Theobald II, Count of Champagne
Theobald the Great was Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV from 1102 and was Count of Champagne and of Brie as Theobald II from 1125. He held Auxerre, Ervy, and Châteauvillain as fiefs from Odo II and he was the son of Stephen II, Count of Blois, and Adela of Normandy, and the elder brother of King Stephen of England. Although he was the son, Theobald was appointed above his older brother William. Several historians have painted William as mentally deficient, but this has never been substantiated, however, we know that his mother found him stubbornly resistant to control and unfit for wide ranging comital duties. Theobald accompanied his mother throughout their realm on hundreds of occasions and, after her retirement to Marcigney in 1125, Adela died in her beloved convent in 1136, the year after her son Stephen was crowned king of England. The scholastic Pierre Abélard, famous for his affair with and subsequent marriage to his student Héloïse. Abelard died at Cluny Abbey in Burgundy, a monastery supported by the Thebaudians for many centuries, in 1123 he married Matilda of Carinthia, daughter of Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia.
Their children were, Henry I of Champagne Theobald V of Blois, seneschal of France Adèle of Champagne, married King Louis VII of France Isabelle of Champagne, roger of Apulia d.1148 &2. William Gouet IV d.1170 Marie of Champagne, married Eudes II, Duke of Burgundy, margaret of Champagne, nun at Fontevrault Matilda, wife of Rotrou IV, Count of Perche Thibaut had an illegitimate son, abbot of Lagny near Paris Peace with honor
Sagonne is a commune in the Cher department in the Centre region of France. Sagonne is farming village situated by the banks of the small river Sagonin, some 37 km southeast of Bourges, at the junction of the D76 with the D109, the Romanesque church of St. Laurent, dating from the twelfth century. Château de Sagonne, a 12th to 17th century castle, in the heart of the village, a museum at the castle, housing a 14th-century collection of weapons and tapestry. Charles II dAmboise de Chaumont, Grand Admiral and Marshal of France, gabrielle dEstrée, mistress of Henry IV. Jules Hardouin-Mansart, architect to Louis XIV, communes of the Cher department INSEE Official website Sagonne on the Quid website
William the Conqueror
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward, after a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands, William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Roberts mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, during his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy and his marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders.
By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England, held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson. William argued that Edward had previously promised the throne to him, William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066 and he made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, but by 1075 Williams hold on England was mostly secure, Williams final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, and threatened invasions of England by the Danes.
In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a listing all the landholders in England along with their holdings. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France and his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, and change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire, Williams lands were divided after his death, Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, and his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England. Norsemen first began raiding in what became Normandy in the late 8th century, permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo. The lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century.
In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002
Count of Boulogne
The County of Boulogne was a county within the kingdom of France during the 9th to 15th centuries, centred on the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer. It was ruled by the counts of Flandres in the 10th century and it was annexed by Philip II of France in 1212 and after this was treated as part of the county of Artois, until it was finally annexed into the royal domain in 1550. Boulogne was already a pagus within the kingdom of the Franks, there are few records prior to the 11th century. A proverbially wicked count named Herrequin is recorded for the 9th century and it seems to have come under the rule of the counts of Flanders in the late 9th or early 10th century. In 886, bishop Gauzlin of Paris asked count Erkenger of Boulogne to solicit German help against the Viking raids, Erkenger was lost all his possessions in 896, as he remained loyal to Charles the Simple. It may have been at this point that Baldwin II, Count of Flanders gained control over Boulogne, eustace II of Boulogne accompanied William the Conquerors invasion in 1066.
Count Renaud of Boulogne joined the side at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214. Boulogne passed under nominal control in 1223 when it was given to Philip IIs son Philip Hurepel. Hurepel revolted against Blanche of Castile when Louis VIII of France died in 1226. When Philip Hurepel died in 1235, Matilda continued to reign and in 1238 was married to Alphonse, second son of King Alfonso II of Portugal, and younger brother of King Sancho II of Portugal. Having become Afonso III of Portugal in 1248 and renounced his title of Count of Boulogne, nevertheless and Philip did have a son Alberic, and a daughter Joan who both survived. Alberic reportedly renounced his rights and went to England, for unknown reasons, apparently he survived his mother and died in 1284, but presumably did not leave issue. Joan was married in 1236 to Gaucher de Châtillon, Count of Mortain and she predeceased her mother in 1252, and presumably left no surviving issue. Consequently, after Matilda, her county of Boulogne passed to Matildas niece, Adelaide of Brabant, Bertrand V de la Tour succeeded to the counties of Auvergne and of Boulogne in 1437.
