The Chaoui people or Shawia are a Berber population inhabiting the Aurès, Batna and Khenchla Oum bwaghi Biskra regions located in and surrounded by the Aurès Mountains. They live in the Tébessa area and other parts of eastern Algeria coextensive with ancient Numidia, as well as a few adjacent towns in Tunisia, they call themselves speak the Shawiya language. The Aurès Mountains served as a refuge for Berber peoples, forming a base of resistance against the Roman Empire, the Vandals, the Byzantine Empire and Arabs. Aurès was a district of Algeria that existed during and after the Algerian War from 1954 to 1962, it was in this region. The patriarch of Berbers is believed to be Madghacen, common ancestor of the Zenata and of the Botri as well. Ibn Khaldun identified the Zenata as Berbers. Modern historians rank this Berber region within the group of Numidians and Gaetuli or the much more ancient such as Meshwesh and Mazaxes, from whom formed the Zenata, the main inhabitants of the Aurès in the Middle Ages.
Chaoui clans known by Ibn Khaldoun were the Ifren, Djerawa, Abdalwadides and Awarba. According to de Slane, translator of the books of Ibn Khaldun, the term Chaoui/Shawi means "shepherd" and designates the Zenata Berbers. After the independence of Algeria, the Chaouis remained localized in the Auresian region, they are the second Berber-speaking group in terms of number of speakers, the first being the Kabyle. The Chaoui traditionally speak the Shawiya language, it belongs to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family, is a variety of the Zenati languages. Shawiya is a related cluster of dialects spoken in the Aurès region of eastern Algeria and surrounding areas including Batna, south Sétif, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, Tébessa, the north part of Biskra; the Shawiya language, together with the Kabyle language, has begun to achieve some cultural prominence due to the Berber cultural and political movements in Algeria. Chaoui music is a specific style of Berber music; the Shawia dance is called Rahaba.
There are many 20th century singers, such as Aïssa Djermouni, Ali Khencheli, Ishem Boumaraf, Djamel Sabri, Houria Aïchi, etc. Chaoui painters and sculptors include Cherif Merzouki, Abdelkhader Houamel, Hassane Amraoui, Adel Abdessemed, Mohamed Demagh; the fantasia is a traditional exhibition of horsemanship in the Aurès performed during cultural festivals. The Chaoui were featured in Amor Hakkar's 2008 film La Maison jaune. Algeria portal Berbers portal Chawi people in 1952 on YouTube Pictures of Chaouis Videos in Chaoui chawinet.com http://www.truveo.com/khouya-ya-chaoui/id/2928217872 Among the hill-folk of Algeria: journeys among the Shawía of the Aurès Mountains by Melville William Hilton-Simpson
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A
Berber Jews are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains in Morocco, in Algeria, which spoke Berber languages. Between 1950 and 1970 most emigrated to the United States, or Israel. Jews have settled in North Africa since 6th century BC and a Jewish community existed in the Roman province of Africa, modern Tunisia. Ifriqia was the name chosen for; the acceptance by the Berbers of Judaism as a religion, its embrace by a number of tribes, may have occurred over time. French historian, Eugène Albertini dates the judaization of certain Berber tribes and their expansion from Tripolitania to the Saharan oases, to the end of the 1st century. Marcel Simon for his part, sees the first point of contact between the western Berbers and Judaism in the great Jewish Rebellion of 66-70. Historians believe, based on the writings of Ibn Khaldoun and other evidences, that some or all of the ancient Judaized Berber tribes adopted Christianity and afterwards Islam, it is not clear if they are a part of the ancestry of contemporary Berber-speaking Jews.
