Hottentot (racial term)
Hottentot is a term used of the Khoikhoi, the non-Bantu indigenous nomadic pastoralists of South Africa. The term has been used to refer to the non-Bantu indigenous population as a whole, now collectively known as the Khoisan. Use of the term is now deprecated and considered offensive, the preferred name for the non-Bantu indigenous people of the Western Cape area being Khoi, Khoikhoi, or Khoisan; the term Hottentot originated among the "old Dutch", the settlers of the Dutch Cape Colony who arrived from the 1650s, it entered English from Dutch in the seventeenth century. However, no definitive Dutch etymology for the term is known. A claimed etymology is from a supposed Dutch expression equivalent to "stammerer, stutterer", applied to the Khoikhoi on account of the distinctive click consonants in their languages. There is, however, no earlier attestation of a word hottentot to support this theory. An alternative possibility is that the name derived from an overheard term in chants accompanying Khoikhoi or San dances, but seventeenth-century transcriptions of such chants offer no conclusive evidence for this.
An early Anglicisation of the term is recorded as hodmandod in the years around 1700. The reduced Afrikaans/Dutch form hotnot has been borrowed into South African English as an offensive term for black people. In seventeenth-century Dutch, Hottentot was at times used to denote all black people, but at least some speakers were careful to use the term Hottentot to denote what they thought of as a race distinct from the darker-skinned Kaffirs; this distinction between the non-Bantu "Cape Blacks" and the Bantu was noted as early as 1684 by the French anthropologist François Bernier. The idea that Hottentot referred to the non-Bantu peoples of southern Africa was well embedded in colonial scholarly thought by the end of the eighteenth century; the main meaning of Hottentot as an ethnic term in the 19th and the 20th centuries has therefore been to denote the Khoikhoi people specifically. At the same time, Hottentot continued to be used through the eighteenth and twentieth centuries in a wider sense, to include all of the people now referred to with the modern term Khoisan.
The term Hottentot remained in use as a technical ethnic term in anthropological and historiographical literature into the late 1980s, the 1996 edition of the Dictionary of South African English says that'the word "Hottentot" is seen by some as offensive and Khoikhoi is sometimes substituted as a name for the people in scholarly contexts'. Yet by the 1980s, because of the racist connotations discussed below, it was seen as too derogatory and offensive to be used in an ethnic sense. From the eighteenth century onwards, the term hottentot was a term of abuse without a specific ethnic sense, comparable to barbarian or cannibal. In its ethnic sense, it had developed connotations of savagery and primitivism soon in the seventeenth century: colonial depictions of the Hottentots in the seventeenth to eighteenth century were characterized by savagery suggestive of cannibalism or the consumption of raw flesh, physiological features such as steatopygia and elongated labia perceived as primitive or "simian".
Thus it is possible to speak from the seventeenth century onwards of a European, colonial image of "the Hottentot" which bore little relation to any realities of the Khoisan in Africa, which fed into the usage of hottentot as a generalised term of abuse. Correspondingly, the word is "sometimes used as ugly slang for a black person". Use of the derived term hotnot was explicitly proscribed in South Africa by 2008. Accordingly, much recent scholarship on the history of colonial attitudes to the Khoisan, or on the European trope of'the Hottentot', puts the term Hottentot in scare quotes. In its original role of ethnic designator, the term Hottentot was included into a variety of derived terms, such as the Hottentot Corps, the first Coloured unit to be formed in the South African army called the Corps Bastaard Hottentoten, organised in 1781 by the Dutch colonial administration of the time; the word is used in the common names of a wide variety of plants and animals, such as the Africanis dogs sometimes called'Hottentot hunting dogs'.
