Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians and Jews reflected in its history, it was the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the ancient Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo. Toledo has a long history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now common souvenirs from the city. People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, El Greco; as of 2015, the city had a population of 83,226 and an area of 232.1 km2. The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain.
Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as sed loco munita. Roman general Marcus Fulvius Nobilior fought a battle near the city in 193 BC against a confederation of Celtic tribes including the Vaccaei and Celtiberi, defeating them and capturing a king called Hilermus. At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe, part of the region of Carpetania, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a civitas stipendiaria, that is, a tributary city of non-citizens, by Flavian times it had achieved the status of municipium. With this status, city officials of Carpetani origin, obtained Roman citizenship for public service, the forms of Roman law and politics were adopted. At this time, a Roman circus, city walls, public baths, a municipal water supply and storage system were constructed in Toletum The Roman circus in Toledo was one of the largest in Hispania, at 423 metres long and 100 metres wide, with a track dimension of 408 metres long and 86 metres wide. Chariot races were held on special holidays and were commissioned by private citizens to celebrate career achievements.
A fragmentary stone inscription records circus games paid for by a citizen of unknown name to celebrate his achieving the sevirate, a kind of priesthood conferring high status. Archaeologists have identified portions of a special seat of the sort used by the city elites to attend circus games, called a sella curulis; the circus could hold up to 15000 spectators. During Roman times, Toledo was never a provincial capital nor a conventus iuridicus, but it started to gain importance in late antiquity. There are indications that large private houses within the city walls were enlarged, while several large villas were built north of the city through the third and fourth centuries. Games were held in the circus into the late fourth and early fifth centuries C. E. an indication of active city life and ongoing patronage by wealthy elites. A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism. A second council of Toledo was held in 527; the Visigothic king Theudis was in Toledo in 546.
This is strong though not certain evidence. King Athanagild died in Toledo in 568. Although Theudis and Athangild based themselves in Toledo, Toledo was not yet the capital city of the Iberian peninsula, as Theudis and Athangild's power was limited in extent, the Suevi ruling Galicia and local elites dominating Lusitania and Cantabria; this changed with Liuvigild. The Visigoths ruled from Toledo until the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the early years of 8th century. Today in the historic center basements, wells and ancient water pipes are preserved that since Roman times have been used in the city. A series of church councils was held in Toledo under the Visigoths. A synod of Arian bishops was held in 580 to discuss theological reconciliation with Nicene Christianity. Liuvigild's successor, hosted the third council of Toledo, at which the Visigothic kings abandoned Arianism and reconciled with the existing Hispano-Roman episcopate. A synod held in 610 transferred the metropolitanate of the old province of Carthaginensis from Cartagena to Toledo.
At that time, Cartagena was ruled by the Byzantines, this move ensured a closer relation between the bishops of Spain and the Visigothic kings. King Sisebut forced Jews in the Visigothic kingdom to convert to Christianity; the Fifth and Sixth Councils of Toledo placed church sanctions on anyone who would challenge the Visigothic kings. The Seventh Council of Toledo instituted a requirement that all bishops in the area of a royal city, that is, of Toledo, must reside for one month per year in Toledo; this was a stage in "the elevation of Toledo as the primatial see of the whole church of the Visgothic kingdom". In addition, the seventh council declared that any clergy fleeing the kingdom, assisting conspirators against the king, or aiding conspirators, would be excommunicated and no one should remove this sentence; the ban on lifing these sentences of excommunication was lifted at the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, at which, for the first time, decisions were signed by palace officials as well as bishops.
The eighth council
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I is a former King of Spain, reigning from 1975 until his abdication in 2014. Juan Carlos is the grandson of Alfonso XIII, the last king of Spain before the abolition of the monarchy in 1931 and the subsequent declaration of the Second Spanish Republic. Juan Carlos was born in Rome, during his family's exile. Generalísimo Francisco Franco, the Spanish dictator who initiated the civil war by means of a coup d'état against the constitutional republic in 1936, took over the government of Spain after his victory in the Spanish Civil War in 1939, in 1947 Spain's status as a monarchy was affirmed and a law was passed allowing Franco to choose his successor. Juan Carlos's father, was the fourth child of Alfonso, who had renounced his claims to the throne in January 1941. Juan was seen by Franco to be too liberal and in 1969 was bypassed in favour of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor as head of state. Juan Carlos came to Spain in 1947 to continue his studies. After completing his secondary education in 1955, he began his military training and entered the General Military Academy at Zaragoza.
