A pursuivant or, more pursuivant of arms, is a junior officer of arms. Most pursuivants are attached to official heraldic authorities, such as the College of Arms in London or the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh. In the mediaeval era, many great nobles employed their own officers of arms. Today, there still exist some private pursuivants. In Scotland, for example, several pursuivants of arms have been appointed by Clan Chiefs; these pursuivants of arms look after matters of heraldic and genealogical importance for clan members. Some Masonic Grand Lodges have an office known as the Grand Pursuivant, it is the Grand Pursuivant's duty to announce all applicants for admission into the Grand Lodge by their names and Masonic titles. The office is at the local Masonic lodge level in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. In that jurisdiction it is the Pursuivant's duty to guard the door of the lodge, announce and escort applicants for admission into the lodge; the office is unknown at the local level in Masonic jurisdictions outside Pennsylvania, where the equivalent role is named the Inner Guard.
Bluemantle Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Fitzalan Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Howard Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Bute Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Carrick Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Dingwall Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Kintyre Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Ormond Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Unicorn Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Linlithgow Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Falkland Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary March Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Athlone Pursuivant Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Slains Pursuivant of Arms Garioch Pursuivant of Arms Endure Pursuivant of Arms Finlaggan Pursuivant of Arms Persevante León Blanco de Armas Heraldry Officer of Arms Private Officer of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
Grant of arms
A grant of arms or a governmental issuance of arms, are actions by a lawful authority such as an officer of arms or State Herald, conferring on a person and his or her descendants the right to bear a particular coat of arms or armorial bearings. It is one of the ways in which a person may lawfully bear arms in a jurisdiction regulating heraldry, another being by birth, through inheritance. A grant of arms is distinguished from both a confirmation of arms and a private registration of arms. A grant of arms confers a new right; however a governmental registration of arms by an official government agency, does create and confirm new legal rights. The College of Arms issues “letters patent” the Bureau of Heraldry issues “certificates of registration”. For all intents and purposes it’s the same thing; the College of Arms “grants” in the name of the monarch and in South Africa under the Heraldry Act the certificate is “issued”. In both cases the heraldic representation so issued and recorded affords the applicant sole ownership of the unique design.
A grant of arms or government registration of arms are contained in letters patent which provide self-contained proof, upon production of the letters patent, of the right conferred. A modern English grant of arms, for example, from officers of the College of Arms in London, will begin with the words "To all and singular to whom these presents shall come...", thereby showing that it is addressed to anyone in the world to whom it may be presented. Law of Arms G. D. Squibb, The High Court of Chivalry p. 184
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Private Officer of Arms
A private officer of arms is one of the heralds and pursuivants appointed by great noble houses to handle all heraldic and genealogical questions. Since the development of heraldry in the Middle Ages and the rise of officers of arms, noble families have appointed heralds and pursuivants to look after the correct marshalling of their coats of arms and research genealogical links. Many noblemen in Britain retained heralds from about 1170 onwards, as did important knights such as Sir John Chandos; the heralds were concerned with war and tournaments and identifying people by their arms. As such, they developed an interest in genealogy; the Lord of the Isles had Ross Herald and Islay Pursuivant. On the forfeiture of the Lordship these became, remain, Royal Officers. In 1725, Blanc Coursier Herald was created to serve Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, the tabard of the office includes Prince Williams differenced arms. Today, most officers of arms are employed by state heraldic authorities. There are, some private officers that still exist.
In Scotland, there are four private pursuivants of arms that are recognized by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms. These are appointed by clan chiefs to look after matters of clan genealogy; the four recognized private Scottish pursuivants are listed below: Slains Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Hay – the Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Garioch Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Mar – the Countess of Mar Endure Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Lindsay – the Earl of Crawford & Balcarres Finlaggan Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald and High Chief of Clan Donald – the Lord Macdonald of Slate. This post was revived, after five centuries in August 2005 In 10 November 1962 Fernando Muñoz Altea was appointed King of Arms of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies by HRH Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House; the Kingdom of Sicily did not have actual heralds in recent times, but rather a Commission for Titles of Nobility based in Naples until 1861.
This commission concerned itself with administration of certain nobiliary institutions and recognition of titles of nobility. Muñoz Altea continues this tradition as a Private Officer of Arms of the Royal House. In addition to his office as King of Arms, Muñoz Altea is delegate of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Heraldry Officer of Arms King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
The Greyhound is a breed of dog, a sighthound, bred for coursing game and Greyhound racing. Since the rise in large-scale adoption of retired racing Greyhounds, the breed has seen a resurgence in popularity as a family pet. According to Merriam-Webster, a Greyhound is "any of a breed of tall slender graceful smooth-coated dogs characterized by swiftness and keen sight", as well as "any of several related dogs," such as the Italian Greyhound, it is a gentle and intelligent breed whose combination of long, powerful legs, deep chest, flexible spine and slim build allows it to reach average race speeds exceeding 64 kilometres per hour. The Greyhound can reach a full speed of 70 kilometres per hour within 30 metres, or six strides from the boxes, traveling at 20 metres per second for the first 250 metres of a race. Males are 71 to 76 centimetres tall at the withers, weigh on average 27 to 40 kilograms. Females tend to be smaller, with shoulder heights ranging from 68 to 71 centimetres and weights from less than 27 to 34 kilograms.