It has given rise to the scientific name for one genus of scorpion and may be the origin of the epithet tottum in the botanical name Leucospermum tottum. Hottentot Venus Hottentot The Hottentot Terre Haute Hottentots François-Xavier Fauvelle-Aymar, L'invention du Hottentot: histoire du regard occidental sur les Khoisan Linda Evi Merians, Envisioning the Worst: Representations of "Hottentots" in Early-modern England
The Khoikhoi are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa. They are grouped with the hunter-gatherer San under the compound term Khoisan. While it is clear that the presence of the Khoikhoi in southern Africa predates the Bantu expansion, it is not certain by how much in the Late Stone Age, or displaced by the Bantu expansion to Southeastern Africa; the Khoikhoi maintained large herds of Nguni cattle in the Cape region at the time of Dutch colonisation in the 17th century. Their nomadic pastoralism was discontinued in the 19th to 20th century, their Khoekhoe language is related to certain dialects spoken by foraging San peoples of the Kalahari, such as the Khwe and Tshwa, forming the Khoe language family. The two main Khoikhoi subdivisions today are the Nama people of Namibia and South Africa and the Damara of Namibia, their total number is estimated at close to 300,000 people. The Griqua people are a mixed-raced population in South Africa, of partial Khoikhoi and partial European ancestry.
They settled in Griqualand. The Khoikhoi part of a pastoral culture and language group to be found across Southern Africa, originated in the northern area of modern Botswana; this ethnic group migrated southward reaching the Cape 2,000 years ago. Khoikhoi subgroups include the Namaqua to the west, the Korana of mid-South Africa, the Khoikhoi in the south, their husbandry of sheep and cattle grazing in fertile valleys across the region provided a stable, balanced diet, allowed the Khoikhoi to live in larger groups in a region occupied by the San, who were subsistence hunter-gatherers. Advancing Bantu in the 3rd century AD encroached on the Khoikhoi territory, pushing them into more arid areas. There was some intermarriage between migratory Khoi bands living around what is today Cape Town and the San, but the two groups remained culturally distinct, as the Khoikhoi continued to graze livestock and the San to subsist on hunting-gathering. The Khoi first encountered Portuguese explorers and merchants around AD 1500.
The ongoing encounters were violent. Local population dropped after the Khoi were exposed to smallpox by Europeans, who carried it as an endemic disease; the Khoi suffered high mortality. The Khoi waged more frequent attacks against Europeans when the Dutch East India Company enclosed traditional grazing land for farms. Over the following century, the Khoi were driven off their land, which ended their traditional life. Khoikhoi social organisation was profoundly damaged and, in the end, destroyed by colonial expansion and land seizure from the late 17th century onwards; as social structures broke down, some Khoikhoi people settled on farms and became bondsmen or farm workers. Georg Schmidt, a Moravian Brother from Herrnhut, now Germany, founded Genadendal in 1738, the first mission station in southern Africa, among the Khoi people in Baviaanskloof in the Riviersonderend Mountains. Early European settlers sometimes intermarried with indigenous Khoikhoi women, resulting in a sizeable mixed-race population now known as the Griqua.
They were known at the time as "Basters" and in some instances are still so called, e. g. the Bosluis Basters of the Richtersveld and the Baster community of Rehoboth, Namibia. Another group were the Griqua. Like other mixed-race peoples and the Khoikhoi, they left the Cape Colony and migrated into the interior. Responding to the influence of missionaries, they formed the states of Griqualand West and Griqualand East. By the early 1800s, the remaining Khoi of the Cape Colony suffered from restricted civil rights and discriminatory laws on land ownership. With this pretext, the powerful Commissioner General of the Eastern Districts, Andries Stockenstrom, facilitated the creation of the "Kat River" Khoi settlement near the eastern frontier of the Cape Colony; the more cynical motive was to create a buffer-zone on the Cape's frontier, but the extensive fertile land in the region allowed the Khoi to own their land and build communities in peace. The settlements thrived and expanded, Kat River became a large and successful region of the Cape that subsisted more or less autonomously.
