Kenneth III of Scotland
Cináed mac Duib anglicised as Kenneth III, and nicknamed An Donn, the Chief or the Brown, was King of Scots from 997 to 1005. Many of the Scots sources refer to him as Giric son of Kenneth son of Dub and they can be found in The Chronicles of the Picts and Scots of William Forbes Skene. The chronicle of John of Fordun mentions Giric as Grim or Gryme, charles Cawley, a modern genealogist, cautions about the late date of these sources. And that Kenneth III could be an ancestor to Clan MacDuff. Noting that Giric could be the founder of the house. The only event reported in Kenneths reign is the killing of Dúngal mac Cináeda by Gille Coemgáin mac Cináeda, by the Annals of the Four Masters s. a. It is not certain that this refers to events in Scotland, a Gilla Caemgein son of Cinaed appears in the Annals of Ulster. An entry from the year 1035 reports that his granddaughter and her husband Cathal. This Cathal was reportedly king to the Western Laigin, possibly connected to the Kings of Leinster, the context is unclear but it is likely that this is the same Gille Coemgáin, connected to Kenneth III.
Kenneth III was killed in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn by Malcolm II in 1005, whether Boite mac Cináeda was a son of this Kenneth, or of Kenneth II, is uncertain, although most propose this Kenneth. A son, or grandson of Boite, was reported to be killed by Malcolm II in 1032 in the Annals of Ulster, the relevant entry has been translated as, The grandson of Baete son of Cinaed was killed by Mael Coluim son of Cinaed. The theory that Clan MacDuff were descendants of Kenneth III was based on their connection to royalty. Andrew of Wyntoun reported that Malcolm III of Scotland had granted to a MacDuff, while John of Fordun has Malcolm III promise this same unnamed MacDuff that he will be the first man of the kingdom, second only to the king. This unnamed MacDuff appears frequently in stories connected to the rise of Malcolm III to the throne, the status of the successive heads of this clan as the senior inaugural official seems confirmed by records of the inauguration ceremonies of Alexander II and Alexander III.
While earlier heads of this house witnessed royal documents far more frequently than other members of the nobility. Their names often listed first among the lay witnesses, ahead of both the native Scottish nobility and the Anglo-Norman nobles, a number of 12th-century heads of house served as Justiciars of Scotia. Their leaders were named Donnchadh, Mael-Coluim, and Causantin, names shared by the royal family, making a close relation to the reigning royal house likely. Bannerman suggests that the MacDuffs had their own, legitimate claim to the Scottish throne, a claim which they declined to pursue, compensated with privileges by Malcolm III and his descendants
Book of Ballymote
The Book of Ballymote, was written in 1390 or 1391 in or near the town of Ballymote, now in County Sligo, but in the tuath of Corann. This book was compiled towards the end of the 14th century at the castle of Ballymote for Tonnaltagh McDonagh, the chief compiler was Manus ODuignan, one of a family who were ollavs and scribes to the McDonagh and the McDermots. Other scribes of the book were Solomon ODroma, a member of a famous Co, fermanagh family, and a Robert McSheedy. The book is a compilation of works, mostly loose manuscripts. The first page of the work contains a drawing of Noahs Ark as conceived by the scribe, the first written page is missing and the second opens with a description of the ages of the world. The work contains treatises on the history of the Jewish peoples and his household, Cormacs instructions to a king, a physical and geological survey of Ireland. Part of the work is devoted to sagas of Finn and Brian Boru, while the Book of Rights and it contains treatises on metre and the profession of a poet, on the Ogham writing and language.
The book ends with a translation from the Greek. the destruction of Troy, the Book of Ballymote, like many of its kind, has made history by its wanderings. For over a hundred years it was a possession of the McDonaghs of Corran. About the beginning of the 16th century, it fell into the possession of the ODonnells with whom it remained until the Flight of the Earls in 1603, from 1620 until 1767 it was in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. It disappeared from the library and was found in Burgundy. In 1785 it was returned to the Royal Irish Academy where it remained as one of the Academys most treasured possessions, the work was photographed by the Academy in 1887 and two hundred copies of it were made. One copy is in the archives and others in libraries. The first page of the work contains a drawing of Noahs Ark, the first written page is lost, and the second page describes the ages of the world. After this follows a description of the History of the Lost Israelites, ISBN 0-404-17535-X ODonovan, The Book of Rights, ed. and trans.