Greyhounds have short fur, easy to maintain. There are thirty recognized color forms, of which variations of white, fawn, black and blue can appear uniquely or in combination. Greyhounds are dolichocephalic, with a skull, long in comparison to its breadth, an elongated muzzle. Greyhounds are affectionate with their own pack, they are docile, easy-going, calm. Greyhounds wear muzzles during racing, which can lead some to believe they are aggressive dogs, but this is not true. Muzzles are worn to prevent injuries resulting from dogs nipping one another during or after a race, when the'hare' has disappeared out of sight and the dogs are no longer racing but remain excited. Contrary to popular belief, adult Greyhounds do not need extended periods of daily exercise, as they are bred for sprinting rather than endurance. Greyhound puppies that have not been taught how to utilize their energy, can be hyperactive and destructive if not given an outlet, therefore require more experienced handlers. Greyhound owners and adoption groups consider Greyhounds wonderful pets.
Greyhounds are quiet and loyal to owners. They are loving, enjoy the company of their humans and other dogs. Whether a Greyhound will enjoy the company of other small animals, such as cats, depends on the individual dog's personality. Greyhounds will chase small animals. Many owners describe their Greyhounds as "45-mile-per-hour couch potatoes". Greyhounds live most as pets in quiet environments, they do well in families with children, as long as the children are taught to treat the dog properly with politeness and appropriate respect. Greyhounds have a sensitive nature, gentle commands work best as training methods. A Greyhound may bark. A common misconception regarding Greyhounds is that they are hyperactive; this is not the case with retired racing Greyhounds. Greyhounds can live comfortably as apartment dogs, as they do not require much space and sleep 18 hours per day. Due to their calm temperament, Greyhounds can make better "apartment dogs" than smaller, more active breeds. Many Greyhound adoption groups recommend that owners keep their Greyhounds on a leash whenever outdoors, except in enclosed areas.
This is due to their prey-drive, their speed, the assertion that Greyhounds have no road sense. In some jurisdictions, it is illegal for Greyhounds to be allowed off-leash in off-leash dog parks. Due to their size and strength, adoption groups recommend that fences be between 4 and 6 feet tall, to prevent Greyhounds from jumping over them; the original primary use of Greyhounds, both in the British Isles and on the Continent of Europe, was in the coursing of deer. They specialized in competition hare coursing; some Greyhounds are still used for coursing, although artificial lure sports like lure coursing and racing are far more common and popular. Many leading 300- to 550-yard sprinters have bloodlines traceable back through Irish sires, within a few generations of racers that won events such as the Irish Coursing Derby or the Irish Cup; until the early twentieth century, Greyhounds were principally bred and trained for hunting and coursing. During the 1920s, modern greyhound racing was introduced into the United States, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
Australia has a significant racing culture. Aside from professional racing, many Greyhounds enjoy success on the amateur race track. Organizations like the Large Gazehound Racing Association and the National Oval Track Racing Association provide opportunities for Greyhounds and other sighthound breeds to compete in amateur racing events all over the United States; the Greyhound has, since its first appearance as a hunting type and breed, enjoyed a specific degree of fame and definition in Western literature and art as the most elegant or noble companion and hunter of the canine world. In modern times, the professional racing industry, with its large numbers of track-bred greyhounds, as well as international adoption programs aimed at re-homing dogs has redefined the breed as a sporting
A crest is a component of a heraldic display, consisting of the device borne on top of the helm. Originating in the decorative sculptures worn by knights in tournaments and, to a lesser extent, crests became pictorial after the 16th century. A normal heraldic achievement consists of the shield, above, set the helm, on which sits the crest, its base encircled by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse; the use of the crest and torse independently from the rest of the achievement, a practice which became common in the era of paper heraldry, has led the term "crest" to be but erroneously used to refer to the arms displayed on the shield, or to the achievement as a whole. The word "crest" derives from the Latin crista, meaning "tuft" or "plume" related to crinis, "hair". Crests had existed in various forms since ancient times: Roman officers wore fans of feathers or horsehair, which were placed longitudinally or transversely depending on the wearer's rank, Viking helmets were adorned with wings and animal heads.
