Automobiles Talbot S. A. was a French automobile manufacturer based in Hauts de Seine, outside Paris. The Suresnes factory had been built by Alexandre Darracq for his pioneering car manufacturing business begun in 1896, which he named A. Darracq & Cie, it was profitable. Alexandre Darracq built racing as well as “pleasure” cars and Darracq became famous for its motor racing successes. Darracq sold his remaining portion of his business in 1912. New owners renamed the Darracq business Automobiles Talbot in 1922. However, though its ordinary production cars were badged as Talbots, the new owners continued incorporating the Darracq name in Talbot-Darracq for their competition cars. Owing to the simultaneous existence of British Talbot cars, French products when sold in Britain were badged Darracq-Talbot or Talbot-Darracq, or simply Darracq. In 1932, after the onset of the Great Depression, Italo-British businessman Antonio Lago was appointed managing director in the hope that he might revive Automobiles Talbot’s business.
Lago began this process, but the owners were unable to stave off receivership beyond the end of 1934. The receiver did not close Automobiles Talbot, in 1936 Antonio Lago managed to complete a management buy-out from the receiver. For 1935, the existing range continued in production but from 1936 these were replaced with cars designed by Walter Becchia, featuring transverse leaf-sprung independent suspension; these included the 4-cylinder 2323 cc Talbot Type T4 "Minor", a surprise introduction at the 1937 Paris Motor Show, the 6-cylinder 2,696 cc Talbot "Cadette-15", along with and the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Major" and its long-wheelbase version, the Talbot "Master": these were classified as Touring cars. There was in the second half of the 1930s a range of Sporting cars which started with the Talbot "Baby-15", mechanically the same as the "Cadette-15" but using a shorter lighter chassis; the Sporting Cars range centred on the 6-cylinder 2,996 cc or 3,996 cc Talbot "Baby" and included the 3,996 cc 23 and sporting Lago-Spéciale and Lago-SS models with two and three carburettors, corresponding increases in power and performance.
The most specified body for the Lago-SS was built by Figoni et Falaschi, featured a eye-catching aerodynamic form. Lago was an excellent engineer who developed the existing six-cylinder engine into a high-performance 4-litre one; the sporting six-cylinder models had a great racing history. The bodies—such as of the T150 coupé—were made by excellent coachbuilders such as Figoni et Falaschi or Saoutchik. Although the proliferation of cars types and model names that followed Lago's acquisition of the business is at first glance bewildering, it involved only four standard chassis lengths as follows: Short Châssis: Minor T4 Junior 11 Baby-15 Baby 3 litres T150 3 litres Baby 4 litres Lago Spécial Extra short Châssis: Lago SS Normal Châssis: Cadette-15 Major 3 litres Major 4 litres Long Châssis: Master 3 litres Master 4 litres During the early years of the war Walter Becchia left Talbot to work for Citroen, but Lago was joined in 1942 by another exceptional engineer, Carlo Machetti, from the two of them were working on the twin camshaft 4483 cc six-cylinder unit that would lie at the heart of the 1946 Talbot T26.
After the war, the company continued to be known both for successful high-performance racing cars and for large luxurious passenger cars, with extensive sharing of chassis and engine components between the two. The period was one of economic stagnation and financial stringency; the company had difficulty finding customers, its finances were stretched. In 1946, the company began production of a new engine design, based on earlier units but with a new cylinder head featuring a twin overhead camshaft; this engine, designed under the leadership of Carlo Marchetti, was in many respects a new engine. A 4483 cc six-cylinder in-line engine was developed for the Talbot Lago Record and for the Talbot Grand Sport 26CV; these cars were priced against large luxurious cars from the likes of Delahaye, Delage and Salmson. Talbot would remain in the auto-making business for longer than any of these others, the Talbot name had the further dubious distinction of a resurrection in the early 1980s; the Talbot Lago Record T26 was a large car with a fiscal horsepower of 26 CV and a claimed actual power output of 170 hp, delivered to the rear wheels via a four-speed manual gear box, with the option at extra cost of a Wilson pre-selector gear box, supporting a claimed top speed of 170 km/h.