The people were predominantly Afrikaans-speaking Gonaqua Khoi, but the settlement began to attract other Khoi and mixed-race groups of the Cape. The Khoi were known at the time for being good marksmen, were invaluable allies of the Cape Colony in its frontier wars with the neighbouring Xhosa. In the Seventh Frontier War against the Gcaleka Xhosa, the Khoi gunmen from Kat River distinguished themselves under their leader Andries Botha in the assault on the "Amatola fastnesses"; however harsh laws were still implemented in the Eastern Cape, to encourage the Khoi to leave their lands in the Kat River region and to work as labourers on white farms. The growing resentment exploded in 1850; when the Xhosa rose against the Cape Government, large numbers of Khoi joined the Xhosa rebels for the first time. After the defeat of the rebellion and the granting of representative government to the Cape Colony in 1853, the new Cape Government endeavoured to grant the Kho
Carpobrotus edulis is a ground-creeping plant with succulent leaves in the genus Carpobrotus, native to South Africa. It is known as Hottentot-fig, ice plant, highway ice plant or pigface and in South Africa as the sour fig, it was classified in Mesembryanthemum and is sometimes referred to by this name: Mesembryanthemum edule. Carpobrotus edulis is a creeping, mat-forming succulent species and member of the fig-marigold family Aizoaceae, one of about 30 species in the genus Carpobrotus. C. edulis is confused with its close relatives, including the more diminutive and less aggressive Carpobrotus chilensis, with which it hybridizes readily. C. edulis can, however, be distinguished from most of its relatives by the size and colour of its flowers. The large, 2.5 to 6 inches diameter flowers of C. edulis are yellow or light pink, whereas the smaller, 1.5 to 2.5 inches diameter C. chilensis flowers are deep magenta. On the flowers, two of the calyx lobes are longer; the leaves of C. edulis are only slightly curved and have serrated sides near the tips.
The sour fig grows on coastal and inland slopes from Namaqualand in the Northern Cape through the Western Cape to the Eastern Cape. It is seen as a pioneer in disturbed sites. Flowers are pollinated by solitary bees, honey bees, carpenter bees, many beetle species. Leaves are eaten by tortoises. Flowers are eaten by baboons. Fruits are eaten by baboons, porcupines, who disperse the seeds; the clumps provide shelter for snails and skinks. Puff adders and other snakes, such as the Cape cobra, are found in Carpobrotus clumps, where they ambush the small rodents attracted by the fruits. Ice plants grow year round, with individual shoot segments growing more than 3 ft per year. Ice plants can grow to at least 165 ft in diameter. Flowers are produced during late winter-spring, they open in the morning in bright sunlight, close at night. Carpobrotus edulis has naturalised in many other regions throughout the world, is an invasive species in several parts, notably Australia and the Mediterranean, all of which have similar climates.
The ice plant has escaped from cultivation and has become invasive, posing a serious ecological problem by forming vast monospecific zones, lowering biodiversity, competing directly with several threatened or endangered plant species for nutrients, water and space. On the Mediterranean coast, Carpobrotus has spread out and now parts of the coastline are covered by this invasive species. Moreover, another invasive species, the black rat, has been shown to enhance the spreading of the ice plant through its feces; as the ice plant represents a food resource for the rat, both benefit from each other. In New Zealand C. edulis and its hybrids are classed as unwanted organisms and are listed on the National Pest Plant Accord. Although the ice plant may have arrived by ship as early as the 16th century, C. edulis was introduced in the early 1900s to stabilize dunes and soil along railroad tracks. Thousands of acres were planted in California until the 1970s, it spreads by seed and from segmentation. Its succulent foliage, bright magenta or yellow flowers, resistance to some harsh coastal climatic conditions have made it a favored garden plant.
