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House Leader

In Canada, each political party with representation in the House of Commons has a House Leader, a front bench Member of Parliament and an expert in parliamentary procedure. The same representation is found in the territorial legislatures; the House Leader is in charge of the party's day-to-day business in the House of Commons of Canada, conducts negotiations with other parties on the conduct of bills and debates. They argue Points of Order before the Speaker of the House; the "House Leader" is not the same as the party leader, but is the leader's senior deputy for House business in Opposition parties, including the Official Opposition. The Government House Leader is a senior Cabinet minister who navigates the government's business in the House; this system is replicated in the various provincial legislatures. The position of House Leader is important during periods of minority government where no one party has control of the House and bills can only be passed with the agreement of multiple parties.

The Prime Minister of Canada and Leader of the Official Opposition had these responsibilities. In 1944, however, as a result of the increasing burdens placed on government by the Second World War, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King delegated these responsibilities to another member of the Canadian Cabinet. In 1946, the position of Government House Leader was formally recognized; the position of Opposition House Leader evolved in the 1950s as each Opposition party began to designate a particular MP to question the Government House Leader on upcoming House business. The title of Opposition House Leader became official in 1963, in 1974, a special annual indemnity was attached to the position of House Leader in each of the opposition parties. Notable Opposition House Leaders include Stanley Knowles of the New Democratic Party and its predecessor, the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation; the office of House Leader has been instituted at the provincial level, in the provincial legislative assemblies.

The term House Leader has been used to describe a party's parliamentary leader, who leads a political party in the House of Commons or a provincial legislature due to their either not being a party leader or the party leader not having a seat. Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons Government House Leader Government House Leader Leader of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Lords Leader of the House Floor Leader Parliamentary leader Deputy leader

Hongdu JL-8

The Hongdu JL-8 known as the Karakorum-8 or K-8 for short, is a two-seat intermediate jet trainer and a light attack aircraft designed in the People's Republic of China by China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. Pakistan is the co-Partner of this project; the primary contractor is the Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation. Its export variant, K-8 Karakorum is co-produced by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex for the Pakistan Air Force; the JL-8 trainer was proposed as a joint cooperation effort between the governments of Pakistan and the People's Republic of China in 1986. The name was changed on the suggestion of Pakistan's President Zia ul Haq to Karakoram-8 to represent the friendship between the two countries. Work on the design started in 1987 at Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Company at Nanchang, Jiangshi Province in South Central China; the Chinese chief designer of the aircraft was Shi Ping, heading a team of over 100 Chinese Engineers, while Air Cdr Muhammad Younas Tbt, SI was the chief designer from the Pakistani side leading a team of over 20 Pakistani engineers.

The aircraft was to feature many parts manufactured in the United States, including Garrett TFE-731 engine and several cockpit displays along with communication and avionics systems, but due to political developments and an embargo from the US at the end of the 1980s following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, other suppliers had to be used. The first prototype was built in 1989, with the first flight taking place on 21 November 1990 by Chief Test Pilot Col Yang Yao. Flight testing continued from 1991 to 1993 by a Flight Test Team consisting of four Chinese and two Pakistani pilots. After four prototypes were built, production of a small batch of 24 aircraft was launched in 1992; the Chinese share out of these was 18, while the Pakistan Air Force received six K-8s in 1994. In 1995, the PAF decided to order 75 more K-8s to replace its fleet of Cessna T-37 Tweet basic trainers. In 2010, the number of K-8 aircraft in the PAF inventory was estimated to be around 40; the People's Liberation Army Air Force received its first six JL-8 trainers in 1995 following additional upgrades.