The car was sold as a stylish four-door sedan, but a two-door cabriolet was offered. There were coachbuilt specials with bodywork by traditionalist firms such as Graber; the T26 Grand Sport was first displayed in public in October 1947 as a shortened chassis, only 12 were made during 1948, the models's first full year of production. The car was noted for its speed; the engine which produced 170 hp in the Lago Record was adapted to provide 190 bhp or 195 bhp in the GS, a top speed of around 200 km/h was claimed, depending on the body, fitted. The
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match
Hotchkiss et Cie
Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Cie was a French arms and, in the 20th century, automobile manufacturer first established by United States gunsmith Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, he moved to France and set up a factory, first at Viviez near Rodez in 1867 at Saint-Denis near Paris in 1875 manufacturing arms used by the French in the Franco-Prussian war. An example of the company's output was the Hotchkiss revolving cannon; the cannon had five barrels each able to fire 43 shells a minute a distance of one mile. At the turn of the twentieth century, the company introduced the gas-actuated Hotchkiss machine gun, a sturdy and reliable weapon, used during World War I and thereafter by the French Army. At the start of the twentieth century the company started building cars. Information provided by the company for the International Universal Exhibition of 1900, at which it displayed a variety of cannons, said the St Denis factory employed around 400 staff and had 600 machine tools; the first Hotchkiss car, a 17 CV four-cylinder model, appeared in 1903.
The badge for the marque consisted of a pair of crossed cannons—a salute to the company's first products. A factory fire nearly killed all projects. Despite this, a six-cylinder model followed in 1906. During World War I, they mass-produced the Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun, tank parts and other weapons. In 1933, they developed the Hotchkiss H35 tank. Post war came. In 1920, there was an unsuccessful attempt to build Hotchkiss cars by a British arm of Hotchkiss in the United Kingdom—only a prototype was made. A refined model named AM was in production between 1923 and 1928. A new six-cylinder model, named AM 80 came in 1928; the company made several successful racing cars. Hotchkiss racers won the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1932, 1933, 1934, 1939, 1949 and 1950; the Hotchkiss 680 was an important model between the wars—it had a six-cylinder, 3-litre engine. In 1937, the company merged with Amilcar. J. A. Grégoire joined the company as a designer. After World War II, the 680 continued; the first new car post war was a 13 CV four-cylinder model.
From 1947, two-litre flat-four models are called Hotchkiss-Grégoire. In 1954, Hotchkiss purchased French manufacturer Delahaye, closing down their automotive line but continuing to produce Hotchkiss-Delahaye trucks for a few months before eliminating the Delahaye name completely. After 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under licence from Willys. In 1956, Hotchkiss merged with French car manufacturer Brandt, producing jeeps at their factory near Paris for the French military until 1966; the firm was merged into Thomson-Houston in 1970 stopped producing vehicles of any sort. In the early 1970s, the Hotchkiss marque disappeared, as the French conglomerate came to be known as Thomson-Brandt. This, in turn, was nationalized in 1982 to form Thomson SA; the name of the Hotchkiss firm was given to a form of power transmission from a vehicle's engine by shaft to the differential on its back axle, which through leaf springs both locates the back axle and transmits drive forces to the vehicle, called Hotchkiss drive.
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Moulins is a commune in central France, capital of the Allier department. It is located on the Allier River. Among its many tourist attractions are the Maison Mantin, the Anne de Beaujeu Museum and The National Center of Costume and Scenography. Moulins is located on the banks of the Allier River. Before the French Revolution, Moulins was the capital of the province of Bourbonnais and the seat of the Dukes of Bourbon, it appears in documented records at least as far back as the year 990. In 1232, Archambaud VIII, Sire de Bourbon granted a franchise to the village's inhabitants; the town achieved greater prominence in 1327, when Charles IV elevated Louis I de Clermont to Duke of Bourbon. Either Louis or the Peter II, Duke of Bourbon and of Auvergne moved the capital of the province from Bourbon-l'Archambault to Moulins. Note: This article in French suggests Pierre II moved the capital, while the local tourism website suggests it was Louis I. In February 1566 it became eponymous to the Edict of Moulins, an important royal ordinance dealing with many aspects of the administration of justice and feudal and ecclesiastical privilege, including limitations on the appanages held by French princes, abrogation of the levy of rights of tallage claimed by seigneurs over their dependants, provisions for a system of concessions on rivers.
