Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the Disinherited in 1332, and ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state. The wars were important for reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I, who was Margarets great-uncle.
However, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290, with her death, there were 13 rivals for succession. The two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted that he be recognised as Lord Paramount of Scotland, when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice. Edwards ploy worked, and the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, however, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. Two days later, in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm, all Scots were required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291.
There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, on 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that concern the competitors rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292, on 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made it clear that he regarded the country as a vassal state, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, and the Scots resented Edwards demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, on his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward I
The son of a deceased elder brother inherits before a living younger brother by right of substitution for the deceased heir. In the absence of any children, brothers succeed, among siblings, sons inherit before daughters. The principle has applied in history to inheritance of property as well as inherited titles and offices, most notably monarchies. Variations on primogeniture modify the right of the son to the entirety of a familys inheritance or, in the West since World War II. Most monarchies in Europe have eliminated male preference in succession, Denmark, Netherlands, Sweden, equal, or lineal primogeniture is a form of primogeniture in which gender does not matter for inheritance. This form of primogeniture was not practiced by any modern monarchy before 1980, according to Poumarede, the Basques of the Kingdom of Navarre transmitted title and property to the firstborn, whatever the gender. This inheritance practice was adhered to by the nobility and free families alike in the early. The Navarrese monarchy, was inherited by dynasties from outside of Navarre which followed different succession laws, eventually only the Basque lower nobility and free families of the Basque country and other regions continued to follow this practice, which persisted as late as the 19th century.
The most notable of these are the Egyptian cases of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, as well as the Ptolemaic Dynastys kings, Zapateros proposal was supported by the leader of the main opposition party, the conservative Partido Popular, making its passage likely. However, Zapateros administration ended before any amendment was drafted, Felipe succeeded to the throne as Felipe VI, upon his fathers abdication in 2014, by which time he had two daughters. Felipe VI has no son that would, absent the constitutional change, in July 2006, the Nepalese government proposed adopting absolute primogeniture, but the monarchy was abolished in 2008 before the change could be put into effect. In 2011, the governments of the 16 Commonwealth realms who share the person as their respective monarch announced the Perth Agreement. This was implemented when the legislation came into effect on 26 March 2015. In Japan, debates have occurred over whether to adopt absolute primogeniture, the birth of Prince Hisahito, a son of Prince Akishino has sidelined the debate.
In 2006, King Juan Carlos I of Spain issued a decree reforming the succession to noble titles from male-preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture. The order of succession for all noble dignities is determined in accordance with the title of concession and, if there is none, with that traditionally applied in these cases. Men and women have a right of succession to grandeeship and to titles of nobility in Spain. Male-preference primogeniture accords succession to the throne to a member of a dynasty if she has no living brothers
Clan Bruce is a Scottish clan from Kincardine in Scotland. It was a Royal House in the 14th century, producing two kings of Scotland, the surname Bruce comes from the French de Brus or de Bruis, derived from the lands now called Brix, situated between Cherbourg and Valognes in Normandy, France. There is no evidence to support a claim that a member of the family, Robert de Brix and this notion is now believed to have originated in unreliable lists, derived from the Middle Ages, of people who supposedly fought at the Battle of Hastings. Both the English and Scots lines of the Brus/Bruce family demonstrably descend from Robert de Brus, Robert de Brus was a companion-in-arms of Prince David, David I of Scotland. In 1124 he followed David north to reclaim his kingdom, when a civil war broke out in England between Empress Matilda and her cousin, David I of Scotland led a force into England. However de Brus did not follow David and instead joined the English and at the Battle of the Standard in 1138 he took prisoner his own son, Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale died on 11 May 1141 and was buried at Gysburn.
The union brought both great wealth, with the addition of lands in both England and Scotland and their son, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, known as the competitor was sometime Tanist to the throne. On the death of Alexander III of Scotland both Bruce and John Balliol claimed succession, Alexanders infant granddaughter was named as heir, she died in 1290 travelling to Scotland to claim her throne. Edward I saw this as the opportunity he had long waiting for to conquer Scotland as he had conquered Wales. In 1292 Edward chose Balliol who swore allegiance to the English monarch and it was not long, before Balliol rebelled against Edward, eventually leading to Johns defeat and forced abdication after the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. With the abdication of John Balliol, Scotland was effectively without a monarch, Robert the Bruce swore allegiance to Edward at Berwick-upon-Tweed but breached this oath when he joined the Scottish revolt the following year. In the summer of 1297 he again swore allegiance to Edward in what is known as the Capitulation of Irvine, Bruce, it seems, was seen as a man whose allegiance might still be won.