Besides old settlements of Jews in the Atlas mountains and the interior Berber lands of Morocco, strong periodic persecutions by the Almohades most augmented the Jewish presence there. This hypothesis is reinforced by the pogroms which happened in Fes and Taza in the late 15th century and which would have brought another wave of Jews, including amongst them Spanish Jewish-descended families such as the Peretz, this wave would have reach the Sahara with Figuig and Errachidia; some claim the female Berber military leader, was a Berber Jew, though she is remembered in the oral tradition of some North-African communities as oppressive leader for the Jews, other sources claim her to be Christian. She is said to have aroused the Berbers in the Aures in the eastern spurs of the Atlas Mountains in modern-day Algeria to a last, although fruitless, resistance to the Arab general Hasan ibn Nu'man. Following the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the tensions between the indigenous Jewish communities and the indigenous Muslim communities increased.
Jews in the Maghreb were compelled to leave due to these increased tensions. Today, the indigenous Berber Jewish community no longer exists in Morocco; the Moroccan Jewish population rests at about 8,000 persons with most residing in Casablanca, some of whom might still be Berber speakers. In the past, it would have been difficult to decide whether these Jewish Berber clans were of Israelite descent and had become assimilated with the Berbers in language and some cultural habits or whether they were indigenous Berbers who in the course of centuries had become Jewish through conversion by Jewish settlers; the second theory was developed in the first half of the 20th century, as part of the quest of French colonial authorities to discover and emphasize pre-Islamic customs among the Berber-Muslim population since such customs and ways of life were believed to be more amenable and assimilable to French rule, legitimizing the policy that the Berbers would be governed by their own "customary" law rather than Islamic law.
The main proponents of this theory were scholars such as Nahum Slouschz who worked with French authorities. Other scholars such as André Goldenberg and Simon Lévy favoured it. Franz Boas wrote in 1923 that a comparison of the Jews of North Africa with those of Western Europe and those of Russia "shows clearly that in every single instance we have a marked assimilation between the Jews and the people among whom they live" and that "the Jews of North Africa are, in essential traits, North Africans". Haim Hirshberg, a major historian of North-African Jewry, questioned the theory of massive Judaization of the Berbers in an article named "The Problem of the Judaized Berbers". One of the points that Hirshberg raised in his article was that Ibn Khaldoun, the source of the Judaized Berbers theory, wrote only that few tribes "might" have been Judaized in ancient times and stated that in the Roman period the same tribes were Christianized; the theory of a massive Judaization of the Berber population was further dismissed by a recent study on the mtDNA.
The study carried out by Behar et al. that analysed small samples of North African Jews indicates that Jews from North Africa lack North African Hg M1 and U6 mtDNAs. Hence, according to the authors, the lack of U6 and M1 haplogroups among the North Africans renders the possibility of significant admixture, as between the local Arab and Berber populations with Jews, unlikely; the genetic evidence shows them to be distinct from Berber populations, but more similar to Ashkenazi Jewish populations. Jewish ethnic divisions Judeo-Berber language Mizrahi Jews History of the Jews in Morocco History of the Jews in Algeria History of the Jews in Tunisia History of the Jews of Bilad el-Sudan Berbers Berber beliefs Muslim conquest of North Africa Berbers and Islam Arab-Berber Arabized Berber Kabylism, Berberism Udayn n Acur Helene Grimaud David Bensoussan, Il était une fois le Maroc: témoignages du passé judéo-marocain, éd. du Lys, www.editionsdulys.com, Montréal, 2010. Ebook ISBN 978-1-4759-2609-5, Prix Haïm Zafrani de l'Institut universitaire Élie Wiesel, Paris 2012.
Moroccan citron, an old heritage of growing the genetically pure citron type, native to Assads, Morocco on the Anti Atlas canyon, for the Jewish ritual of etrog during the holiday of Sukkot. Les Derniers Judeo-Berberes The Berbers and the Jews The Amazigh Jews La découverte des Juifs Berbères Muir Appelbaum, Diana (August 10
Traditional Berber religion
The traditional Berber religion is the ancient and native set of beliefs and deities adhered to by the Berber autochthones of North Africa. Many ancient Berber beliefs were developed locally, whereas others were influenced over time through contact with other traditional African religions, or borrowed during antiquity from the Punic religion, Iberian mythology, the Hellenistic religion; the most recent influence came from pre-Islamic Arab religion during the medieval period. Some of the ancient Berber beliefs still exist today subtly within the Berber popular culture and tradition. Syncretic influences from the traditional Berber religion can be found in certain other faiths. Archaeological research on prehistoric tombs in the Maghreb shows that the bodies of the dead were painted with ochre. While this practice was known to the Iberomaurusians, this culture seems to have been a Capsian industry; the dead were sometimes buried with shells of ostrich eggs and weapons. Bodies were buried in a fetal position.