The Chinese model uses a Chinese-manufactured version of the Ukrainian Ivchenko AI-25 engine, designated WS-11. The PLAAF is anticipated to continue adding the JL-8 trainer to its fleet to replace its obsolete trainers, such as the Chengdu JJ-5. In 2008, the number of JL-8s in PLAAF inventory was estimated to be over 120 aircraft. Other countries have shown interest in the trainer and it now serves in the air forces of Egypt, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. While the type serves as a basic and advanced trainer, it can be used in the close air support or air combat role when appropriately armed; the export-variant K-8 Karakorum Basic Common Advanced Jet Trainer is co-produced by China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation for export markets other than Pakistan, while aircraft for Pakistan have been built by the Aircraft Manufacturing Factory, Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. The latest export variant is the K-8P version, operated by the PAF; the K-8P has an advanced avionics package of integrated head-up display, multi-function displays and comes equipped with MFD-integrated GPS and ILS/TACAN systems.

It features hardpoints for carrying a variety of training and operational bombs up to 250 kg, pod mounted 23 mm cannon as well as PL-5 / 7 /AIM-9 P launchers. In September 2011, NAMC rolled out another 12 K-8P for an undisclosed foreign client. In 2008 Venezuela announced the purchase of 18 K-8 aircraft; the K-8 has been marketed by China to the air forces of the Philippines, to Indonesia, as a replacement for Indonesia's BAE Hawk jet trainers. In 2009, the Bolivian government approved a deal to purchase 6 K-8P aircraft for use in anti-drug operations. In 2010 the total number of K-8 aircraft produced in all variants was estimated to be more than 500, with a continual production rate of 24 aircraft per year; the JL-8 / K-8 has a multi-role capability for training and, with little modification, can be used for airfield defense. The aircraft is supposed to be as cost-effective as possible, with a short turn-around time and low maintenance requirements; the JL-8 for the domestic Chinese market and its export variants, K-8E and K-8P, have different powerplants and avionics.

A low-wing monoplane design constructed of aluminum alloys, the JL-8 / K-8 airframe structure is designed for an 8,000 flight hour service life. The landing gear is of tricycle configuration, with hydraulically operated wheel brakes and nose-wheel steering; the flight control system operates a set of conventional flight control surfaces with a rigid push-rod transmission system, which itself is electrically or hydraulically operated. The aileron control system, of irreversible servo-control type, is composed of a hydraulic booster, an artificial-feel device, a feel trim actuator and a rigid push-rod transmission mechanism; the elevator and rudder control systems are of reversible push-rod type. The JL-8 / K-8 cockpit arrangement is designed to be as close to that of a combat aircraft as possible. A transparent plastic canopy covering both cockpits, which are arranged in a tandem seating position, is supposed to give a good all-round field of view. A Rockwell Collins Electronic Flight Instrument System is fitted, with multi-function displays in the front and rear cockpits showing information to the pilots.

The emergency cockpit escape system is made up of two Martin-Baker MK-10L rocket-assisted ejection seats which are zero-zero capable, meaning they can be used safely at zero altitude and zero speed. Although JL-8 is designed to have limited ca

Sashimaki Station

Sashimaki Station is a railway station located in the city of Semboku, Akita Prefecture, operated by JR East. Sashimaki Station is served by the Tazawako Line, is located 44.4 km from the terminus of the line at Morioka Station. The station has two opposed side platforms connected by a level crossing; the station is unattended. Sashimaki Station opened on August 31, 1923 as a station on the Japanese Government Railway, Obonai keiben-sen, serving the village of Obonai, Akita; the JGR became the Japanese National Railways after World War II. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987. A new log cabin style station building was completed in March 1997. National Route 46 List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Sashimaki Station at Wikimedia Commons JR East Station information

John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox

John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox was a prominent Scottish magnate. He was the son of Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox and Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton and Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland, daughter of King James II of Scotland; the Earl of Lennox led an army to Linlithgow with the intention of liberating the young King James V of Scotland from the pro-English Douglases. He was defeated by a smaller force led by James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran, at the Battle of Linlithgow Bridge, he survived the battle and was taken captive, only to be subsequently murdered by James Hamilton of Finnart. Lennox was succeeded by his son, Matthew Stewart, the father of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, the grandfather of King James VI of Scotland. On 19 January 1511, he married Lady Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl and Lady Eleanor Sinclair, daughter of William Sinclair, 3rd Earl of Orkney, they had issue: Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox Robert Stewart, 6th Earl of Lennox John Stewart, 5th Lord of Aubigny, father of Esme Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox Lady Helen Stewart, who married: firstly to William Hay, 6th Earl of Erroll.