The ice plant was, for several decades promoted as an ornamental plant, it is still available at some nurseries. Ice plant foliage can turn a vibrant red to yellow in color. Despite its use as a soil stabilizer, it exacerbates and speeds up coastal erosion, it holds great masses of water in its leaves, its roots are shallow. In the rainy season, the added weight on unstable sandstone slopes and dunes increases the chances of slope collapse and landslides; the ice plant is still abundant along highways, beaches, on military bases, in other public and private landscapes. It spreads beyond landscape plantings and has invaded foredune, dune scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal prairie, most maritime chaparral communities. In California, the ice plant is found in coastal habitats from north of Eureka, south at least as far as Rosarito in Baja California, it is intolerant of frost, is not found far inland or at elevations greater than about 500 ft. Flowering occurs year-round, beginning in February in southern California and continuing through fall in northern California, with flowers present for at least a few months in any given population.
Control of ice plants can be attempted by pulling out individual plants by hand, or with the use of earth-moving machinery such as a skid-steer or tractor, though it is necessary to remove buried stems, mulch the soil to prevent re-establishment. For chemical control, glyphosate herbicides are used; because of the high water content of shoot tissues, burning of live or dead plants is not a useful method of control or disposal. It needs well-drained soil, a sunny position, room to spread, it is an excellent evergreen, drought- and wind-resistant groundcover. Its leaves are edible. In South Africa the sour fig's ripe fruit are gathered and either eaten fresh or made into a tart jam. Rutin, hyperoside and ferulic acid can be found in C. edu
The Hottentot (1922 film)
The Hottentot is a 1922 American silent comedy film directed by James W. Horne and Del Andrews and starred Douglas MacLean, it is based on The Hottentot, by William Collier, Sr. and Victor Mapes. Thomas H. Ince produced the feature with distribution by Associated First National; the story was refilmed by Warner Brothers as The Hottentot in 1929 as an early Vitaphone talkie. Raymond Hatton as Swift Madge Bellamy as Peggy Fairfax Douglas MacLean as Sam Harrington Lila Leslie as Mrs. Carol Chadwick Martin Best as Ollie Gilford Truly Shattuck as Mrs. May Gilford T. D. Crittenden as Major Reggie Townsend Bert Lindley as McKesson Stanhope Wheatcroft as Larry Crawford It survives incomplete; the Hottentot on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie Lobby poster
The hottentot known as the Hottentot seabream, is a species of sea bream in the family Sparidae, native to the southwestern coast of Africa. The hottentot has a bronzy grey color, with darker fins; the small mouth contains five rows of incisors in lower jaw, but no molars. Adults are around 25 cm in length at the age of maturity, but may reach up to 54 cm, with a maximum recorded weight of 2.67 kg. The species occurs in the southeastern Atlantic, from Angola to Cape Agulhas at the southern tip of South Africa. Vagrants have been recorded as far east as the mouth of the Tsitsikamma River; the hottentot inhabits kelp beds on shallow rocky reefs, as well as blinders, subtidal reefs and offshore pinnacles in deeper waters. Juveniles are restricted to the kelp beds; the species is a generalist and feeds on seaweeds, crustaceans, molluscs, sea urchins, small fish. It may spawn all year round, with peaks in winter. Individuals live to an age of about 12 years, but may exceptionally reach an age of up to 21 years.
Generation length is about 9 years. The hottentot is a frequent host of the parasitic isopod Anilocra capensis; the hottentot is an important species in a variety of smaller-scale fisheries and occurs as bycatch in gill-net fishery. However, it appears not to be exploited to an extent, damaging stocks, is common in a number of protected areas in its range, it is therefore classified as Least Concern by the IUCN
The Cape Corps and its predecessor units were the main military organisations in which the Coloured members of South Africa's population served. As one of the military units of South Africa with one of the longest histories, the Cape Corps reflects the history of South Africa's Coloured population to a great extent; the first Coloured unit to be formed was the Corps Bastaard Hottentoten, organised in 1781 by the Dutch colonial administration of the time. Based in Cape Town and drawing its members from men of mixed Hottentot and White ancestry, this unit had about 400 members under the command of Hendrik Eksteen and Gerrit Munnik. However, the unit was disbanded in 1782. In 1793 this unit was re-formed in Cape Town as the Corps van Pandoeren with 200 men under the command of Captain Jan Cloete, only to be disbanded again in 1795; the unit was re-formed again under the British colonial administration in May 1796, this time under the name Hottentot Corps. It was consisted of about 300 men. In 1798 the headquarters were moved to Hout Bay.
