Tigerland is a 2000 American war drama film directed by Joel Schumacher and starring Colin Farrell as Private Roland Bozz. It takes place in a training camp for soldiers to be sent to the Vietnam War. Tigerland was the name of a U. S. Army training camp during the mid-1960s to early 1970s located at Fort Polk, Louisiana as part of the U. S. Army Advanced Infantry Training Center; as the last stop for new infantrymen on their way to Vietnam, Tigerland was established in humid and muggy Fort Polk in order to mimic the environmental conditions of South Vietnam. While the film's setting is loosely based on Fort Polk, the film was filmed at Camp Blanding in Florida. In September 1971, the US is losing the Vietnam War. Roland Bozz, a draftee opposed to the war, is an unruly soldier with no respect for authority, he befriends another Army recruit, Jim Paxton, an aspiring writer who records his experiences in a journal. Unlike Bozz, Paxton volunteered. Upon reaching their post, company commanding officer Captain Saunders makes clear that every soldier who passes through Fort Polk will be sent to Vietnam.
He states that any political views on the war are irrelevant. Having "X-ray vision for loopholes", Bozz finds ways for soldiers to get out of the army — one because he not only has children but a handicapped wife. Bozz's natural leadership and ability earn him the title of squad leader. Another private, Wilson, a racial bigot and instigator, continuously demeans Bozz. Bozz fights Wilson. While doing live fire exercises, Wilson threatens Bozz with a pistol. Bozz tries to disarm Wilson, the two wrestle each other to the ground, Wilson getting the upper hand and putting the gun to the back of Bozz's head and pulling the trigger. Miraculously, the gun misfires. Saunders lets Bozz choose the punishment: have Wilson court-martialed or "let me deal with him" suggesting the latter. Bozz says he wants Wilson "out of the Army", because he recognizes Wilson has taken an emotional beating since his inability to command became obvious; the platoon is sent to "Tigerland", a forested training area designed as a replica of Vietnam.
During an exercise, Bozz's squad acts as villagers in a mock Vietnamese village, with one squad member designated as a Viet Cong sympathizer. They compete with another squad charged with rooting out the sympathizer; this other squad is led by Wilson, not kicked out after all. As the exercise ends with Bozz's squad "winning", Wilson tells Bozz he will kill him no matter what it takes. Soon thereafter, Bozz plans to escape to Mexico with the aid of some civilians. Platoon member Johnson tells tells him if he runs away, Wilson will kill Paxton instead. Bozz remains. During the last training exercise, the two squad are pitted against each other on patrolling missions; as Wilson's squad prepares for an attack, he replaces his blank cartridges with live ammunition and removes his blank-firing adaptor. As Bozz's squad nears, he opens fire. Though he does not hit anyone, it is obvious he is using live ammunition, the trainer for the exercise tries to intervene; as he does, Bozz is standing above Paxton and deliberately fires a blank round with his rifle muzzle near Paxton's face, the flash wounding Paxton's eye.
The trainer aims a pistol at Wilson's head to get him to hold his weapon up and surrender, telling him he will be court-martialed. The platoon gets ready to head to Vietnam, except for Paxton, whose eye injury, though not permanent, has earned him a medical discharge. Bozz and Paxton exchange farewells. Paxton tells Bozz he is going to write about him, he has stolen Paxton's journal and rips out pages as the platoon's bus drives off, leaving Paxton scrambling to recover them. Bozz tosses the journal. Paxton is told Bozz was never listed as such. Another soldier calls Paxton and says he thinks he saw Bozz three years ago in Mexico with a beautiful woman. Colin Farrell as Private Roland Bozz Matthew Davis as Private Jim Paxton Clifton Collins Jr. as Private Miter Shea Whigham as Private Wilson Cole Hauser as Staff Sergeant Cota Tom Guiry as Private Cantwell Neil Brown Jr. as Private Jamoa Kearns Tory Kittles as Private Ryan Nick Searcy as Captain Saunders Afemo Omilami as Sergeant First Class Ezra Landers Matt Gerald as Sergeant Eveland Michael Shannon as Sergeant Filmore James Macdonald as Staff Sgt.