This was the birthplace of the great 19th-century operatic baritone and art collector Jean-Baptiste Faure. In the 20th century, Coco Chanel went to school in Moulins as an orphan, before moving to Paris, where she became a fashion designer and major innovator in women's clothing. Moulins is twinned with: Montepulciano, Italy Bad Vilbel, Germany Moulins-sur-Allier station, in the centre of the town, has direct trains to Paris Paris-Gare de Lyon, which take about 2 hours 25 minutes. Montbeugny Airport is a small airport located near Moulins. Centre National du Costume de Scene Antoine Gilbert Griffet de Labaume and man of letters was born in Moulins Jean Pastelot and caricaturist was born in Moulins Coco Chanel, fashion designer, started as a cabaret singer here Philippe N'Dioro, footballer Jean-Luc Perrot, pipe organ player and composer Stéphane Risacher, basketball player with the French national team, born in Moulins Jean-Baptiste Faure, opera singer, born in Moulins Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Marshal General of France, lived 1653–1734, born in Moulins Gilbert Mercier, author of "The Orwellian Empire" and journalist born in Moulins in 1957 Louis Jacques Brunet, ancient professor of Natural History born in Moulins in 1811 Moulins Cathedral Diocese of Moulins AS Moulins Communes of the Allier department INSEE City council website Local tourism website Picture of Moulins Cathedral
Delahaye automobile was an automotive manufacturing company founded by Émile Delahaye in 1894, in Tours, his home town. His first cars were belt-driven, with single- or twin-cylinder engines mounted at the rear, his Type One was an instant success, he urgently needed investment capital and a larger manufacturing facility. Both were provided by a new Delahaye owner and fellow racer, George Morane, his brother-in-law Leon Desmarais, who partnered with Émile in the incorporation of the new automotive company, "Societe Des Automobiles Delahaye", in 1898. All three worked with the foundry workers to assemble the new machines, but middle-aged Émile was not in good health. In January 1901, he found himself unable to capably continue, resigned, selling his shares to his two equal partners. Émile Delahaye died soon after, in 1905. Delahaye had hired two instrumental men, Charles Weiffenbach and Amédée Varlet in 1898, to assist the three partners. Both were graduate mechanical engineers, they remained with Delahaye their entire working careers.
Weiffenbach was appointed Manager of Operations, with the blessing of both George Morane and Leon Desmarais, assumed control over all of Delahaye's operations and much of its decision-making, in 1906. Amédée Varlet was the company's design-engineer, with a number of innovative inventions to his credit, generated between 1905 and 1914, which Delahaye patented; these included the twin-cam multi-valve engine, the V6 configuration. Varlet continued in this role until he took over the Drawing Office, at 76 years of age, when much younger Jean François was hired in 1932 as chief design-engineer. In 1932, Varlet was instructed by Weiffenbach, under direction from majority shareholder Madame Desmarais, Leon Desmarais' widow, to set up the company's Racing Department, assisted by Jean François; those who knew him well at the factory affectionately referred to Charles Weiffenbach as "Monsieur Charles". Delahaye began experimenting with belt-driven cars while manager of the Brethon Foundry and Machine-works in Tours, in 1894.
These experiments encouraged an entry in the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, held between 24 September-3 October 1896, fielding one car for himself and one for sportsman Ernest Archdeacon. The winning Panhard averaged 15.7 mph. For the 1897 Paris-Dieppe, the 6 hp four-cylinder Delahayes ran in four- and six-seater classes, with a full complement of passengers. Archdeacon was third in the four-seaters behind a De Dion-Bouton and a Panhard, Courtois winning the six-seater class, ahead of the only other car in the class. In March 1898, 6 hp the Delahayes of Georges Morane and Courtois came sixteenth and twenty-eighth at the Marseilles-Nice rally, while at the Course de Perigeux in May, De Solages finished sixth in a field of ten; the July Paris-Amsterdam-Paris earned. Soon after the new company was formed in 1898, the firm moved its manufacturing from Tours to Paris, into its new factory. Charles Weiffenbach was named Operations Manager. Delahaye would produce three models there, until the close of the 19th century: two twins, the 2.2-litre 4.5 hp Type 1 and 6 hp Type 2, the lighter Type 0, with a 1.4-liter single rated between 5 and 7 hp.
All three had bicycle-style steering, water-cooled engines mounted in the rear, automatic valves, surface carburetors, trembler coil ignition. In 1899, Archdeacon piloted an 8 hp racer in the Nice-Castellane-Nice rally, coming eighth, while teammate Buissot's 8 hp was twelfth. Founder Émile Delahaye retired in 1901, leaving Morane in control. Delahaye's racing days were over with Émile Delahaye's death. Charles Weiffenbach had no interest in racing, focused his production on responsible motorized automotive chassis, heavy commercial vehicles, early firetrucks for the French government. Race-cars had become a thing of the past for Delahaye, until 1933, when Madame Desmarais caused her company to change direction 180 degrees, return to racing; the new 10B debuted in 1902. It had a 2,199 cc vertical twin rated 12/14 hp by RAC, mounted in front, with removable cylinder head, steering wheel, chain drive. Delahaye entered the Paris-Vienna rally with a 16 hp four. At the same year's Ardennes event, Perrin's 16 hp four came tenth.