Through his son Bertrand VI de la Tour the County of Boulogne passed to his grandson, the last medieval count of Boulogne, Jean III de la Tour dAuvergne. By his marriage to Jeanne of Bourbon-Vendôme, he left two daughters, The eldest daughter, Anne of la Tour dAuvergne, married John Stewart, Duke of Albany, however she died childless in 1524. The youngest, Madeleine de La Tour dAuvergne married Lorenzo II de Medici and gave birth to Catherine de Medici, Catherine became Queen of France in 1549 and the title passed to the French crown. Boulogne was attacked numerous times during the Hundred Years War and occupied numerous time by the English - the last time from 1544-1550, in 1550 the Peace of Boulogne ended the war between England and France and France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns
Hugh, Count of Champagne
Hugh was the Count of Champagne from 1093 until his death. Hugh was the son of Theobald III, Count of Blois and Adele of Valois. His older brother Odo V, Count of Troyes, died in 1093, leaving him master of Troyes, where he centred his court and his first recorded act, a monastic gift in 1094, became the oldest document of the comital archive. Hughs charter makes over to the new foundation Clairvaux and its dependencies, meadows, woods, instead, he transferred his titles to his nephew, who became Theobald II of Champagne. Odos two sons, Odo II of Champlitte and William of Champlitte were important figures in the fourth crusade, hugh married first Constance, daughter of King Philip I of France and Bertha of Holland. Their only child, a son called Manasses, died young and he married second Isabella, daughter of Stephen I, Count of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II. Hugh was the patron of the abbeys of Montieramey Abbey and of Molesme, making grants from his castle of Isle-Aumont. In a surviving letter to him from Ivo of Chartres, the Bishop of Chartres reminds him of his obligations of marriage, perhaps to deter him from making vows of continence
Adela of Normandy
Adela of Normandy, of Blois, or of England, known as Saint Adela in Roman Catholicism, was, by marriage, Countess of Blois and Meaux. She was a daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda of Flanders and she was the mother of Stephen, King of England and Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester. Her birthdate is generally believed to be between 1066 and 1070, after her fathers accession to the English throne in 1066 and she was the favourite sister of King Henry I of England, they were probably the youngest of the Conquerors children. Adela was a high-spirited and educated woman, with a knowledge of Latin and she married Stephen Henry and heir to the count of Blois, between 1080 and 1083, around her fifteenth birthday. Stephen was nearly twenty years her senior, Stephen inherited Blois and Meaux upon his fathers death in 1089, as well as lands and right in parts of Berry and Burgundy. Stephen-Henry joined the First Crusade in 1096, along with his brother-in-law Robert Curthose, Stephens letters to Adela form a uniquely intimate insight into the experiences of the Crusades leaders and show that he trusted Adela to rule as regent while he was on crusade.
The Count of Blois returned to France in 1100 bringing with him several cartloads of maps and other treasures and he was, under an obligation to the pope for agreements made years earlier and returned to Antioch to participate in the crusade of 1101. He was ultimately killed in a charge at the Battle of Ramla in 1102. Adela and Stephens children are listed here in probable birth order, Count of Sully married Agnes of Sully and had issue Theobald II, aka Thibaud IV Count of Champagne Odo of Blois, aka Humbert. Died young Adela, married Milo II of Montlhéry King Stephen of England, married Matilda of Boulogne Lucia-Mahaut, married Richard dAvranches, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. It is known that Adela had five sons and may have had three or more daughters, though not all of the daughters were necessarily Adelas biological children. The daughters are not mentioned by name during their youth, only appearing when they reach marriageable age, Adela, a devout Benedictine sympathizer, employed several high-ranking tutors to educate her children.
Her youngest son, was conceived during the single year Stephen was in France between crusading duties. At two years of age Henry was pledged to the Church at Cluny Abbey, Saône-et-Loire, France, as an oblate child, Henry went on to be appointed Abbot of Glastonbury and Bishop of Winchester. In that capacity he sponsored hundreds of constructions including bridges, palaces, castles, in addition, Bishop Henry built dozens of abbeys and chapels and sponsored books including the treasured Winchester Bible. Adela quarrelled with her eldest son William and despite his previously being named heir-designate and her son Stephen moved to London in 1111 to join his uncles court and became the favorite of his uncle King Henry I. Upon Beauclercs death in Normandy, Stephen of Blois seized the English throne, Adela filled in as regent for her husbands duties during his extended absence as a leader of the First Crusade as well as during his second expedition in 1101. This included granting monks the right to build new churches, as well as other charters, while her husband was away, Adela would continue to tour their lands, settling disputes, promoting economic growth, and even commanding knights to go to battle with the king
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne, was the eldest son of King Stephen of England and Countess Matilda I of Boulogne. When his father seized the English throne on Henry Is death in 1135 and he was first mentioned in one of his parents charters dated no than August 1131. In 1137, he did homage for Normandy to Louis VII of France, whose sister, Eustace was knighted in 1147, at which date he was probably from sixteen to eighteen years of age. In 1151 he joined Louis in a raid upon Normandy, which had accepted the title of the Empress Matilda. Eustace died suddenly the year, in early August 1153. The death of Eustace was hailed with general satisfaction as opening the possibility of a settlement between Stephen and his rival, the young Henry of Anjou. The Peterborough Chronicle, not content with voicing this sentiment, gives Eustace a bad character and he was an evil man and did more harm than good wherever he went, he spoiled the lands and laid thereon heavy taxes. He had used threats against the recalcitrant bishops, and in the war against the Angevin party had demanded contributions from religious houses and he was buried in Faversham Abbey in Kent, which was founded by his parents.