Unlike the majority of mainland Berbers, the Guanches mummified the dead. Additionally, Savino di Lernia discovered a Libyan mummy older than any comparable Ancient Egyptian mummy in 1958; the authors of the book The Berbers stated that the cult of the dead was one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Berbers in antiquity. Pomponius Mela reported, they consulted them. After making requests, they slept in their tombs to await responses in dreams. Herodotus noted the same practice among the Nasamones, who inhabited the deserts around Siwa and Augila, he wrote: They swear by the men among themselves who are reported to have been the most righteous and brave, by these, I say, laying hands upon their tombs. The Berbers worshiped their kings, too; the tombs of the Numidian kings are among the most notable monuments left by the Classical Berbers. The veneration of saints which exists among the modern Berbers in the form of Maraboutism—which is widespread in northwest Africa—may or may not contain traces of prior beliefs or customs concerning the dead.
The tombs of the early people and their ancestors indicate that the Berbers and their forebears believed in an afterlife. The prehistoric people of northwest Africa buried bodies in little holes; when they realized that bodies buried in unsecured holes were dug up by wild animals, they began to bury them in deeper ones. They buried the dead in caves, tombs in rocks and other types of tombs; these tombs evolved from primitive structures to much more elaborate ones, such as the pyramidal tombs spread throughout Northern Africa. The honor of being buried in such a tomb appears to have been reserved for those who were most important to their communities; these pyramid tombs have attracted the attention of some scholars, such as Mohamed Chafik who wrote a book discussing the history of several of the tombs that have survived into modern times. He tried to relate the pyramidal Berber tombs with the great Egyptian pyramids on the basis of the etymological and historical data; the best known Berber pyramids are the 19-meter pre-Roman Numidian pyramid of the Medracen and the 30-meter ancient Mauretanian pyramid.
The Numidian pyramid in Tipaza is known as Kbour-er-Roumia or Tomb of Juba and Sypax, mistranslated by the French colonists as Tomb of the Christian Woman. The Tomb holds the graves of sovereigns of Mauretania. Augustine of Hippo mentioned. Apuleius stated as well; the megalithic culture may have been part of a cult of the dead or of star-worship. The monument of Msoura is the best-known megalithic monument in northwest Africa, it is composed of a circle of megaliths surrounding a tumulus. The highest megalith is longer than 5 meters. According to legend, it is the sepulchre of the mythical Berber king Antaeus. Another megalithic monument was discovered in 1926 to south of Casablanca; the monument was engraved with funerary inscriptions in the Berber script known as Tifinagh. Herodotus mentioned that the ancient Berbers sacrificed to them, he reported: They begin with the ear of the victim, which they cut off and throw over their house: this done, they kill the animal by twisting the neck. They sacrifice to the Moon, but not to any other god.