Thomas Arian Ash as Sheri Tigerland received positive reviews from critics and has a "certified fresh" rating of 76% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 46 reviews with an average score of 7 out of 10. The consensus states "A great cast and the gritty feel of the film help elevate Tigerland above the familiarity of the subject matter." The film has a score of 55 out of 100 on Metacritic based on 14 reviews. Despite the positive critical reception and its US$10 million budget, the film hardly appeared at the box office, making $148,701 worldwide. Official website Tigerland on IMDb
Williamsburg is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bordered by Greenpoint to the north. As of the 2010 United States Census, the neighborhood's population is 32,926. Since the late 1990s, Williamsburg has undergone gentrification characterized by a contemporary art scene, hipster culture, vibrant nightlife that has projected its image internationally as a "Little Berlin". During the early 2000s, the neighborhood became a center for indie electroclash. Numerous ethnic groups still inhabit enclaves within the neighborhood, including Italians, Hispanics, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans. Williamsburg is part of Brooklyn Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 11211 and 11206, it is patrolled by the 94th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Politically it is represented by the New York City Council's 33rd District, which represents the western and southern parts of the neighborhood, the 34th District, which represents the eastern part. In 1638, the Dutch West India Company purchased the area's land from the Lenape Native Americans who occupied the area.
In 1661, the company chartered the Town of Boswijck, including land that would become Williamsburg. After the English takeover of New Netherland in 1664, the town's name was anglicized to Bushwick. During colonial times, villagers called the area "Bushwick Shore"; this name lasted for about 140 years. Bushwick Shore was cut off from the other villages in Bushwick by Bushwick Creek to the north and by Cripplebush, a region of thick, boggy shrub land which extended from Wallabout Creek to Newtown Creek, to the south and east. Bushwick residents called Bushwick Shore "the Strand". Farmers and gardeners from the other Bushwick villages sent their goods to Bushwick Shore to be ferried across the East River to New York City for sale via a market at present day Grand Street. Bushwick Shore's favorable location close to New York City led to the creation of several farming developments. In 1802, real estate speculator Richard M. Woodhull acquired 13 acres near what would become Metropolitan Avenue North 2nd Street.
He had Colonel Jonathan Williams, a U. S. Engineer, survey the property, named it Williamsburgh in his honor. A 13-acre development within Bushwick Shore, Williamsburg expanded during the first half of the nineteenth century and seceded from Bushwick and formed its own independent city. Williamsburg was incorporated as the Village of Williamsburgh within the Town of Bushwick in 1827. In two years it had a fire company, a post office and a population of over 1,000; the deep drafts along the East River encouraged industrialists, many from Germany, to build shipyards around Williamsburg. Raw material was shipped in, finished products were sent out of factories straight to the docks. Several sugar barons built processing refineries. Now all are gone except the now-defunct Domino Sugar. Other important industries included brewing. On April 18, 1835, the Village of Williamsburg annexed a portion of the Town of Bushwick; the Village consisted of three districts. The first district was called the "South Side".
The names "North Side" and "South Side" remain in common usage today, but the name for the Third District has changed often. The New Village became populated by Germans and for a time was known by the sobriquet of "Dutchtown". In 1845, the population of Williamsburgh was 11,500. Reflecting its increasing urbanization, Williamsburg separated from Bushwick as the Town of Williamsburg in 1840, it became the City of Williamsburg in 1852, organized into three wards. The old First Ward coincides with the South Side and the Second Ward with the North Side, with the modern boundary at Grand Street; the Third Ward was to the east of these, stretching from Union Avenue east to Bushwick Avenue beyond, Bushwick. In 1855, the City of Williamsburg, along with the adjoining Town of Bushwick, were annexed into the City of Brooklyn as the so-called Eastern District; the First Ward of Williamsburg became Brooklyn's 13th Ward, the Second Ward Brooklyn's 14th Ward, the Third Ward Brooklyn's 15th and 16th Wards. During its period as part of Brooklyn's Eastern District, the area achieved remarkable industrial and economic growth, local businesses thrived.
Wealthy New Yorkers such as Cornelius Vanderbilt and railroad magnate Jubilee Jim Fisk built shore-side mansions. Charles Pratt and his family founded the Pratt Institute, the great school of art & architecture, the Astral Oil Works, which became part of Standard Oil. Corning Glass Works was founded here before moving upstate to New York. German immigrant, chemist Charles Pfizer founded Pfizer Pharmaceutical in Williamsburg, the company maintained an industrial plant in the neighborhood through 2007, although its headquarters were moved to Manhattan in the 1960s. Brooklyn's Broadway, ending in the ferry to Manhattan, became the area's lifeline; the area proved popular for household product manufacturers. Factories for Domino Sugar, Esquire Shoe Polish, Dutch Mustard and many others were established in the late 19th and early 20th century. Many of these factory buildings are now being converted to non-industrial uses residential; the population was at first German, but many Jews from the Lower East side of Manhattan came to the area after the completion of the Williamsburg Bridge in 1903
Glam rock is a style of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s performed by musicians who wore outrageous costumes and hairstyles platform shoes and glitter. Glam artists drew on diverse sources across music and throwaway pop culture, ranging from bubblegum pop and 1950s rock and roll to cabaret, science fiction, complex art rock; the flamboyant clothing and visual styles of performers were camp or androgynous, have been described as playing with nontraditional gender roles. "Glitter rock" was another term used to refer to a more extreme version of glam. The UK charts were inundated with glam rock acts from 1971 to 1975, with glam manifesting in all areas of British popular culture during this period; the March 1971 appearance of T. Rex frontman Marc Bolan on the BBC's music show Top of the Pops, wearing glitter and satins, is cited as the beginning of the movement. Other British glam rock artists include David Bowie, Freddie Mercury of Queen, Mott the Hoople, Slade, Elton John, Roxy Music and Gary Glitter.