He attended the Naval Military School, the General Academy of the Air, finished his tertiary education at the University of Madrid. In 1962, Juan Carlos married Princess Sophia of Denmark in Athens; the couple had two daughters and a son together: Elena and Felipe. Due to Franco's declining health, Juan Carlos first began periodically acting as Spain's head of state in the summer of 1974. Franco died in November the following year and Juan Carlos became king on 22 November 1975, two days after Franco's death, the first reigning monarch since 1931. Expected to continue Franco's legacy, Juan Carlos, soon after his accession introduced reforms to dismantle the Francoist regime and begin the Spanish transition to democracy; this led to the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 in a referendum, which re-established a constitutional monarchy. In 1981, Juan Carlos played a major role in preventing a coup that attempted to revert Spain to Francoist government in the King's name. In 2008, he was considered the most popular leader in all Ibero-America.
Hailed for his role in Spain's transition to democracy, the King and the monarchy's reputation began to suffer after controversies surrounding his family arose, exacerbated by an elephant-hunting trip he undertook during a time of financial crisis in Spain. In 2014, Juan Carlos, citing personal reasons, abdicated in favour of his son, who acceded to the throne as Felipe VI. Juan Carlos was born to Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona, Princess María de las Mercedes of Bourbon-Two Sicilies in Rome, where his grandfather King Alfonso XIII of Spain and other members of the Spanish royal family lived in exile following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931, he was baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias. He was given the name Juan Carlos after his father and maternal grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, his early life was dictated by the political concerns of his father and General Franco. He moved to Spain in 1948 to be educated there.
He began his studies in San Sebastián and finished them in 1954 at the Instituto San Isidro in Madrid. He joined the army, doing his officer training from 1955 to 1957 at the Military Academy of Zaragoza. Juan Carlos has two sisters: Duchess of Badajoz, he had a younger brother, Alfonso. On the evening of Holy Thursday, 29 March 1956, Juan Carlos's younger brother Alfonso died in a gun accident at the family's home Villa Giralda in Estoril, on the Portuguese Riviera; the Spanish Embassy in Portugal issued the following official communiqué: Whilst His Highness Prince Alfonso was cleaning a revolver last evening with his brother, a shot was fired hitting his forehead and killing him in a few minutes. The accident took place at 20.30 hours, after the Infante's return from the Maundy Thursday religious service, during which he had received holy communion. Alfonso had won a local junior golf tournament earlier in the day went to evening Mass and rushed up to the room to see Juan Carlos who had come home for the Easter holidays from military school.
It is alleged that Juan Carlos began playing with a gun, given to Alfonso by General Franco. Rumors appeared in newspapers that the gun had been held by Juan Carlos at the moment the shot was fired; as they were alone in the room, it is unclear how Alfonso was shot, but according to Josefina Carolo, dressmaker to Juan Carlos's mother, Juan Carlos pointed the pistol at Alfonso and pulled the trigger, unaware that it was loaded. Bernardo Arnoso, a Portuguese friend of Juan Carlos said that Juan Carlos fired the pistol not knowing that it was loaded, adding that the bullet ricocheted off a wall, hitting Alfonso in the face. Helena Matheopoulos, a Greek author who spoke with Juan Carlos's sister Pilar, said that Alfonso had been out of the room and when he returned and pushed the door open, the door knocked Juan Carlos in the arm, causing him to fire the pistol. In 1957, Juan Carlos spent a year in the naval school at Marín, another in the Air Force school in San Javier in Murcia. In 1960–61, he studied Law, International Political Economy and Public Finance at Complutense University.
He went to live in the Palace of Zarzuela and began carrying out official engagements. The dictatorial re
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Alba de Tormes
Alba de Tormes is a municipality in the province of Salamanca, western Spain, part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. The town is on the River Tormes upstream from the city of Salamanca. Alba gave its name to one of Spain's most important dukedoms, who had their ancestral seat in the Castillo de los Duques de Alba. St Teresa of Ávila died at a convent she is buried there. From the 12th to the 19th century, the monastery of San Leonardo was located outside the walls of Alba. Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba saint Teresa of Ávila died at Alba saint John of the Cross Eloíno Nácar Fúster and Bible translator Battle of Alba de Tormes
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, GE, KOGF, GR, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain, a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, his motto in Latin was Deo patrum Nostrorum, which in English means "To the God of our fathers". He was an adviser of King Charles I of Spain, his successor, Philip II of Spain, Mayordomo mayor of both, member of their Councils of State and War, governor of the Duchy of Milan, viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples, governor of the Netherlands and viceroy and constable of the Kingdom of Portugal, he represented Philip II in negotiating Philip's betrothal to Elisabeth of Valois and Anna of Austria, who were the third and fourth, last, wives of the king. By some historians he is considered the most effective general of his generation as well as one of the greatest in military history.