Lady Elizabeth Stewart, who married Ninian Ross. She was the mistress of King James V, the mother of Adam Stewart, Prior of Perth Charterhouse. G. E. Cokayne et al. eds. The Complete Peerage of England, Ireland, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, Extinct, or Dormant. Reprint ed.. Richard D Oram in his article on John Stewart 3rd Earl of Lennox in the new Ox. DNB writes that he married Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl on 19 January 1511

Tom Butters (baseball)

Thomas Arden Butters was an American professional baseball player who became best known as a longtime college sports administrator at Duke University and a key figure in the success of the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. Butters was the athletic director at Duke from 1977–97. Three years into that tenure, he hired Mike Krzyzewski as the Blue Devils' men's basketball coach. During his two decades as head of Duke intercollegiate athletics, Butters supervised programs that won 40 Atlantic Coast Conference team titles. Butters was a native of Delaware, who attended Ohio Wesleyan University in his native city. In baseball, he was a 195 lb right-handed pitcher, he signed with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1957 after being scouted by legendary retired Pirates' general manager Branch Rickey an Ohio Wesleyan alumnus. But Butters required six full years of minor league seasoning before his recall to the Pirates in September 1962. Butters spent parts of the next three seasons in Major League Baseball, including most of 1964.

Working in 28 games pitched for the 1964 Pirates, including four starts, Butters split four decisions and posted a sparkling 2.38 earned run average. But en route to spring training with his young family in 1965, Butters suffered a severe whiplash injury in an automobile accident, he spent most of 1965 on the disabled list and cut short an attempted comeback in 1966 when the effects of his injury proved insurmountable. In 43 career MLB games pitched, Butters compiled a 2–3 record, allowing 81 hits and 56 bases on balls in 95​2⁄3 innings pitched, he fanned 85. A United States Army veteran, Butters had spent baseball off-seasons working in admissions for his alma mater. In 1967, he joined Duke University as director of special events served three years as head baseball coach before moving into administration. In addition to serving as athletic director, Butters was director of the "Iron Dukes", associate athletic director, assistant to the chancellor, vice president of the university. During his 1989–94 tenure on the NCAA Basketball Committee, including two years as chairman, he was part of the negotiating team that brokered a $1 billion contract with CBS Sports to televise the annual March tournament.

Butters was elected to the North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame and the sports halls of fame of both Ohio Wesleyan and Duke universities. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference


Bakonybél is a village in Veszprém county, Hungary, in Zirc District. A tourist destination with a number of sights and activities, the village is located in a basin surrounded by nearby mountains; the history of the village is connected to the Benedictine Bakonybél Abbey founded by Saint Stephen I in 1018. Saint Gellert resided here as a hermit between 1023 and 1030; the village had been destroyed during the Ottoman occupation and was rebuilt and repopulated with Slovaks and Germans. The Benedictine church and monastery were built in 1754 in Baroque style. There is a chapel close to the village with the statue of Saint Gellert, the stations of Christ's sufferings and the holy trinity, at Ivy Spring, next to a lake supplied by the spring. Another sight is the Ethnographic Museum in the village. There is a museum of nature and forestry called the House of the Bakony Forests. Another attraction is a 19th-century American ranch, not far from the village, with horse-related activities. There are multiple routes for trips in the nearby forests and hills, offering scenery, caves and a lookout tower on the highest peak of the Bakony Mountains.

There is a three star hotel and several guest houses in the village. There are restaurants and pubs. A number of small grocery stores and separate greengrocers are available. There is a community house providing tourist information, a doctor's office, catering; the village has its own post office, day nursery, primary school and library with Internet access. Bakonybél minor planet, Bakonybél's website