They too were buried in Faversham Abbey, all three tombs are now lost, as a consequence of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Louis VII of France
Louis VII was King of the Franks from 1137 until his death. He was the son and successor of King Louis VI of France, hence his nickname, immediately after the annulment of her marriage, Eleanor married Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, to whom she conveyed Aquitaine. When Henry became King of England in 1154, as Henry II, Henrys efforts to preserve and expand on this patrimony for the Crown of England would mark the beginning of the long rivalry between France and England. Louis VIIs reign saw the founding of the University of Paris and he died in 1180 and was succeeded by his son Philip II. Louis was born in 1120 in Paris, the son of Louis VI of France. The early education of Prince Louis anticipated an ecclesiastical career, in October 1131, his father had him anointed and crowned by Pope Innocent II in Reims Cathedral. He spent much of his youth in Saint-Denis, where he built a friendship with the Abbot Suger, an advisor to his father who served Louis well during his early years as king.
Following the death of William X, Duke of Aquitaine, Louis VI moved quickly to have Prince Louis married to Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, heiress of the late duke, on 25 July 1137. In this way, Louis VI sought to add the large, on 1 August 1137, shortly after the marriage, Louis VI died, and Prince Louis became king of France, reigning as Louis VII. The pairing of the monkish Louis and the high-spirited Eleanor was doomed to failure, she once declared that she had thought to marry a king. Louis and Eleanor had two daughters and Alix, in the first part of his reign, Louis VII was vigorous and zealous in his prerogatives. His accession was marked by no other than uprisings by the burgesses of Orléans and Poitiers. He soon came into violent conflict with Pope Innocent II, the pope thus imposed an interdict upon the king. As a result, Champagne decided to side with the pope in the dispute over Bourges, the war lasted two years and ended with the occupation of Champagne by the royal army. Louis VII was personally involved in the assault and burning of the town of Vitry-le-François, more than a thousand people who had sought refuge in the church died in the flames.
Overcome with guilt and humiliated by ecclesiastical reproach, Louis admitted defeat, removed his armies from Champagne and he accepted Pierre de la Chatre as archbishop of Bourges and shunned Raoul and Petronilla. Desiring to atone for his sins, he declared his intention of mounting a crusade on Christmas Day 1145 at Bourges, bernard of Clairvaux assured its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay on Easter 1146. In the meantime, Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, completed his conquest of Normandy in 1144, in exchange for being recognised as Duke of Normandy by Louis, Geoffrey surrendered half of the Vexin — a region vital to Norman security — to Louis
Stephen, Count of Blois
Stephen II Henry, Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Garsinde du Maine. He is numbered Stephen II after Stephen I, Count of Troyes, in 1089, upon the death of his father, he became the Count of Blois and Chartres, although Theobald had given him the administration of those holdings in 1074. He was the father of Stephen of England, Stephen was the head of the army council at the Crusaders siege of Nicaea in 1097. He returned home in 1098 during the siege of Antioch, fleeing the battlefield. He was pressured by Adela into making a pilgrimage. In 1102, Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven, Stephen married Adela of Normandy, a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres. He fathered Adelas children, Count of Sully Theobald II, Count of Champagne Odo, both drowned on 25 November 1120 in the White Ship disaster. Agnes, married Hugh III of Le Puiset Eleanor married Raoul I of Vermandois and had issue, davis, R. H. C.
King Stephen 1135–1154, Third Edition London, Longman 1990 ISBN 0-582-04000-0
William of the White Hands
White Hands and Whitehands redirect here. For similar uses, see White hand, William of the White Hands, called William White Hands, was a French cardinal. William was born in Brosse, Île-de-France, France and he was a son of Theobald the Great, Count of Blois and Count of Champagne, and Matilda of Carinthia. William served as Bishop of Chartres in 1165, Archbishop of Sens, Archbishop of Reims, and he anointed his nephew, Philip II of France, as co-king on 1 November 1179 in Rheims. Pope Alexander III created him Cardinal Priest of Santa Sabina in March 1179, as such and he died on 7 September 1202. William was portrayed by actor Liam OCallaghan in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devils Crown, ludwig Falkenstein, “Guillaume aux Blanches Mains, archevêque de Reims et légat du siège apostolique, ” Revue d’histoire de l’Église de France, XCI,2005, pp. 5-25. Kanonistische Abteilung, CXX,2003, pp. 107-284, * Dietrich Lohrmann, Papsturkunden in Frankreich. Jules Mathorez, “Guillaume aux Blanches-Mains, évêque de Chartres, ” Archives du diocese de Chartres, Pièces detaches, Etudes et documents, XX,1914, pp. 187-340