This worship is common to all the Libyans. Tullius Cicero reported the same cult in On the Republic: When I was introduced to him, the old man embraced me, shed tears, looking up to heaven, exclaimed I thank thee, O supreme Sun, you you other celestial beings, that before I departed from this life I behold in my kingdom, in my palace, Publius Cornelius Scipio.... There were some Latin inscriptions found in Northwest Africa dedicated to the sun-god. An example is the inscription found in Souk Ahras written "Solo Deo Invicto". Samuel the Confessor appears to have suffered from the sun-worshiping Berbers who tried unsuccessfully to force him to worship the sun; the Berber pantheon contained multiple gods, known as the Dii Mauri, represented on reliefs and the subject of dedications. During the Roman period, Saturn was the focus of an important cult, subsuming that of Baal Hammon
Tifinagh is an abjad script used to write the Tamazight languages. A modern alphabetical derivative of the traditional script, known as Neo-Tifinagh, was reintroduced in the 20th century. A modified version of the traditional script, called Tifinagh Ircam, is used in a number of Moroccan elementary schools in teaching the Berber language to children as well as a number of publications; the word tifinagh is thought to be a Tuareg pun meaning itif nnegh i.e. our discovery. Tifinagh or Libyc was used in antiquity by speakers of Libyc languages throughout North Africa and on the Canary Islands, it is attested from the 2nd millennium BC to the 3rd century AD. The script's origin is considered by most scholars as being of local origin, although some scholars however suggest it is related to the Phoenician alphabet. There are four known variants: Western Libyc, Bu Njem Libyc and Saharan Libyc; the eastern variant covers the North-West of Tunisia as well as Eastern Algeria, the Western limit of its use is placed at the East of Sétif although inscriptions of the Eastern type can exceptionally be in Kabylia, it shows a clear Phoenician influence.
It is the best-deciphered variant, due to the discovery of several Numidian bilingual inscriptions in Libyan and Punic. 22 letters out of the 24 were deciphered. The western variant covers the western half of Algeria, as well as the Canary Islands, it shows no Phoenician influence. Its inscriptions are fewer and shorter and rougher; the characteristic of this alphabet is that it includes additional signs 13, that the Eastern one is unaware of, whose value could not be given. Some of these characters are identical to the Touareg letters of the alphabet. There are graffiti discovered at Bou Njem, the antique Gholaia in Libya, on the wall of an old monument which dated from the 3rd century; the writing is horizontal, made up of nine inscriptions. This variant was influenced by Latin to the point of constituting a special alphabet; this variant was widespread in pre-saharan and saharan Libya, territory of the Gaetuli and Garamantes, where it was used by the inhabitants to engrave their messages. It is unknown and badly located.
The ancient Tifinagh script was a pure abjad. Gemination was not marked; the writing was from the bottom to the top, although right-to-left, other orders, were found. The letters would take different forms when written vertically than when they were written horizontally; the Libyco-Berber script is used today in the form of Tifinagh to write the Tuareg languages, which belong to the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Early uses of the script have been found in various sepulchres. Among these are the 1,500 year old monumental tomb of the Tuareg queen Tin Hinan, where vestiges of a Tifinagh inscription have been found on one of its walls. According to M. C. A. MacDonald, the Tuareg are "an oral society in which memory and oral communication perform all the functions which reading and writing have in a literate society… The Tifinagh are used for games and puzzles, short graffiti and brief messages."Occasionally, the script has been used to write other neighbouring languages such as Tagdal, which belongs to a separate Songhay family.
Common forms of the letters are illustrated at left, including various ligatures of t and n. Gemination, though phonemic, is not indicated in Tifinagh; the letter t, +, is combined with a preceding letter to form a ligature. Most of the letters have more than one common form, including mirror-images of the forms shown here; when the letters l and n are adjacent to themselves or to each other, the second is offset, either by inclining, raising, or shortening it. For example, since the letter l is a double line, ||, n a single line, |, the sequence nn may be written || to differentiate it from l. Ln is |||, nl |||, ll ||||, nnn |||, etc. Traditionally, the Tifinagh script does not indicate vowels except word-finally, where a single dot stands for any vowel. In some areas, Arabic vowel diacritics are combined with Tifinagh letters to transcribe vowels, or y, w may be used for long ī and ū. Neo-Tifinagh is the modern alphabetic script developed from earlier forms of Tifinagh, it is written left to right.