Although a tough leader, he was respected by his troops. He touched their sentiments e.g. by addressing them in his speeches as "gentlemen soldiers", but was popular among them for daring statements such as: Kings use men like oranges, first they squeeze the juice and throw away the peel. Alba distinguished himself in the conquest of Tunis during the Ottoman-Habsburg wars when Carlos I defeated Hayreddin Barbarossa and returned the Spanish Monarchy to predominance over the western Mediterranean Sea, he distinguished himself in the battle of Mühlberg, where the army of Emperor Charles defeated the German Protestant princes. On December 26, 1566 he received the Golden Rose, the blessed sword and hat granted by Pope Pius V, through the papal brief Solent Romani Pontifices, in recognition of his singular efforts in favor of Catholicism and for being considered one of his championsHe is best known for his actions against the revolt of the Netherlands, where he instituted the Council of Troubles, defeated the troops of William of Orange and Louis of Nassau during the first stages of the Eighty Years' War.
He is known for the brutalities during the capture of Mechelen, Zutphen and Haarlem. In spite of these military successes, the Dutch revolt was not broken and Alba was recalled to Spain, his last military successes were in the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580, winning the Battle of Alcantara and conquering that kingdom for Philip II. Spain unified all the kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula and expanded its overseas territories. Fernando was born in Piedrahíta, Province of Ávila, on 29 October 1507, he was the son of García Álvarez de Toledo y Zúñiga, heir of Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo and Enríquez de Quiñones, II Duke of Alba de Tormes, of Beatriz Pimentel, daughter of Rodrigo Alonso Pimentel, IV Count - I Duke of Benavente and his wife, María Pacheco. Fernando was orphaned at age three when his father, García, died during a campaign on the island of Djerba in Africa in 1510. At the age of six, Fernando accompanied his grandfather, the second duke of Alba on a military mission to capture Navarre.
His youth and education were typical for Castilian nobility of the age. He was educated at the ducal court of the House of Alba, located in the Castle Palace of Alba de Tormes, by two Italian preceptors, Bernardo Gentile - a Sicilian Benedictine - and Severo Marini and by the Spanish Renaissance poet and writer Juan Boscan, he was educated in humanism. He mastered Latin and knew French and German. In 1524, when he was seventeen, he joined the troops of Constable of Castile, Íñigo Fernández de Velasco, II Duke of Frías, during the capture of Fuenterrabía occupied by France and Navarre. For his role in the siege, Fernando was appointed governor of Fuenterrabía; when his grandfather Fadrique died in 1531, the ducal title passed to Fernando as the firstborn son of Garcia. Throughout his adulthood, he served the Spanish monarchs Charles I and his successor Philip II. In 1541 Fernando Álvarez de Toledo was named Mayordomo Mayor del Rey de España by Charles I of Spain. Alba kept this Office in court until the death of the monarch in 1556.
In 1546, Charles I invested Fernando, the Third Duke of Alba Grand Master as knight of the Illustrious Order of the Golden Fleece. From 1548 King Charles intensified the preparations of Prince Philip as his successor in the Spanish Monarchy, he named Duke of Alba mayordomo mayor of his son to prepare Philip for his new role. Fernando took Philip on a tour around Europe that lasted until 1551. Fernando accompanied Philip to England to attend his marriage to Mary Tudor; the Duke was one of fifteen grandees of Spain who attended the ceremony in the abbey of Winchester on 25 July 1554. After the death of Charles, the new King Philip II maintained Fernando Third Duke of Alba as mayordomo mayor until the death of the Duke in 1582. In 1563, King Philip II created the title Duke of Huéscar to be bestowed on the heir of the Dukes of Alba. Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, son of Fernando became 1st Duke of Huéscar. In 1566, Alba's son and heir, broke his promise of marriage to Magdalena de Guzman, lady of Queen Anne of Austria, which led to his arrest and imprisonment in the Castle of La Mota in Valladolid.
The following year he was released so he could go to Flanders with his father to serve in the military. In 1578 Philip II ordered the case against Fadrique reopened, it was discovered that in order to avoid marriage, Fadrique had secret
Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart, 14th Duke of Alba
Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart y Silva, 14th Duke of Alba, GE was a Spanish aristocrat. Born in Madrid, Spain, in 1794, he was a descendant of James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick and through him, the exiled King James II of England & VII of Scotland, he was the second surviving son of the 5th Duke of Berwick and inherited that family's title's on his elder brother the 6th Duke's death in 1795. He was a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece of Spain. In 1819, he married the Italian noblewoman Rosalía Ventimiglia di Grammonte y Moncada. From the Ventimiglia, Princes of Grammonte, in Palermo, he became the 14th Duke of Alba in 1802 following the death of the childless 13th Duchess of Alba — he thus became a Grandee of Spain on ten counts. They had three children: Jacopo Fitz-James Stuart y Ventimiglia, Italy, who married in 1844 with Maria Francisca Portocarrero Palafox y Kirkpatrick, eldest sister of Eugénie de Montijo, Spanish wife of Emperor Napoleon III of France. Enrique Fitz-James Stuart y Ventimiglia, Count of Galve, since his father death in 1835.