Bruce and John Comyn succeeded William Wallace as Guardians of Scotland, a meeting was arranged at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, neutral ground. Bruce stabbed Comyn through the heart, and as a result was excommunicated by Pope Clement V. Robert the Bruce was crowned at Scone, Robert led the Scottish army at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 where the English were defeated. In 1334 Thomas Bruce, who claimed kinship with the house of Bruce, organized a rising in the Kyle. Robert the Bruces son, David II of Scotland became king on his fathers death in 1329, David returned to Scotland after negotiation of a treaty and ruled there until he died in Edinburgh Castle unexpectedly in 1371 without issue. The line of succession passed to the House of Stewart, Sir Edward Bruce was made commendator of Kinloss Abbey and was appointed a judge in 1597. He was appointed a Lord of Parliament with the title of Lord Kinloss in 1601, Edward Bruce accompanied James VI to claim his English throne in 1603
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Margaret, Maid of Norway
Margaret, Maid of Norway was a Norwegian princess who reigned as Queen of Scots from 1286 until her death. Her death while travelling to Scotland sparked off the disputed succession led to the Wars of Scottish Independence. She was the daughter of King Eric II of Norway and Margaret, or she, even if she is without children, according to Scottish law and custom. Alexander III made similar provisions when arranging the marriage of his son Alexander to Margaret, daughter of Guy de Dampierre, Count of Flanders, probably in 1281. The treaty arranging the marriage, signed in December 1281, included a lengthy and complex document setting out the customs, as well as general statement of principles, the annex includes specific examples of the rights of A and M and their children in particular cases. The document, while confusing in places, appears to favour primogeniture for male heirs, or their descendants, the younger Alexander died on 28 January 1284, leaving only the kings granddaughter Margaret living out of his descendants.
Alexander III summoned all thirteen earls of Scotland and twenty-four barons, however, it is unlikely that this was intended to allow Margaret to rule alone as queen regnant, but rather jointly with her future spouse, whoever he might be. While unexceptional in the circumstances, this would appear to show that Alexander III had decided on remarriage and he did remarry, to Yolande de Dreux, but died shortly afterwards as the result of an accident on 19 March 1286 without any children by her. At this time it was thought that Queen Yolande was pregnant, so that Margaret was not yet the obvious successor. This, according to the oaths taken, made Margaret the heir at three years of age, but that same year Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale had rebelled with the aid of his son the Earl of Carrick. The Bruces captured strongholds in Galloway, and as well as bolstering their position in the south-west where their rivals the Balliols had influence, may have been making a bid for the Crown. The rebellion thus quickly fizzled out, though no action was taken against the Bruces after they had handed back the castles they had seized.
Far from the Scots displaying any desire to bring Margaret to Scotland, Eric sent official ambassadors to Edward I of England, in Gascony, in May 1289, with papers referring to Margaret as queen. The Scots were in a position since Eric could arrange his daughters marriage to Edward Is son Edward or anyone else without reference to the Guardians. That marriage of Edward, Prince of Wales, was in King Edwards mind is clear from the fact that a papal dispensation was received from Pope Nicholas IV ten days after the treaty was signed. Thought to show bad faith on Edwards part, the Papal Bull did not contract a marriage, like Eric, was now writing of Queen Margaret, anticipating her inauguration and the subsequent marriage to his son. Her remains were taken to Bergen and interred beside her mother in the wall on the side of the choir in Christ Church. Her death left no heir to the Scottish throne and the matter of succession was resolved in the Great Cause of 1291–2
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic.
About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic.
An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria
Tanistry was a Gaelic system for passing on titles and lands. The Tanist was chosen from among the heads of the roydammna or righdamhna or, among all males of the sept, the eligibility was based on patrilineal relationship, which meant the electing body and the eligibles were agnates with each other. The composition and the governance of the clan were built upon male-line descent from a similar ancestor, the office was noted from the beginning of recorded history in Ireland, and probably pre-dates it. A story about Cormac mac Airt refers to his eldest son as his Tanist, following his murder by a member of the Deisi, another roydammna, Eochaid Gonnat, succeeded as king. In Ireland, the tanistry continued among the dominant dynasties, as well as lords and chieftains. When in 1943 Ireland appointed its first new Chief Herald, it did not reintroduce tanistry, the state granted courtesy recognition to Irish chiefs based on primogeniture from the last known chief. The Gaels exported tanistry and other customs to those parts of Scotland which they controlled after 400 CE, the Picts, did not share the succession principles of their neighbours of Ireland and Scottish Gaels.