In the US the scene was much less prevalent, with Alice Cooper and Lou Reed the only American artists to score a hit. Other US glam artists include Iggy Pop and Jobriath, it declined after the mid-1970s, but influenced other musical genres including punk rock, glam metal, New Romantic and gothic rock. Glam rock has sporadically revived since the 1990s. Glam rock can be seen as a fashion as well as musical subgenre. Glam artists rejected the revolutionary rhetoric of the late 1960s rock scene, instead glorifying decadence and the simple structures of earlier pop music. Artists drew on such musical influences as bubblegum pop, the brash guitar riffs of hard rock, stomping rhythms, 1950s rock and roll, filtering them through the recording innovations of the late 1960s, it became diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art pop of Roxy Music. In its beginning, however, it was a youth-oriented reaction to the creeping dominance of progressive rock and concept albums – what Bomp! called the "overall denim dullness" of "a deadly boring, prematurely matured music scene".
Visually it was a mesh of various styles, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamour, through 1950s pin-up sex appeal, pre-war cabaret theatrics, Victorian literary and symbolist styles, science fiction, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology. Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny, beside extensive use of theatrics, it was prefigured by the flamboyant English composer Noël Coward his 1931 song "Mad Dogs and Englishmen", with music writer Daryl Easlea stating, "Noël Coward's influence on people like Bowie, Roxy Music and Cockney Rebel was immense. It suggested style and surface were as important as depth and substance. Time magazine noted Coward's'sense of personal style, a combination of cheek and chic and poise', it reads like a glam manifesto." Showmanship and gender identity manipulation acts included the Cockettes and Alice Cooper, the latter of which combined glam with shock rock. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of, a reaction against, those trends.
Its origins are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his acoustic duo T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Bolan was, in the words of music critic Ken Barnes, "the man who started it all". Cited as the moment of inception is Bolan's appearance on the BBC music show Top of the Pops in March 1971 wearing glitter and satins, to perform what would be his second UK Top 10 hit, "Hot Love"; the Independent states that Bolan's appearance on Top of the Pops “permitted a generation of teeny-boppers to begin playing with the idea of androgyny”. T. Rex's 1971 album. In 1973, a few months after the release of the album Tanx, Bolan captured the front cover of Melody Maker magazine with the declaration "Glam rock is dead!". From late 1971 a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional makeup and performance into his act. Bowie, in a 1972 interview in which he noted that other artists described as glam rock were doing different work, said "I think glam rock is a lovely way to categorize me and it's nicer to be one of the leaders of it".
Bolan and Bowie were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Slade, Mott the Hoople and Alvin Stardust. The popularity of glam rock in the UK was such that three glam rock bands had major UK Christmas hit singles. Glam was not only a successful trend in UK popular music, it became dominant in all other aspects of British popular culture during the 1970s. A heavier variant of glam rock, emphasising guitar riff centric songs, driving rhythms and live performance with audience participation, were represented by bands like Slade and Mott the Hoople, with followers such as Def Leppard, Cheap Trick, Kiss, Bon Jovi, Quiet Riot, some of which either covered Slade compositions or composed new songs based on Slade templates. While successful in the single charts in the UK few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the US.
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Palindromes is a 2004 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Todd Solondz. Referencing Solondz's previous Welcome to the Dollhouse, it was nominated for the Golden Lion award at the 61st Venice International Film Festival; the protagonist, a 13-year-old girl named Aviva, is played by eight different actors of different ages and genders during the course of the film, which features an array of secondary characters. The names of the characters Aviva and Otto are all palindromes; the film opens with a funeral for a young woman. Her older brother Mark reads the eulogy. Dawn's younger sister, does not attend the funeral. One of the attendees is Dawn's cousin. A few years Aviva desires to have a child, she has sex with Judah, a family friend, becomes pregnant. Aviva's parents demand that she get an abortion. While the abortion is technically successful, it is implied via a fractured, emotional conversation with the doctor that Aviva can no longer have children. Not conscious, Aviva is unaware of this, her parents fragile, lead her to believe all is well when she awakens, afraid to upset Aviva.