Until virtually no books or websites were published in this alphabet, with activists favouring the Latin scripts for serious use. In Morocco, use of Neo-Tifinagh was suppressed until recently; the Moroccan state imprisoned people using this script during the 1980s and 1990s. In 2003, the king took a "neutral" position between the claims of Latin script and Arabic script by adopting Neo-Tifinagh. However, many independent Berber-language publications are still published using the Berber Latin alphabet. Outside Morocco, it has no official status. In Algeria all Berber publications use the Berber Latin Alphabet; the Algerian Black Spring was caused by the repression of Berber languages. In Libya, the government of Muammar Gaddafi banned Tifinagh from being used in public contexts such as store displays and banners. After the Libyan Civil War, the National Transitional Council has shown an openness towards the Berber language
The Soussi people called Isussin or Swassa, are a major Berber subgroup inhabiting the southwestern mountains, Sous River, southern coastal regions of Morocco. The Soussis traditionally call themselves Isoussin; this endonym is rendered as les Soussis in French. The Soussis are known as Isoussin and Swassa. Among Arabic speakers, Chleuh serves as an appellation for Berbers although Amazigh/Imazighin is the proper Berber self-name for Berbers as a whole; the Soussi people live in Morocco's southern Atlantic coast, the High Atlas Mountains, the Anti Atlas mountains, the Sous Valley. They are of Berber origin, which along with the Berber people, includes other ethnic subgroups such as the Tuareg, Kabyle and Beraber; the Soussi people are a part of Morocco's Berber-speaking community, the southernmost residing Berber population. In antiquity, Berbers traded with the Phoenicians and Carthaginians in commercial entrepots and colonies along the northwestern littoral, they established the ancient kingdom of Mauretania, which fell under Roman rule in 33 CE, before being reunited under Berber sovereignty.
During the 7th century, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Berber and Byzantine strongholds in the Northwest Africa, seizing Carthage in 698 AD. Although the Umayyads nominally controlled Morocco over the following years, their rule was tenuous due to Berber resistance, shortly in 739 AD Umayyad Arabs were killed by the Moroccan Berbers at the battle of Nobles and Bagdoura. Morocco remained under the rule of Berber kingdoms such as Barghawata and Midrar.. etc. In 789 AD, with the approval of the locals, a former Umayyad courtier established the Idrisid dynasty that ruled in Fez, it lasted as various petty states vied for control over the ensuing centuries. After 1053, Morocco was ruled by a succession of Muslim dynasties founded by Berber tribes. Among these were the Almoravid dynasty who spread Islam in Morocco, the Almohad dynasty, the Marinid dynasty. In 1668, a sharifan family from the east assumed control and established the incumbent Alawite dynasty. Although the Soussis adopted Islam and other Berbers in the mountains have held on to their traditional language and religious customs to varying degrees.
A small minority of the Shilha people are Jewish. The French and Spanish colonial empires partitioned Morocco in 1904, the southern part of the territory was declared a French protectorate in 1912. Arabization remained an official state policy under both the colonial and succeeding post-independence governments. With the spread of the Berber Spring to Berber territory during the 1980s, the Berbers sought to reaffirm their Berber roots; this culminated with a proposal by Berber nationalists in 2013 to establish an independent Sousse state within a greater Morocco federation. The Soussis live in Morocco's Atlas Mountains and Sous Valley. Traditionally, they are farmers who keep herds; some are semi-nomadic, growing crops during the season when water is available, moving with their herds during the dry season. The Soussi communities in the southwestern mountains of Morocco cooperated with each other in terms of providing reciprocal grazing rights as seasons changed, as well as during periods of war.
These alliances were re-affirmed by annual festive gatherings, where one Soussi community would invite nearby and distant Shilha communities. The Soussis speak a Tasoussit dialect, it belongs to the Berber branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. Their language is sometimes referred to as Sous-Berber; as of 2014, there were around 5 million Shilha speakers, constituting 14.1% of the Moroccan population. The Soussi language differs from certain Berber varieties, such as those spoken by the Tuareg. High Atlas "Shluh", Encyclopædia Britannica online, 2008, webpage: EB-Shluh. Maroc - Carte linguistique