The Book of Ballymote, Photographic facsimile with introduction by R. Atkinson, McDonagh, History of Ballymote and the Parish of Emlaghfad. Harrison, A. Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta ag tús an 18ú aois, Éigse 23, the Book of Ballymote, Celtica 14, 15-25. Royal Irish Academy description The Book of Ballymote Genealogies from the Book of Ballymote Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta Leabhar Bhaile an Mhóta Irish Script on Screen has digital images of the document
Malcolm I of Scotland
Máel Coluim mac Domnaill was king of Scots, becoming king when his cousin Causantín mac Áeda abdicated to become a monk. He was the son of Domnall mac Causantín, since his father was known to have died in the year 900, Malcolm must have been born no than 901. By the 940s, he was no longer a young man, but others say that Constantine made this raid, asking of the king, that the kingship should be given to him for a weeks time, so that he could visit the English. In fact, it was Malcolm who made the raid, but Constantine incited him, woolf suggests that the association of Constantine with the raid is a late addition, one derived from a now-lost saga or poem. He died in the wall next to his men. In 945, Edmund I of England, having expelled Amlaíb Cuaran from Northumbria, devastated Cumbria and it is said that he let or commended Strathclyde to Máel Coluim in return for an alliance. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Máel Coluim took an army into Moray, Cellach is not named in the surviving genealogies of the rulers of Moray, and his identity is unknown.
Máel Coluim appears to have kept his agreement with the late English king, the Annals of Ulster for 952 report a battle between the men of Alba and the Britons and the English against the foreigners, i. e. the Northmen or the Norse-Gaels. This battle is not reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and it is whether it should be related to the expulsion of Amlaíb Cuaran from York or the return of Eric Bloodaxe. The Annals of Ulster report that Máel Coluim was killed in 954, other sources place this most probably in the Mearns, either at Fetteresso following the Chronicle, or at Dunnottar following the Prophecy of Berchán. Máel Coluims sons Dub and Cináed were kings, for primary sources see External links below. Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A. D 500–1286, the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292, Succession and Independence. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men, most are translated into English, or translations are in progress. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle XML Edition by Tony Jebson and translated at the OMACL
Cináed mac Ailpín, commonly anglicised as Kenneth MacAlpin and known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots. He was thus known by the posthumous nickname of An Ferbasach. The dynasty that ruled Scotland for much of the period claimed descent from him. The Kenneth of myth, conqueror of the Picts and founder of the Kingdom of Alba, was born in the centuries after the real Kenneth died. In the reign of Kenneth II, when the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled, Pictland was named after the Picts, whom, as we have said, Kinadius destroyed. Two years before he came to Pictland, he had received the kingdom of Dál Riata, gret bataylis than dyd he, To pwt in freedom his cuntre. When humanist scholar George Buchanan wrote his history Rerum Scoticarum Historia in the 1570s, Buchanan included an account of how Kenneths father had been murdered by the Picts and a detailed, and entirely unsupported, account of how Kenneth avenged him and conquered the Picts.
As a result, much of the misleading and vivid detail was removed from the series of events. Other Gaels, such as Caustantín and Óengus, the sons of Fergus, were identified among the Pictish king lists, as were Angles such as Talorcen son of Eanfrith, historians would reject parts of the Kenneth produced by Skene and subsequent historians, while accepting others. Medievalist Alex Woolf, interviewed by The Scotsman in 2004, is quoted as saying, there’s actually no hint at all that he was a Scot. If you look at contemporary sources there are four other Pictish kings after him, so he’s the fifth last of the Pictish kings rather than the first Scottish king. Many other historians could be quoted in terms similar to Woolf, the Pictish institution of kingship provided the basis for merger with the Gaelic Alpin dynasty. The meeting of King Constantine and Bishop Cellach at the Hill of Belief near the city of Scone in 906 cemented the rights. Hence the change in styling from King of the Picts to King of Alba, the legacy of Gaelic as the first national language of Scotland does not obscure the foundational process in the establishment of the Scottish kingdom of Alba.
