Hot rods are old, classic or modern American cars with large engines modified for faster speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. For example, some claim. Other origin stories include replacing the engine's camshaft or "rod" with a higher performance version. Hot rods were favorites for greasers; the term has broadened to apply to other items that are modified for a particular purpose, such as "hot-rodded amplifier". There are various theories about the origin of the term "hot rod"; the common theme is that "hot" related to "hotting up" a car, which means modifying it for greater performance. One theory is that "rod" means roadster, a lightweight 2-door car, used as the basis for early hot rods. Another theory is that "rod" refers to camshaft, a part of the engine, upgraded in order to increase power output. In the early days, a car modified for increased performance was called a "gow job"; this term morphed into the hot rod in the early to middle 1950s. The term "hot rod" has had various uses in relation to performance cars.
For example, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment in its vehicle emissions regulations, refers to a hot rod as any motorized vehicle that has a replacement engine differing from the factory original. The predecessors to the hotrod were the modified cars used in the Prohibition era by bootleggers to evade revenue agents and other law enforcement. Hot rods first appeared in the late 1930s in southern California, where people raced modified cars on dry lake beds northeast of Los Angeles, under the rules of the Southern California Timing Association, among other groups; this gained popularity after World War II in California, because many returning soldiers had received technical training. The first hot rods were old cars, modified to reduce weight. Engine swaps involved fitting the Ford flathead V8 engine into a different car, for example the common practice in the 1940s of installing the "60 horse" version into a Jeep chassis. Typical modifications were removal of convertible tops, bumpers, and/or fenders.
Wheels and tires were changed for improved handling. Hot rods built before 1945 used'35 Ford wire-spoke wheels. After World War II, many small military airports throughout the country were either abandoned or used, allowing hot rodders across the country to race on marked courses. Drag racing had tracks as long as 1 mi or more, included up to four lanes of racing simultaneously; as some hot rodders raced on the street, a need arose for an organization to promote safety, to provide venues for safe racing. The National Hot Rod Association was founded in 1951, to take drag racing off the streets and into controlled environments. In the'50s and'60s, the Ford flathead. Many hot rods would upgrade the brakes from mechanical to hydraulic and headlights from bulb to sealed-beam. A typical mid-1950s to early 1960s custom Deuce was fenderless and steeply chopped, powered by a Ford or Mercury flathead, with an Edelbrock intake manifold and Collins magneto, Halibrand quick-change differential. Front suspension hairpins were adapted from sprint cars, such as the Kurtis Krafts.
As hot rodding became more popular and associations catering to hot rodders were started, such as the magazine Hot Rod, founded in 1948. As automobiles offered by the major automakers began increasing performance, the lure of hot rods began to wane. With the advent of the muscle car, it was now possible to purchase a high-performance car straight from the showroom; however the 1973 Oil Crisis caused car manufacturers to focus on fuel efficiency over performance, which led to a resurgence of interest in hot rodding. As the focus shifted away from racing, the modified cars became known as "street rods"; the National Street Rod Association began hosting events. By the 1970s, the 350 cu in small-block Chevy V8 was the most common choice of engine for hot rods. Another popular engine choice is the Ford Windsor engine. During the 1980s, many car manufacturers were reducing the displacements of their engines, thus making it harder for hot rod builders to obtain large displacement engines. Instead, engine builders had to modify the smaller engines to obtain larger displacement.