Aviva runs away from home. She has sex with him, she is found by the Sunshine Family, a Christian fundamentalist foster home that cares for disordered orphans and runaways. She tells them her name is Henrietta -- the name. While at the Sunshine Family home, she discovers a dark side to the foster father, his next target is the doctor. The hitman whom the foster father uses is the same trucker Aviva befriended and had sex with. Convinced she is in love with the truck driver, Aviva flees the Sunshine Family to join him on his assignment; the murder does not go as planned as, in addition to the doctor himself, the trucker ends up accidentally shooting the doctor's young daughter when she steps in front of the first shot. The police find Bob and Aviva both in a motel room, Bob commits suicide by cop; the film skips ahead several months to Aviva back home with her parents, planning her next birthday party. During the party, she talks to her cousin, arrested and accused of molesting his sister Missy's baby.
The film skips ahead to Aviva's meeting Judah, who now calls himself Otto, they have sex again. Once again, Aviva is happy about it. Palindromes is most notable for having eight different actors of different ages and genders play a 13-year-old girl named Aviva. Although Solondz's film premiered in official competition at the Venice Film Festival in 2004, it received little other laudatory notice and remains his most polarizing with critics. With regard to Solondz's employment of multiple performers to play a single character, film critic Roger Ebert wrote in his positive review, "If the movie is a moral labyrinth, it is paradoxically straightforward and powerful in the moment. Consider the pathos brought to Aviva by the actress Sharon Wilkins, a plus-size adult black woman playing a little girl, who creates the most convincing little girl of them all. Or Jennifer Jason Leigh, three times as old as Aviva but seeming her age; these individual segments are so effective that at the end of each one we know how we feel, why.
It's just that the next segment invalidates our conclusions." Contrarily, New York Times film critic A. O. Scott concluded in his negative review, " Aviva's appearance changes -- from black to white, from fat to thin, from brunette to redhead, at one point, to Jennifer Jason Leigh; the effect of this switching is to keep you off balance and at a remove from the story. That is not such a bad thing, because you will want to be as far away as possible." Matthew Faber as Mark Wiener Angela Pietropinto as Mrs. Wiener Bill Buell as Harvey Wiener Ellen Barkin as Joyce Victor Richard Masur as Steve Victor Hillary Bailey Smith as Robin Wallace Danton Stone as Bruce Wallace Robert Agri as First Judah John Gemberling as Second Judah Stephen Singer as Dr. Fleisher Stephen Adly Guirgis as Joe/Earl/Bob Debra Monk as Mama Sunshine Walter Bobbie as Bo Sunshine Tyler Maynard as Jiminy David Castro as Carlito Richard Riehle as Dr. Dan Maggie Moore as Voice of Christian narrator Sydney Matuszak Ell Emani Sledge Valerie Shusterov Hannah Freiman Rachel Corr Will Denton Sharon Wilkins Shayna Levine Jennifer Jason Leigh Palindromes holds a 43% rotten rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 120 reviews with an average rating of 5.31/10.
The site's critical consensus reads "Unique but cold". The film grossed $553,368 in the domestic box office and $707,269 worldwide after 23 weeks in theatrical release; the DVD was released on September 13, 2005. "Lullaby" "Up on a Cloud" "Piano Concerto No. 1 in B-flat minor, Op. 23" "Nobody Jesus But You" "Fight for the Children" "Doctor Dan" "Love Turned Blue" "Somebody Loved" "This Is the Way" List of film characters played cooperatively by mu
Post-punk is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, free jazz, disco. Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines developed around these pioneering musical scenes, which coalesced in cities such as London, New York, Melbourne and San Francisco; the early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups such as Siouxsie and the Banshees, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Pere Ubu, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Throbbing Gristle, the Slits, the Cure, the Fall, Au Pairs. The movement was related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, industrial music.
By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music. Post-punk is a diverse genre. Called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas. Sounds writer Jon Savage used "post-punk" in early 1978. NME writer Paul Morley stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself. At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick. Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma. Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave".
Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use... is possible". Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in years. Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd. Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward. Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and'rebranding'". Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up... but, that too much was left in".
Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement. Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring between 1978 and 1984, he advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility", suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation. AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk". Many post-punk artists were inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy, but became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, self-parody, they repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences. Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a white, working-class population and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.
These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form". Though the music varied between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist, hegemonic or rockist in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub, electronic music, noise, free jazz, world music, the avant-garde; some previous musical styles served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock, art rock, art pop and other music from the 1960s. Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories. Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as'sterile' studio perfectionism... by adopting an avant-garde aesth
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa