Abzac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern Metropolitan France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Swansea, is a coastal city and county known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast; the county area includes the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014; the last official census stated that the city and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011. During the 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was the key centre of the copper-smelting industry, earning the nickname Copperopolis. Archaeological finds in the Swansea area come from the Gower Peninsula, include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age; the Romans occupied the area. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes through the city centre and the Loughor which marks the northern border with Carmarthenshire; the Welsh name, translates to Mouth of the Tawe.
It first appears c.1150 as Aper Tyui. Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post, its English name may derive from Sveinn's island – Old Norse: Sveinsey – the reference to an island may refer either to a bank at the mouth of the River Tawe or to an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation derives the place name from the Norse personal name Sweyn and ey, which can mean "inlet"; this explanation supports the tradition. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea; the earliest known form of the modern name, appears in the first charter, granted sometime between 1158 and 1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen certain rights to develop the area. In 1215 King John granted a second charter. A town seal, believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse. Following the Norman conquest, a marcher lordship was established under the title of Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the River Tawe, the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, the peninsula itself.
Swansea was designated chief town of the lordship and received a borough charter at some point between 1158 and 1184. From the early 1700s to the late 1800s, Swansea was the world's leading copper-smelting area. Numerous smelters along the River Tawe received copper and other metal ores shipped from Cornwall and Devon, as well as from North and South America and Australia; the industry declined in the late 1800s, none of the smelters are now active. The port of Swansea traded in wine, wool, cloth and in coal. After the invention of the reverbatory furnace in the late 1600s, copper smelting was able to use coal rather than more-expensive charcoal. At the same time, the mines of Cornwall were increasing copper production. Swansea became the ideal place to smelt the Cornish copper ores, being close to the coalfields of South Wales and having an excellent port to receive ships carrying Cornish copper ore; because each ton of copper ore smelted used about three tons of coal, it was more economical to ship the copper ore to Wales rather than send the coal to Cornwall.
The first copper smelter at Swansea was established followed by many more. Once smelting was established, the smelters began receiving high-grade ore and ore concentrates from around the world. More coal mines opened to meet demand from northeast Gower to Llangyfelach. In the 1850s Swansea had more than 600 furnaces, a fleet of 500 oceangoing ships carrying out Welsh coal and bringing back metal ore from around the world. At that time most of the copper matte produced in the United States was sent to Swansea for refining.. Smelters processed arsenic, zinc and other metals. Nearby factories produced pottery; the Swansea smelters became so adept at recovering gold and silver from complex ores that in the 1800s they received ore concentrates from the United States, for example from Arizona in the 1850s, Colorado in the 1860s. The city expanded in the 18th and 19th centuries, was termed "Copperopolis". From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea's population grew by 500%—the first official census indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become larger than Glamorgan's county town and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil.
However, the census understated Swansea's true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough. Swansea's population was overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr. Much of Swansea's growth was due to migration from within and beyond Wales—in 1881 more than a third of the borough's population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, just under a quarter outside Wales. Copper smelting at Swansea declined in the late 1800s for a number of reasons. Copper mining in Cornwall declined; the price of copper dropped from £112 in 1860 to £35 in the 1890s. In the early 1900s, mining shifted to lower-grade copper deposits in North and South America, the lower-grade ore could not support transportation to Swansea; the Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from
Pointe de Grave
The Pointe de Grave is the northernmost tip of the Médoc Peninsula and marks the Northern end of the pine-clad sandy Landes coastline of Western France. It lies opposite the resort town of Royan; the offshore Cordouan lighthouse lies off the point and a second lighthouse, on the shore, houses a lighthouse museum. It is of strategic significance, owing to its position at the mouth of the Gironde Estuary and was the site of a German fortress during the Second World War, built to guard the entrance to that Estuary. In April 1945 US Eighth Air Force B-24's of the 458th Bombardment Group set a new record for precision bombing and destroyed a German battery; the old blockhouse provides panoramic views of the Atlantic Ocean, the Cordouan lighthouse, the Gironde Estuary, the La Coubre lighthouse, further up the coast from Royan and the Médoc peninsula itself. During the First World War, United States troops were landed here. A monument marked the place but it was destroyed by the Germans, during their occupation of France in the 1940s
Arbanats is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Saint-Laurent-Médoc is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department Haut-Médoc AOC INSEE
Arveyres is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
The Landes forest or the Landes of Gascony, in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest man-made woodland in Western Europe. The French word and Gascon lanas, mean'moors' or'heaths'; the forest covers two of the departments of France. The sources of several rivers can be found in this region, including the sources of the Leyre, the Boudigau, the Ciron, the Gat Mort; the largest towns within the forest are Arcachon and Mont-de-Marsan. The forest is composed of maritime pine, Pinus pinaster. Unlike many other European forests, the Landes forest is entirely created and managed by man for industrial purposes; this massive pine plantation was started in the 18th century in the Pays de Buch area of Gironde, to halt erosion and cleanse the soil. Most of the region now occupied by the Landes forest was swampy land, sparsely inhabited until the 19th century, when the 19 June 1857 law ended traditional pastoralism and led to wide scale reforestation, in order to rehabilitate the landscape and provide for regional economic development.
