In the Mendocino Codex the town is called Tlaxco, from the Nahuatl for ball game. However, Querétaro most comes from k'eri ireta rho, meaning place of the great people since during Aztec times about 15,000 people lived here. Querétaro has an Aztec glyph to represent it. In 1655, it received a coat of arms from the Spanish Crown; the word Querétaro was voted by 33,000 participants as "the most beautiful word in the Spanish language", before being approved by the Instituto Cervantes. In Pre-Columbian terminology, Querétaro means "the island of the blue salamanders." Other scholars suggest that it can mean "place of the reptiles" or "place of the giant rocks." The area was settled around A. D. 200 by Mesoamerican groups moving north, archeological sites here show Teotihuacan influences.
From the Classic Period, there were two population centers in this area called Ranas. The mountain now known as El Cerrito was a ceremonial center, but was abandoned for unknown reasons. In the pre-Hispanic period, the area was populated by the Otomi, who had become sedentary urban dwellers with sophisticated politics by the time of the Aztec Empire, who referred to them as the Tlacetilli Otomi or "Otomi Nation/State"; this area was under control of the Otomi dominion of Xilotepeque in the 1440s, which in turn was subject to the Aztec Empire of Mexihco-Tenochtitlan. Under the reign of Ahuizotl in the late 15th century, the Aztecs administered the area directly, considering it a bulwark against the Chichimeca lands to the north; the Otomi were the most populous ethnicity in Xilotepec although there were other groups Chichimeca as well. These two groups are still found here today. During the pre-Hispanic and colonial times, the Otomi were organized into familial clan like groups with defined territories, living in stone, wood or adobe dwellings.
They were sedentary farmers, who fought, but unlike the Aztecs, did not make warfare a large part of their culture. The foundation of the Spanish city of Santiago de Querétaro is pegged to 25 July 1531 when Spaniard Hernán Pérez Bocanegra y Córdoba arrived with the allied Otomi leader Conín, the administrative head of the Otomi peoples living in Aztec controlled territory. On this date, the Spanish and their Nahuan allies were battling the local insurgent Otomi and Chichimecas at a hill now known as Sangremal and, called Ynlotepeque and considered sacred in pre-Hispanic times. Chronicles of this event, such as that written by Friar Isidro Félix de Espinoza, state that the Chichimeca were at the point of winning when a total eclipse of the sun occurred; this scared the Chichimeca and the Spanish claimed to have seen an image of Saint James riding a white horse carrying a rose-colored cross. This event caused the Chichimeca to surrender; this event is. A stone cross imitating the one the Spanish saw was erected on the hill, accompanied by a church and monastery.
Spanish dominion, however and was definitively not won th
World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area, selected by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization as having cultural, scientific or other form of significance, is protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance, it may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet. The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones; the list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 "states parties" that are elected by their General Assembly.
The programme catalogues and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund; the program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program; as of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China, France, Germany and Mexico. In 1954, the government of Egypt decided to build the new Aswan High Dam, whose resulting future reservoir would inundate a large stretch of the Nile valley containing cultural treasures of ancient Egypt and ancient Nubia. In 1959, the governments of Egypt and Sudan requested UNESCO to assist their countries to protect and rescue the endangered monuments and sites.
In 1960, the Director-General of UNESCO launched an appeal to the member states for an International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia. This appeal resulted in the excavation and recording of hundreds of sites, the recovery of thousands of objects, as well as the salvage and relocation to higher ground of a number of important temples, the most famous of which are the temple complexes of Abu Simbel and Philae; the campaign, which ended in 1980, was considered a success. As tokens of its gratitude to countries which contributed to the campaign's success, Egypt donated four temples: the Temple of Dendur was moved to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Temple of Debod was moved to the Parque del Oeste in Madrid, the Temple of Taffeh was moved to the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden in the Netherlands, the Temple of Ellesyia to Museo Egizio in Turin; the project cost $80 million, about $40 million of, collected from 50 countries. The project's success led to other safeguarding campaigns: saving Venice and its lagoon in Italy, the ruins of Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan, the Borobodur Temple Compounds in Indonesia.
UNESCO initiated, with the International Council on Monuments and Sites, a draft convention to protect the common cultural heritage of humanity. The United States initiated the idea of cultural conservation with nature conservation; the White House conference in 1965 called for a "World Heritage Trust" to preserve "the world's superb natural and scenic areas and historic sites for the present and the future of the entire world citizenry". The International Union for Conservation of Nature developed similar proposals in 1968, they were presented in 1972 to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. Under the World Heritage Committee, signatory countries are required to produce and submit periodic data reporting providing the World Heritage Committee with an overview of each participating nation's implementation of the World Heritage Convention and a "snapshot" of current conditions at World Heritage properties. A single text was agreed on by all parties, the "Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage" was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972.
The Convention came into force on 17 December 1975. As of May 2017, it has been ratified by 193 states parties, including 189 UN member states plus the Cook Islands, the Holy See and the State of Palestine. Only four UN member states have not ratified the Convention: Liechtenstein, Nauru and Tuvalu. A country must first list its significant natural sites. A country may not nominate sites. Next, it can place sites selected from that list into a Nomination File; the Nomination File is evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies make their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee; the Committee meets once per year to determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List and sometimes defers or refers the decision to request more information from the country which nominated the site. There are ten selection criteria – a site must meet at least one of them to be included on the list