In 1902, the singles and twins ceased to be offered except as light vans. Delahaye's first production four, the Type 13B, with 24/27 hp 4.4-litre, appeared in 1903. The model range expanded in 1904, including the 4.9-litre 28 hp four-cylinder Type 21, the mid-priced Type 16, the two-cylinder Type 15B. These were joined in 1905 by a chain-driven 8-litre luxury model, one of, purchased by King Alfonso XIII of Spain. All 1907 models featured half-elliptic springs at the rear as well as transverse leaf springs, while shaft drive appeared that year, chain drive was retained on luxury models until 1911. In 1908, the Type 32 was the company's first to offer an L-head monoblock engine. Protos began licence production of Delahayes in G
De Dion-Bouton was a French automobile manufacturer and railcar manufacturer operating from 1883 to 1953. The company was founded by the Marquis Jules-Albert de Dion, Georges Bouton, Bouton's brother-in-law Charles Trépardoux; the company was formed after de Dion in 1881 saw a toy locomotive in a store window and asked the toymakers to build another. Engineers Bouton and Trépardoux had been eking out a living with scientific toys at a shop in the Passage de Léon, near "rue de la Chapelle" in Paris. Trépardoux had long dreamed of building a steam car. De Dion inspired by steam and with ample money, De Dion, Bouton et Trépardoux was formed in Paris in 1883; this became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company, the world's largest automobile manufacturer for a time, becoming well known for their quality and durability. Before 1883 was over, they had set up shop in larger premises in the Passage de Léon, Paris and dropped steam engines for boats, produced a steam car. With the boiler and engine mounted at the front, driving the front wheels by belts and steering with the rear, it burned to the ground on trials.
They built a second, La Marquise, the next year, with a more conventional steering and rear-wheel drive, capable of seating four. The Marquis de Dion entered one of these in an 1887 trial, "Europe's first motoring competition", the brainchild of one M. Fossier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the De Dion was the sole entrant, but it completed the course, with de Dion at the tiller, was clocked at 60 km/h; this must be taken with considerable care. The vehicle survives, in road-worthy condition, has been a regular entry in the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. Following this singular success, the company offered steam tricycles with boilers between the front wheels and two-cylinder engines, they were built in small numbers, evidently a favorite of young playboys. They were joined by a larger tractor, able to pull trailers; this larger vehicle introduced "dead" axle. On July 22, 1894, Paris–Rouen race, it averaged 18.7 km/h over the 126 km route, but was disqualified for needing both a driver and a stoker.
Two more cars were made in 1885 followed by a series of lightweight two-cylinder tricars, which from 1892 had Michelin pneumatic tyres. In 1893, steam tractors were introduced which were designed to tow horse type carriages for passengers or freight and these used an innovative axle design which would become known as the De Dion tube, where the location and drive function of the axle are separated; the company manufactured steam buses and trucks until 1904. Trepardoux, staunchly supporting steam, resigned in 1894 as the company turned to internal combustion vehicles; the steam car remained in production less unchanged for ten years more. By 1889, de Dion was becoming convinced the future lay in the internal combustion engine, the company had built a ten-cylinder two-row rotary. After Trépardoux resigned in 1894, the company became De Bouton et Compagnie. For 1895, Bouton created a new 137 cc one-cylinder engine with trembler coil ignition. Proving troublesome at its designed speed of 900 rpm, when Bouton increased the revs, the problems vanished.
In trials, it achieved an unprecedented 3500 rpm, was run at 2,000 rpm, a limit imposed by its atmospheric valves and surface carburettor. Inlet and exhaust valves were overhead, a flywheel was fitted to each end of the crankshaft; this engine was fitted behind the rear axle of a tricycle frame bought from Decauville, fitted with the new Michelin pneumatic tires. It showed superb performance, went on the market in 1896 with the engine enlarged to 1¼ CV 185 cc, with 1¾ CV in 1897. By the time production of the petite voiture tricar stopped in 1901, it had 2¾ CV, while racers had as much as 8 CV. In 1898, Louis Renault had a De Dion-Bouton modified with fixed drive shaft and ring and pinion gear, making "perhaps the first hot rod in history"; the same year, the tricar was joined by a four-wheeler and in 1900 by a vis a vis voiturette, the Model D, with its 3¾ CV 402 cc single-cylinder engine under the seat and drive to the rear wheels through a two-speed gearbox. This curious design had the passenger facing the driver.
The voiturette had one inestimable advantage: the expanding clutches of the gearbox were operated by a lever on the steering column. The Model D was developed through Models E, G, I, J, with 6 CV by 1902, when the 8 CV Model K rear-entry phaeton appeared, with front-end styling resembling the contemporary Renault; until World War I, De Dion-Boutons had an unusual decelerator pedal which reduced engine speed and applied a transmission brake. In 1902, the Model O introduced three speeds, standard for all De Dion-Boutons in 1904. A small number of electric cars were made in 1901. De Dion-Bouton supplied engines to vehicle manufacturers such as Société Parisienne who mounted a 2.5 hp unit directly on the front axle of their front wheel drive voiturette the'Viktoria Combination'. The De Dion-Bouton engine is considered to the first high-speed lightweight internal combustion engine, it was