While current production V8s tended to be the most frequent candidates, this applied to others. In the mid-1980s, as stock engine sizes diminished, rodders discovered the 215 cu in aluminum-block Buick or Oldsmobile V8 could be modified for greater displacement, with wrecking yard parts; this trend was not limited to American cars. In 2019 Hydrogen Hot Rod USA Magazine coined the term Hydrogen Hot Rod. and several vehicles have been built and completed paving the way for Hydrogen Hot Rods There is still a vibrant hot rod culture worldwide in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Sweden. The hot rod community has now been subdivided into two main groups: hot rodders. There is a contemporary movement of traditional hot rod builders, car clubs and artists who have returned to the roots of hot rodding as a lifestyle; this includes a new breed of traditional hot rod builders and styles, as well as classic style car clubs. Events like GreaseOrama feature trad
Joseph Haydn's Piano Trio No. 42 in E-flat major, Hob. XV/30 was completed in 1796 after his return to Vienna from England and first published there by Artaria in 1797, it is without a dedication: the piano part is less challenging than those trios dedicated to keyboard virtuosi. This is thought to have been Haydn's last piano trio and with a typical performance time of 20 minutes it is one of his largest. By the time of its publication Beethoven had published his first three piano trios setting a new direction for the form away from the ‘accompanied piano sonata’ towards a more equal and dramatic interplay between piano and cello; the trio is in three movements: Allegro moderato. The first movement's broad opening theme is stated in piano, accompanied by arpeggiated fragments in the strings; this develops into a variety of thematic ideas, including a lilting violin melody, before the exposition reaches the dominant key, B-flat major. The second half of the exposition includes a minor-mode episode in which another flowing theme is introduced, giving way to rapid sixteenth-note figuration.
The development section presents several unexpected harmonic turns before the home key is reached again. This is the longest movement taking over eight minutes to perform. Andante con moto; the second movement, in triple time and in the remote key of C major, involves an alternation between a slow, stately dance and a more animated middle section with a lyrical melody. The movement closes with a pause on the dominant chord that suggests a return to the courtly dance in C, but instead we move straight on to the lively triple-time finale back in the key of E-flat major. Presto; the opening theme of this movement traces a chromatically rising line, the frequent up-beat accents lend a quirkiness to the rhythm. Like the first movement, this one contains numerous harmonic surprises; this finale has been said to anticipate the Beethoven Scherzo. List of piano trios by Joseph Haydn Piano Trio in Hob. XV:30: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Philip, Robert: Notes to Haydn: Piano Trios, Vol 2, Hyperion CD CDA67757
Sarah Palin's Alaska is an American reality television show hosted by former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin. According to Palin, the show's aim is to bring "the wonder and majesty of Alaska to all Americans"; the series, which began airing on TLC in November 2010, broadcast 1 clip show. The show was part travelogue and part documentary series, according to a story in The Vancouver Sun, six months before the release of the series trailer. In reviewing the first episode, The New York Times said the show allows viewers to "observe Ms. Palin observing nature"; the show was not renewed for a second season. The show was produced by Mark Burnett Productions for Discovery Communications. In reviewing the first episode, The New York Times said Sarah Palin's Alaska is a reality show living up to its title, "a nature series for political voyeurs" that allows "viewers to get to observe Ms. Palin observing nature"; the paper commended Palin for her political courage in appearing in the series and for not being afraid to be herself.
The Telegraph said the series received mixed reviews, with critics and commentators saying the show seemed intended as a vehicle to help Palin relaunch her political career. Five million viewers tuned in for the premiere episode, a record for TLC; the second episode attracted a 40 % drop in viewership. Before the airing of the last episode, Entertainment Weekly reported that the show had maintained an average viewership of 3.2 million per week, but that it would not be renewed for a second season. Entertainment Weekly said that if the Palin chose to do another season, it would have been interpreted as a sign that she would not be running for president in 2012. At the conclusion of the series, long time Alaska resident and author Nick Jans commented that the show made clear Palin's actual unfamiliarity with the outdoor Alaskan lifestyle, observing that most of the supposed adventures on which Palin and her family embarked were "guided trips aimed at mass market tourists... requiring no skills beyond a pulse and the ability to open your wallet".
Official website Sarah Palin's Alaska on IMDb "Palin show is top TLC program". December 4, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2010. "Gosselins Give'Palin's Alaska' Ratings Bump", Multichannel News, December 13, 2010