He married in 1871 Adelaida Ivanovna Basilevskaya. This title of Count of Galve was awarded by the first time in 1557; this title came back not to Enrique's nephew Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 15th Duke of Alba, deceased 1881, but to the 16th Duke of Alba since 1881, Jacobo's oldest son Carlos María Fitz-James Stuart, 16th Duke of Alba. Luis Fernando FitzJames-Stuart y Ventimiglia. Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart died aged 41 on 7 October 1835, in Sion and was succeeded as Duke of Alba on that year by his eldest son. Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart was a direct descendant of the King James II of England through his illegitimate son James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick by his mistress Arabella Churchill. 19 May 1794 – 5 January 1795: Don Carlos Miguel Fitz-James Stuart 5 January 1795 – 23 July 1802: His Excellency The Duke of Liria and Xérica, Duke of Berwick 23 July 1802 – 7 October 1835: The Most Excellent The Duke of Alba 14th Duke of Alba, Grandee of Spain 1st Class 7th Duke of Liria and Duke of Xérica, Grandee of Spain 1st Class 10th Count-Duke of Olivares 12th Duke of Huéscar 7th Duke of Montoro 13th Marquis of Villanueva del Río 12th Marquis of Carpio 10th Marquis of Eliche 14th Count of Gelves 7th Duke of Berwick, Grandee of Spain 7th Earl of Tinmouth 7th Baron Bosworth 17th Count of Modica
Roman Catholic Diocese of Palencia
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Palencia is a diocese located in the city of Palencia in the ecclesiastical province of Burgos, Spain. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Palencia was established during the 3rd century CE. Pastor legendary Peter I Toribius Maurila Conantius Ascaric Concorius Baroald From 711, the see was abandoned until the 940s. Julian The see was abandoned again until its definitive reestablishment in 1034. Bernard I Miro Bernard II Raymond I Peter of Agen Peter II Raymond II Arderic Adam Tello Téllez de Meneses Rodrigo Peter III Ferdinand Alonso García Tello García Juan Alfonso de Molina Munio Zamora, O. P. Álvaro Carrillo Peter Pedro Gerardo Domínguez Domingo Gómez Peláez Juan Fernández de Limia Pedro de Orfila Juan de Saavedra Peter V Blas Fernández de Toledo Reginald de Maubernard Gutierre I Gutierre Gómez de Luna Juan de Castromocho Peter VI, anti-bishop Sancho de Rojas Alonso de Argüello Rodrigo de Velasco Gutierre Álvarez de Toledo Pedro Castilla de Eril Gutierre de la Cueva Rodrigo Sánchez de Arévalo Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones Alfonso de Burgos, O.
P. Diego Deza, O. P. Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca Juan Fernández Velasco Pedro Ruiz de la Mota, O. S. B. Antonio de Rojas Manrique Pedro Gómez Sarmiento de Villandrando Francisco Mendoza Luis Cabeza de Vaca Pedro de la Gasca Cristóbal Fernández Valtodano Juan Ramírez Zapata de Cárdenas Alvaro Hurtado de Mendoza y Sarmiento Fernando Miguel de Prado Martín Aspi Sierra Felipe Tarsis de Acuña José González Díez, O. P. Miguel Ayala Fernando Andrade Sotomayor Cristóbal Guzmán Santoyo Antonio de Estrada Manrique Enrique Peralta y Cárdenas Gonzalo Bravo de Grajera Juan Molino Navarrete, O. F. M. Alfonso Lorenzo de Pedraza, O. M. Esteban Bellido Guevara Francisco Ochoa Mendarozqueta y Arzamendi Bartolomé San Martín Orive José Morales Blanco José Ignacio Rodríguez Cornejo Andrés Bustamante José Cayetano Loazes Somoza Juan Manuel Argüelles José Luis Mollinedo Buenaventura Moyano Rodríguez Francisco Javier Almonacid Narciso Coll y Prat Juan Francisco Martínez y Castrillón José Asensio Ocón y Toledo Carlos Laborda Clau Jerónimo Fernández y Andrés Juan Lozano Torreira Enrique Almaraz y Santos Valentín García y Barros Ramón Barberá y Boada Agustín Parrado y García Bl. Manuel González y García Francisco Javer Lauzurica y Torralba José Souto Vizoso Anastasio Granados García Nicolás Antonio Castellanos Franco, O.
S. A. Ricardo Blázquez Pérez Rafael Palmero Ramos José Ignacio Munilla Aguirre Esteban Escudero Torres Roman Catholicism in Spain GCatholic.org Catholic Hierarchy website