No female succession, or male succession via female lines, is allowed in the Irish, by contrast, Pictish succession often used links through females. The royal succession in Celtic Scotland was limited to the elective agnatic or male line of the Siol Alpein until the accession of King Malcolm II in 1005 and this monarch was the first to introduce the concept of hereditary monarchy in Scotland. He did so to try to eliminate the strife caused by the elective law, since Malcolm had only daughters, he introduced the right of female-line succession in Scotland. This gave rise to conflict by competitors for generations thereafter, the Irish monarchies never at any stage allowed for female line succession, a position which is maintained to the present day. The Tanist held office for life and was required by custom to be of age, in possession of all his faculties. At the same time, and subject to the conditions, a tanist or next heir to the Monarchy was elected. The usual rules for qualification as a roydammna was that a candidate had to be a member of the Derbfhine, a kindred all descended in the male line from a common ancestor.
This is recalled in the coats of arms of representatives of the clans and septs descended from the Uí Néill royal dynasty. The joints in the fingers, the fingernails, and the hand and this meant that the group became highly exclusive, keeping the kingship within the dynasty. Many in the wider clan might be reduced to gentry or peasant status and these features make tanistry an agnatic succession mode, and a succession by appointment, as it was an elective monarchy. Tanistry evades the basic requirement of the monarchy, i. e. that the outcome of the succession is predictable, up to the identity of successor and next heirs
France in the Middle Ages
From the 13th century on, the state slowly regained control of a number of these lost powers. The crises of the 13th and 14th centuries led to the convening of an assembly, the Estates General. From the Middle Ages onward, French rulers believed their kingdoms had natural borders, the Pyrenees, the Alps and this was used as a pretext for an aggressive policy and repeated invasions. The belief, had little basis in reality for not all of territories were part of the Kingdom. France had important rivers that were used as waterways, the Loire, the Rhone and these rivers were settled earlier than the rest and important cities were founded on their banks but they were separated by large forests and other rough terrains. Before the Romans conquered Gaul, the Gauls lived in villages organised in wider tribes, the Romans referred to the smallest of these groups as pagi and the widest ones as civitates. These pagi and civitates were often taken as a basis for the imperial administration and these religious provinces would survive until the French revolution.
Discussion of the size of France in the Middle Ages is complicated by distinctions between lands personally held by the king and lands held in homage by another lord, the domaine royal of the Capetians was limited to the regions around Paris and Sens. The great majority of French territory was part of Aquitaine, the Duchy of Normandy, the Duchy of Brittany, the Comté of Champagne, the Duchy of Burgundy, and other territories. Philip II Augustus undertook a massive French expansion in the 13th century, only in the 15th century would Charles VII and Louis XI gain control of most of modern-day France. The weather in France and Europe in the Middle Ages was significantly milder than during the preceding or following it. Historians refer to this as the Medieval Warm Period, lasting from about the 10th century to about the 14th century, part of the French population growth in this period is directly linked to this temperate weather and its effect on crops and livestock. At the end of the Middle Ages, France was the most populous region in Europe—having overtaken Spain, in the 14th century, before the arrival of the Black Death, the total population of the area covered by modern-day France has been estimated at around 17 million.
The population of Paris is controversial, josiah Russell argued for about 80,000 in the early 14th century, although he noted that some other scholars suggested 200,000. The higher count would make it by far the largest city in western Europe, the Black Death killed an estimated one-third of the population from its appearance in 1348. The concurrent Hundred Years War slowed recovery and it would be the mid-16th century before the population recovered to mid-fourteenth century levels. The vast majority of the population spoke a variety of vernacular languages derived from vulgar Latin. Modern linguists typically add a group within France around Lyon
Malcolm II of Scotland
Malcolm was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of King Kenneth II, the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Forranach, to the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. Malcolm II was born to Kenneth II of Scotland and he was grandson of Malcolm I of Scotland. In 997, the killer of Constantine is credited as being Kenneth, son of Malcolm. Since there is no known and relevant Kenneth alive at that time, it is considered an error for either Kenneth III, who succeeded Constantine, or, Malcolm himself, the son of Kenneth II. Whether Malcolm killed Constantine or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Constantines successor Kenneth III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn. John of Fordun writes that Malcolm defeated a Norwegian army in almost the first days after his coronation, Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.
Malcolm demonstrated an ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man, brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolms ministers and of the church. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld, his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, was married to Finlay, Earl of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year. The first reliable report of Malcolm IIs reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg, which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, Earl of Bernicia.
A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful, the Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Malcolm II and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. The work De obsessione Dunelmi claims that Uchtreds brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Malcolm II and this is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027, burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Malcolm as powerful in resources and arms … very Christian in faith and deed
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth