In astronomy and celestial navigation, the hour angle is one of the coordinates used in the equatorial coordinate system to give the direction of a point on the celestial sphere. The hour angle of a point is the angle between two planes: one containing Earth's axis and the zenith, the other containing Earth's axis and the given point; the angle may be expressed as negative east of the meridian plane and positive west of the meridian plane, or as positive westward from 0° to 360°. The angle may be measured in time, with 24h = 360 ° exactly. In astronomy, hour angle is defined as the angular distance on the celestial sphere measured westward along the celestial equator from the meridian to the hour circle passing through a point, it may be given in time, or rotations depending on the application. In celestial navigation, the convention is to measure in degrees westward from the prime meridian, from the local meridian or from the first point of Aries; the hour angle is paired with the declination to specify the location of a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system.
The local hour angle of an object in the observer's sky is LHA object = LST − α object or LHA object = GST + λ observer − α object where LHAobject is the local hour angle of the object, LST is the local sidereal time, α object is the object's right ascension, GST is Greenwich sidereal time and λ observer is the observer's longitude. These angles can be measured in degrees -- one or the other, not both. Negative hour angles indicate the time until the next transit across the meridian. Observing the sun from earth, the solar hour angle is an expression of time, expressed in angular measurement degrees, from solar noon. At solar noon the hour angle is 0.000 degree, with the time before solar noon expressed as negative degrees, the local time after solar noon expressed as positive degrees. For example, at 10:30 AM local apparent time the hour angle is -22.5°. The cosine of the hour angle is used to calculate the solar zenith angle. At solar noon, h = 0.000 so cos=1, before and after solar noon the cos term = the same value for morning or afternoon, i.e. the sun is at the same altitude in the sky at 11:00AM and 1:00PM solar time, etc.
The sidereal hour angle of a body on the celestial sphere is its angular distance west of the vernal equinox measured in degrees. An alternate definition is that SHA of a celestial body is the arc of the Equinoctial or the angle at the celestial pole contained between the celestial meridian of the First point of Aries and that through the body, measured westward from Aries; the SHA of a star changes and the SHA of a planet doesn't change quickly, so SHA is a convenient way to list their positions in an almanac. SHA is used in celestial navigation and navigational astronomy. Clock position
"But Can She Type?" is the second segment of the thirteenth episode from the first season of the television series The Twilight Zone. Karen Billings is an underappreciated secretary. While making copies on the office Xerox machine, it malfunctions and Karen finds herself transported to another reality. Unaware of the fact that she is no longer in her own universe, Karen attends a party where she is supposed to meet her current boyfriend, she discovers to her surprise that secretaries are a cherished commodity in this dimension. Men at the party hit on her and women talk of; the hostess feels her party is now a real event upon finding out a secretary has deemed her party worthy enough to attend. Karen is approached by a wealthy-looking man, she realizes she has lost her keys and leaves the party. She goes back to the copy room and accidentally runs the Xerox machine again, is returned to her reality. Still unaware of the change, Karen returns home to find a message from her boyfriend about missing her at the party.
She attempts to call. The number, doesn't exist and Karen returns to work only to find that her boss is upset with her for not doing her job, he berates secretaries in general. While talking with her office friend, Karen realizes, she finds workmen about to remove the defective machine. Before they can take it away, she frantically operates the copier. A flash of light erupts from the machine and Karen disappears. Now in the alternate dimension, Karen calls the number on the card; the wealthy man ushers her to a waiting limousine, which will take her to the company's Paris office. List of The Twilight Zone episodes "But Can She Type?" on IMDb "But Can She Type?" at TV.com
Sister Joan D. Chittister, is an American Benedictine nun, theologian and speaker, she has served as Benedictine prioress and Benedictine federation president, president of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious, co-chair of the Global Peace Initiative of Women. Chittister was born April 26,1936 to Loretta Daugherty, her father died when she was young and her mother married Harold Chittister. Although Joan Chittister describes her step-father as an abusive alcoholic, she remained sufficiently attached to him that as an adult she chose to retain his surname, she was taught by the Sisters of St. Joseph, attended St. Benedict Academy in Erie, Pennsylvania. Chittister holds a master's degree from the University of Notre Dame and a Ph. D. in speech communication theory from Penn State University. She is an elected fellow of St. Edmunds College, Cambridge University. In 1971, Chittister was elected president of the Federation of St. Scholastica, a federation of twenty Monasteries of Benedictine Women in the United States and Mexico, established in 1922.
She was a prioress of the Benedictine Sisters of Erie, Pennsylvania for 12 years and is a past president of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious. She serves as co-chair of the Global Peace Initiative of Women, an inclusive international network of spiritual and community leaders. With this organization, she works to bring a spiritual perspective to conflict resolution fueled by pressing economic and ecological crises across the globe. Chittister says, her books deal with monasticism and equality for women in church and society, interfaith topics and others. She has won 16 Catholic Press Association awards for her books and numerous other awards for her work, including 12 honorary degrees from US universities, she writes a column for the National Catholic Reporter, "From Where I Stand". Penn State University holds the Joan D. Chittister Literary Archives. A biography of Sister Joan was released by Orbis Books in October 2015, Joan Chittister: Her Journey from Certainty to Faith by Tom Roberts.
Chittister has authored over 50 books and over 700 articles in numerous journals and magazines including: America, US Catholic, Sojourners and The Tablet. She is a regular contributor to NCRonline.org and HuffingtonPost.com, appeared on Oprah Winfrey's Super Soul Sunday in March 2015 and in May 2019, on Meet the Press with Tim Russert and Now with Bill Moyers. She is the executive director of "Benetvision", a publications ministry of the Benedictine Sisters of Erie. Joan Chittister: Essential Writings a compilation from her best writing from books and speeches, was published by Orbis Books in August 2014.. In 2019, Dear Joan: conversations with women in the church, editor Jessie Bazan was published by Twenty-third Publ; the Time Is Random House: New York." What Are You Looking For? Paulist Press. A Little Rule for Beginners, Erie. " We Are All One," Twenty-Third Publications. Radical Spirit, Random House: New York. Two Dogs and a Parrot, BlueBridge. In God's Holy Light, Franciscan Media: Cincinnati, OH.
Between the Dark and the Daylight," Image Books Twenty-Third Publications. A Passion for Life, Orbis For Everything a Season, Orbis The Way of the Cross, Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY The Sacred In-Between, Twenty-Third Publications Following the Path" Random House: New York Happiness, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, MI.. The Radical Christian Life, Liturgical Press; the Monastery of the Heart, BlueBridge. God's Tender Mercy, Twenty-Third Publications: Mystic, CT; the Rule of Benedict, Revised edition, Crossroad Publications Uncommon Gratitude, Liturgical Press: Collegeville, MN. The Liturgical Year, Thomas Nelson: Nashville, TN. "The Gift of Years," Blue Bridge "In Search of Belief," Liguori, Called to Question: A Spiritual Memoir, Sheed & Ward.. Joan Chittister's website Monasteries of the Heart Benedictine Sisters of Erie NOW with Bill Moyers, Bill Moyers talks with Joan Chittister. "NPR Interview: Weekend Edition Sunday with Liane Hansen." Joan Chittister interviewed on Conversations from Penn State
Alderwoods Group, formally The Alderwoods Group, Inc. was a provider of funeral and cemetery services in North America with operations in the United States and Puerto Rico. Its executive office was in Toronto, it had administrative offices in Cincinnati and Burnaby, British Columbia; as of June 17, 2006, Alderwoods had 579 funeral homes, 72 cemeteries and 61 combination funeral homes and cemeteries in 36 states, seven Canadian provinces and Puerto Rico. The company's locations included Rose Hills Memorial Park, considered to be the largest memorial park in the world; the Alderwoods Group formed after the Loewen Group emerged from bankruptcy on January 2, 2002. In November 2006, Alderwoods was acquired by Service Corporation International in a US$1.2 billion deal reached in April of the same year
Challenge-based learning is a framework for learning while solving real-world Challenges. The framework is collaborative and hands-on, asking all participants to identify Big Ideas, ask good questions and solve Challenges, gain in-depth subject area knowledge, develop 21st-century skills, share their thoughts with the world. Challenge-based learning builds on the foundation of experiential learning, leans on the wisdom of a long history of progressive education, shares many of the goals of service learning, the activism of critical pedagogy; the framework is informed by innovative ideas from education, technology, recreation, the workplace, society. The challenge-based learning framework emerged from the "Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow—Today" project initiated in 2008 by Apple, Inc. to identify the essential design principles of a 21st-century learning environment. Starting with the ACOT2 design principles, a team from Apple, Inc. worked with exemplary educators to develop and implement challenge-based learning.
Using Challenges to frame learning experiences originated from an exploration of reality television, conversations with individuals whose lives center on Challenges, reflection on personal learning experiences inside and outside of the classroom. When faced with a Challenge, successful groups and individuals leverage experience, harness internal and external resources, develop a plan and push forward to find the best solution. Along the way, there is experimentation, failure and consequences for actions. By adding Challenges to learning environments the result is urgency and ownership – ingredients missing in schools; the initial framework was documented in a white paper published by Apple, Inc.. Since that time teachers and schools around the world have adopted the framework to improve teaching and learning while allowing students to make an immediate difference in their community. In 2009 New Media Consortium published an in-depth study of challenge-based learning in classroom practice; the study, which involved 6 schools in the United States, 29 teachers, 330 students in 17 disciplines, found the approach produced effective results for the 9th-grade students considered to be most at risk of dropping out.
In 2011 an additional study was conducted to test if the framework applied to a larger K-20 audience and to look deeper into the acquisition of 21st century skills. This study includes 90 teachers and 1500 students from three countries. Once again the research demonstrated that CBL is an effective way to engage students, meet curriculum standards, gain 21st-century skills; the research concluded that CBL could be used with students of all ages. In 2016 Apple Inc. engaged Digital Promise, members of the team that created CBL to update the content, manage the website and develop a book. The updated framework in organized into three phases: Engage – Through a process of Essential Questioning, the Learners move from an abstract Big Idea to a concrete and actionable Challenge. Investigate – All Learners plan and participate in a journey that builds the foundation for Solutions and addresses academic requirements. Act – Evidence-based Solutions are developed, implemented with an authentic audience, evaluated based on the results.
Throughout the process, all participants are expected to document the experience, reflect on practice and share the experience with the world. The CBL framework has been extended into new areas including strategic planning, workplace training, mobile software instruction and development. Challenge-based learning is a flexible framework, with each implementation, new ideas surface, the framework is reviewed, the model evolves. Challenge-based learning provides: A flexible and customizable framework that can be implemented as a guiding pedagogy or integrated with other progressive approaches to learning. A scalable model with multiple points of entry and the ability to start small and build big, A free and open system with no proprietary ideas, products or subscriptions. A process that places all Learners in charge, responsible for the learning. An authentic environment for meeting academic standards and making deeper connections with content. A focus on global ideas, meaningful Challenges and the development of local and age appropriate Solutions An authentic relationship between academic disciplines and real world experience A framework to develop 21st-century skills Purposeful use of technology for researching, organizing, networking, communicating and reflecting.
The opportunity for Learners to make a difference now. A way to document and assess both the learning process and products, An environment for deep reflection on teaching and learning Learning by teaching Pedagogy Dewey, John. Experience & Education. New York, NY: Kappa Delta Pi. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. Johnson, Laurence F.. Challenge-Based Learning: An Approach for Our Time Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Johnson, L. and Adams, S.. Challenge Based Learning: The Report from the Implementation Project. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Apple, Inc. Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow—Today Learning in the 21st Century. Cupertino, California: Apple, Inc. Nichols, M. Cator, K. Torres, M. and Henderson, D. Challenge Based Learner User Guide. Redwood City, CA: Digital Promise. Nichols, Mark H. Cator, Karen
Nebraska Highway 39 is a highway in central Nebraska. It runs for a length of 42.05 miles. It has a southern terminus west of Osceola at an intersection with Nebraska Highway 92, its northern terminus is at an intersection with Nebraska Highway 14 southeast of Albion. Nebraska Highway 39 begins in rural Polk County west of Osceola at Nebraska Highway 92, it goes north through farmland, crosses the Platte River and meets U. S. Highway 30 at Silver Creek, it runs northwesterly and crosses over the Loup River shortly before meeting Nebraska Highway 22. NE 39 and NE 22 overlap into Genoa, they separate and NE 39 continues northwest into St. Edward, it goes west out of St. Edward and at an intersection with Nebraska Highway 56, turns northwest again. Shortly before Albion, the highway ends. Nebraska Roads: NE 21-40