They first appeared in a heraldic context in the form of the metal fans worn by knights in the 12th and 13th centuries. These were decorative, but may have served a practical purpose by lessening or deflecting the blows of opponents' weapons; these fans were of one colour evolving to repeat all or part of the arms displayed on the shield. The fan crest was developed by cutting out the figure displayed on it, to form a metal outline; these were made of cloth, leather or paper over a wooden or wire framework, were in the form of an animal. These were worn only in tournaments, not battle: not only did they add to the considerable weight of the helm, they could have been used by opponents as a handle to pull the wearer's head down. Laces, straps, or rivets were used to affix the crest to the helm, with the join being covered by a circlet of twisted cloth known as a torse or wreath, or by a coronet in the case of high-ranking nobles. Torses did not come into regular use in Britain until the 15th century, are still uncommon on the Continent, where crests are depicted as continuing into the mantling.
Crests were sometimes mounted on a furred cap known as a chapeau, as in the royal crest of England. By the 16th century the age of tournaments had ended, physical crests disappeared, their illustrated equivalents began to be treated as two-dimensional pictures. Many crests from this period are physically impossible to bear on a helm, e.g. the crest granted to Sir Francis Drake in 1581, which consisted of a disembodied hand issuing from clouds and leading a ship around the globe. In the same period, different helms began to be used for different ranks: sovereigns' and knights' helms faced forwards, whereas those of peers and gentlemen faced to the right. In the medieval period crests would always have faced the same way as the helm, but as a result of these rules, the directions of the crest and the helm might be at variance: a knight whose crest was a lion statant, would have the lion depicted as looking over the side of the helm, rather than towards the viewer. Torses suffered artistically, being treated not as silken circlets, but as horizontal bars.
Heraldry in general underwent something of a renaissance in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many of the illogicalities of previous centuries were discarded. Crests are now not granted unless they could be used on a physical helm, the rules about directions of helms are no longer rigidly observed; the use of crests was once restricted to those of'tournament rank', i.e. knights and above, but in modern times nearly all personal arms include crests. They are not used by women and clergymen, as they did not participate in war or tournaments and thus would not have helms on which to wear them; some heraldists are of the opinion that crests, as personal devices, are not suited for use by corporate bodies, but this is not observed. In continental Europe Germany, crests have a far greater significance than in Britain, it is common for one person to display multiple crests with his arms; this practice did not exist in Britain until the modern era, arms with more than one crest are still rare.
In contrast to Continental practice, where a crest is never detached from its helm, a Briton with more than one crest may choose to display only one crested helm, have the other crests floating in space. Though adopted through marriage to an heiress, examples exist of secondary crests being granted as augmentations: after defeating the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg, Robert Ross was granted, in addition to his original crest, the crest of an arm holding the US flag with a broken flagstaff. After the 16th century, it became common for armigers to detach the crest and wreath from the helm, use them in the manner of a badge, displayed on crockery, carriage doors, etc; this led to the erroneous use of the term "crest" to mean "arms", which has become widespread in recent years. Unlike a badge, which can be used by any amount of relatives and retainers, a crest is personal to the armiger, its use by others is considered usurpation. In Scotland, however, a member of a clan or house is entitled to use a "crest-badge", which consists of th
White Greyhound of Richmond
The White Greyhound of Richmond is one of the Queen's Beasts commissioned for display at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. A stone copy can be found in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. According to the Cambridge University Heraldic and Genealogical Society: "The White Greyhound of Richmond bears a shield of Tudor livery and green, with a Tudor Rose ensigned by a Royal Crown. Henry VII sometimes used greyhounds on his standards, his father, Edmund Tudor, was created Earl of Richmond and the white greyhound was associated with the Honour of Richmond. The rose in the badge shows the association of the red and the white elements of Lancaster and York emphasising the union of the rival houses."Originally a badge held by John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster during his 14th century tenure as steward/earl of the Honour of Richmond, it was the canine breed most favoured in Northern England. This animal was further used for John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford and George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and is supposed to stand for the honour, regardless of who has held or been in charge of it, although Peter II, Count of Savoy was not known to have any unique symbol to depict his stewardship of Richmond.
Although they were legitimately entitled to the feudal estate, the badge was not used by any Duke of Brittany, preferring to use their traditional ermine until Francis II, Duke of Brittany willed Richmond to Henry VII of England—the chief representative of the House of Lancaster, which legitimised the title to the Tudor dynasty and reversed the effect of the attainder made by Richard III of England as chief representative of the House of York and swung the loyalty of Richmondshire against the Ricardian regime, rolling back jure uxoris control through the marriages to Cecily Neville, Anne Neville and Isabella Neville, as descendants of the Nevilles who held Middleham. Henry VII subsequently replaced the English lion with the White Greyhound, in the coat of arms of England, opposite the Y Ddraig Goch of Wales. Like the Red Dragon, the White Greyhound represents the ancient Brythons, although more of the Breton element which had become resettled since the Harrying of the North in 1071