Kenneths origins are uncertain, as are his ties, if any, among the genealogies contained in the Rawlinson B502 manuscript, dating from around 1130, is the supposed descent of Malcolm II of Scotland. Medieval genealogies are unreliable sources, but many historians still accept Kenneths descent from the established Cenél nGabráin, or at the very least from some unknown minor sept of the Dál Riata. Leaving aside the shadowy kings before Áedán son of Gabrán, the genealogy is certainly flawed insofar as Áed Find, who died c. 778, could not reasonably be the son of Domangart, who was killed c. 673. The conventional account would insert two generations between Áed Find and Domangart, Eochaid mac Echdach, father of Áed Find, who died c. That Kenneth was a Gael is not widely rejected, but modern historiography distinguishes between Kenneth as a Gael by culture and/or in ancestry, and Kenneth as a king of Gaelic Dál Riata
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Malcolm II of Scotland
Malcolm was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of King Kenneth II, the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Forranach, to the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland and he was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer of Constantine is credited as being Kenneth, son of Malcolm. Since there is no known and relevant Kenneth alive at that time, it is considered an error for either Kenneth III, who succeeded Constantine, or, Malcolm himself, the son of Kenneth II. Whether Malcolm killed Constantine or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Constantines successor Kenneth III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn. John of Fordun writes that Malcolm defeated a Norwegian army in almost the first days after his coronation, Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.
Malcolm demonstrated an ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man, brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolms ministers and of the church. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld, his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, was married to Finlay, Earl of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year. The first reliable report of Malcolm IIs reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg, which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, Earl of Bernicia.
A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful, the Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Malcolm II and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. The work De obsessione Dunelmi claims that Uchtreds brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Malcolm II and this is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027, burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Malcolm as powerful in resources and arms … very Christian in faith and deed
Donald II of Scotland
Domnall mac Causantín, anglicised as Donald II was King of the Picts or King of Scotland in the late 9th century. He was the son of Constantine I, Donald is given the epithet Dásachtach, the Madman, by the Prophecy of Berchán. Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric, the date of which is not certainly known, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports, Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years. The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time, in his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother by the Gentiles, the Prophecy of Berchán places Donalds death at Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen, other sources report he died at Forres. Donalds death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the Chronicon Scotorum, the consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II, but the reign of Giric has been proposed. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has Donald succeeded by his cousin Constantine II, Donalds son Malcolm was king as Malcolm I.
The Prophecy of Berchán appears to suggest that another king reigned for a short while between Donald II and Constantine II, saying half a day will he take sovereignty. Possible confirmation of this exists in the Chronicon Scotorum, where the death of Ead and this, however, is thought to be an error, referring perhaps to Ædwulf, the ruler of Bernicia, whose death is reported in 913 by the other Irish annals. Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
Constantine II of Scotland
Constantine, son of Áed was an early King of Scotland, known by the Gaelic name Alba. The Kingdom of Alba, a name which first appears in Constantines lifetime, was in northern Great Britain, the core of the kingdom was formed by the lands around the River Tay. Its southern limit was the River Forth, northwards it extended towards the Moray Firth and perhaps to Caithness, Constantines grandfather Kenneth I of Scotland was the first of the family recorded as a king, but as king of the Picts. This change of title, from king of the Picts to king of Alba, is part of a transformation of Pictland. His reign, like those of his predecessors, was dominated by the actions of Viking rulers in the British Isles, particularly the Uí Ímair. During Constantines reign the rulers of the kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, the Kingdom of England. At first allied with the southern rulers against the Vikings, Constantine in time came into conflict with them, in 943 Constantine abdicated the throne and retired to the Céli Dé monastery of St Andrews where he died in 952.
He was succeeded by his predecessors son Malcolm I, during his reign the words Scots and Scotland are first used to mean part of what is now Scotland. The earliest evidence for the ecclesiastical and administrative institutions which would last until the Davidian Revolution appears at this time, compared to neighbouring Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England, few records of 9th- and 10th-century events in Scotland survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, the list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript, a 13th-century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added in the 10th and 12th centuries. In addition to this, king lists survive, for narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals. The evidence from charters created in the Kingdom of England provides occasional insight into events in northern Britain, while Scandinavian sagas describe events in 10th-century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed.
The dominant kingdom in eastern Scotland before the Viking Age was the northern Pictish kingdom of Fortriu on the shores of the Moray Firth, by the 9th century, the Gaels of Dál Riata were subject to the kings of Fortriu of the family of Constantín mac Fergusa. Constantíns family dominated Fortriu after 789 and perhaps, if Constantín was a kinsman of Óengus I of the Picts and these deaths led to a period of instability lasting a decade as several families attempted to establish their dominance in Pictland. By around 848 Kenneth MacAlpin had emerged as the winner, the same style is used of Kenneths brother Donald I and sons Constantine I and Áed. The extent of Kenneths nameless kingdom is uncertain, but it extended from the Firth of Forth in the south to the Mounth in the north. Whether it extended beyond the spine of north Britain—Druim Alban—is unclear