Prior to this period, the people of the Landes used stilt-walking to move from place to place in the wet terrain. Since the 1970s, parts of the forest have given way to intensive agriculture The area of the forest is estimated to be around 10,000 square kilometres, of which nine-tenths is devoted to a monoculture of maritime pines, but, in the centre of this pinhadar, there is a natural forest that survives from the post-glacial timbering of this part of southwestern France. There, pines co-exist with other species, chiefly oak, birch and holly; this mixed temperate forest is most found along watercourses, where the drainage is good. The old-growth forest was more extensive prior to the Middle Ages, when a colder, more humid, climate took hold and changed the species composition; because of the need for wood for fuel and construction, because of a steady expansion in the grazing of sheep, the aboriginal forest was further depleted between the 15th and 18th centuries. A major storm in January 2009 damaged 300,000 hectares of forest, 90% of, located in the Landes Forest.
Before the mid-19th century, only the breeding of sheep on the moors allowed the cultivation of rye. Because of wet winters, it was necessary to top-dress the land with thatch to preserve it for the next growing season; the disappearance of the moors, because of the expansion of the pine plantations, brought about the end of this herding and wetland grain-growing culture, the iconic image of shepherds on stilts disappeared as well. The shepherd image was replaced by the image of the resin-collector with his tools. In the first part of the 20th century, extensive commercial exploitation of wood and pine resin began, these industries became an important part of the regional economy. Many local people are still employed in forest-related pursuits, including forestry, paper mills, woodcrafts like parquetry and joinery and furniture making, as well the fabrication of paper-based products like cardboard and fiberboard for construction. However, resin-collecting, which required hard labor, has completely disappeared because modern chemical processes for producing solvents and other useful chemicals do not rely on pine resin or pine tar as a precursor.
DRT is the largest company in this region. Voies Ferrées des Landes, grouping of railway companies operating in the forest. Parc naturel régional des Landes de Gascogne This article is based on a translation from the original French Wikipedia article as it appeared on November 11, 2006 which cite the following sources: Francis Dupuy, Le pin de la discorde: Les rapports de métayage dans la Grande Lande, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1996 François Sargos, "Forêt des landes de Gascogne, une nature secrète" Editions Sud Ouest, Bordeaux, 2008 Christian Maizeret, Les Landes de Gascogne, Delachaux et Niestlé, Paris, 2005 Jacques Sargos, Histoire de la Forêt landaise - Du désert à l'âge d'or, Bordeaux, L'horizon chimérique, 1997, rééd. En 2004. Massif des Landes de Gascogne - Inventaire forestier 1998 1999 2000, IFN L'Ours Pécheur, de Philippe Cougrand. Bordeaux: Pleine Page Editeur, 2008, 312 p.. ISBN 978-2-913406-58-2 Dérivés Résiniques et Terpéniques