On 25 June 1801 the Cape Regiment was formed. It was organised as a British imperial regiment of ten companies and retained all the personnel of the Hottentot Corps. With the Dutch taking over colonial administration of the Cape once again, the Corps Vrye Hottentotten was formed on 21 February 1803, it was renamed the Hottentot Ligte Infanterie. When the British returned to the Cape, they formed The Cape Regiment in October 1806. Headquartered in Cape Town, it was organised as a typical colonial unit with British officers and Coloured other ranks. In years, the Regiment had a troop of light cavalry added. On 24 September 1817 the Regiment was reduced in size to two small units of about 200 men for the defence of the Cape Colony's eastern frontier; the two units were named the Cape Light Infantry. Mathew Richmond, coming from the Royal Military College, joined them in 1817. In 1820 these two units were again renamed the Cape Corps; the Cape Mounted Riflemen were formed on 25 November 1827. In 1850 some soldiers mutinied by joining Coloured rebellion in the eastern Cape.
Some years in 1854, the recruitment of Coloured members for the battalion was halted. The battalion was disbanded in 1870 when military service abolished for Coloureds, although its name and traditions were appropriated in 1878 by another Cape Mounted Riflemen; as part of South Africa's efforts for World War I, the Cape Corps was re-formed in the Cape Province by Sir Walter Stanford, as a single battalion in December 1915 as part of the Union Defence Force. In 1916 the Corps was expanded and a second battalion raised; the original battalion was redesignated the new unit as the 2nd Battalion. In order to provide additional troops for South Africa's participation in World War II, the Cape Corps was reconstituted again on 8 May 1940 from the Association of the 1915-1918 Corps; this unit was assigned the role of a non-combatant service corps with a pioneer battalion and five motor transport companies. It was expanded to include several motorised infantry battalions, infantry battalions, prisoner of war guard battalions and POW escort battalions.
At its peak strength, the Corps had about 23,000 members. On 13 October 1942 the Corps absorbed the South African Indian and Malay Corps but was disbanded at the end of hostilities in 1945. In 1947 the Cape Corps was reconstituted as a Permanent Force Coloured service corps only to be disbanded in 1950 by the newly elected National Party, which abolished military service for Coloureds; the Cape Corps was reformed again as a non-combatant Coloured service corps. The Corps was designated a Permanent Force unit of the South African Defence Force in 1972. In 1973 the unit was renamed the South African Cape Corps Service Battalion; when the South African Defence Act was amended in 1975 to give Coloureds "equivalent status to whites" in the South African Army, the battalion was renamed the South African Cape Corps Battalion, its combatant status was restored and the first Coloured officers were commissioned. During the period 1979 to 1989 the South African Cape Corps was expanded: The SACC Maintenance Unit was formed in 1979 from some of the members of the original service battalion.
The original combat battalion was renamed 1st Battalion when the 2nd Battalion was raised in December 1984. The 3rd Battalion was raised in Kimberley in 1989; the SACC School and SACC School for Junior Leaders were founded. In 1990 the SACC was reduced to a single battalion and redesignated 9 South African Infantry Battalion, reroled as a seaborne light infantry unit; as a result of the post-1994 transformation of South Africa, Coloured soldiers and airmen serve alongside their fellow South Africans in a integrated South African National Defence Force. Corps badge: Although there were numerous variants, the Corps badges of the 1915 - 1991 era all consisted of the Crest of the Arms of the Cape of Good Hope Colony, i.e. the figure of Hope with her left hand resting on an anchor and her right hand or elbow resting on Table