Heiligenberg is a municipality and a village in the Bodensee district in Baden-Württemberg, about seven kilometres north of Salem, in Germany. Heiligenberg is located in the upper Linzgau region; because of its location, Heiligenberg offers visitors an exceptional panoramic view of Lake Constance and the Alps, is therefore known as "the viewing terrace of the Lake," due to the altitude of the town, between 700 and 800 meters above sea level. In the summer there is, in contrast to the lake area, less sultry days and in winter the snow is much heavier, why in Heiligenberg and the surrounding area winter sports are popular; the geographic features and climate of the area make Heiligenberg a nationally recognized health resort. Parts of the town area show traces of settlement from the Stone Age. Christianity arrived at the village around AD 600 through the Irish disciple Saint Gall, it is unclear whether the name Heiligenberg comes from this period, or in pre-Christian times as a local place of worship.
1083 was the year. In the 13th century a local Count built a castle. By 1535 the castle was in the possession of the Princely House of Fürstenberg and became a magnificent chateau, it is still in possession of this noble family today. Official website
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the Renaissance style spread to other Italian cities; the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion and the regularity of parts, as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly arrangements of columns and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches, hemispherical domes and aedicula replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
The word "Renaissance" derived from the term "la rinascita", which means rebirth, first appeared in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et scultori Italiani The Lives of the Artists, 1550–60. Although the term Renaissance was used first by the French historian Jules Michelet, it was given its more lasting definition from the Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose book, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien 1860, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1860, English translation, by SGC Middlemore, in 2 vols. London, 1878) was influential in the development of the modern interpretation of the Italian Renaissance; the folio of measured drawings Édifices de Rome moderne. Erwin Panofsky and Renascences in Western Art, The Renaissance style was recognized by contemporaries in the term "all'antica", or "in the ancient manner". Italy of the 15th century, the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, it is in Florence that the new architectural style had its beginning, not evolving in the way that Gothic grew out of Romanesque, but consciously brought to being by particular architects who sought to revive the order of a past "Golden Age".
The scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about. Italian architects had always preferred forms that were defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery and Pisa Cathedral. Italy had never adopted the Gothic style of architecture. Apart from the Cathedral of Milan, few Italian churches show the emphasis on vertical, the clustered shafts, ornate tracery and complex ribbed vaulting that characterise Gothic in other parts of Europe; the presence in Rome, of ancient architectural remains showing the ordered Classical style provided an inspiration to artists at a time when philosophy was turning towards the Classical. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them, making the movement of artists possible; this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, through Milan, France.
In 1377, the return of the Pope from the Avignon Papacy and the re-establishment of the Papal court in Rome, brought wealth and importance to that city, as well as a renewal in the importance of the Pope in Italy, further strengthened by the Council of Constance in 1417. Successive Popes Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy. In the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East; the large towns of Northern Italy were prosperous through trade with the rest of Europe, Genoa providing a seaport for the goods of France and Spain. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, the industry on which its wealth was founded. By dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the lucrative business of money-lending; the Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming princes themselves as they did so, by reason of both wealth and influence.
Along the trade routes, thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. The return of the Pope Gregory XI from Avignon in September 1377 and the resultant new emphasis on Rome as the center of Christian spirituality, brought about a boom in the building of churches in Rome such as had not taken place for nearly a thousand years; this commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the Baroque period. The construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peter's, one of Christendom's most significant churches, were part of this process. In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual; the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city und
The Baar is a plateau that lies 600 to 900 metres above sea level in southwest Germany. It is bordered by the southeastern edge of the Black Forest to the west, the southwestern part of the Swabian Alb known as the Heuberg to the east, the Randen mountain to the south; the Baar contains the source of the Danube. The sources of the Danube, the Brigach and Breg, originate in Furtwangen im Schwarzwald and Sankt Georgen im Schwarzwald and join the smaller Donaubach in Donaueschingen; the coldest point in Germany is located at Donaueschingen in a low cold air basin which experiences its first frost as early as September 20 on average, earlier than the surrounding Black Forest. The Baar is composed of several types of landscape. In the west is Baarschwarzwald, in the center Baarhochmulde, in the south the Wutachland around the Wutach river, in the east the Baaralb, a low area with buttes of the Swabian Alb like the Hohenkarpfen and the Lupfen, the highest point in the Baar at 977 metres; the Baar makes up the core of the Schwarzwald-Baar-Heuberg administrative region of Baden-Württemberg and contains the district Schwarzwald-Baar-Kreis, the western part of Kreis Tuttlingen, the southern part of Kreis Rottweil, juts out into Kreis Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald.
Baarschwarzwald St. Georgen, Furtwangen, Königsfeld, Vöhrenbach Baarhochmulde Bad Dürrheim, Bräunlingen, Donaueschingen, Hüfingen, Rottweil and Villingen-Schwenningen Baaralb Seitingen-Oberflacht, Geisingen, Zimmern, Spaichingen and Tuttlingen Wutachland Löffingen and Döggingen
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849. Much of the revolutionary activity had a nationalist character: the Empire, ruled from Vienna, included ethnic Germans, Slovenes, Czechs, Ruthenians, Croats and Serbs; the nationalist picture was further complicated by the simultaneous events in the German states, which moved toward greater German national unity. Besides these nationalists and socialist currents resisted the Empire's longstanding conservatism; the events of 1848 were the product of mounting social and political tensions after the Congress of Vienna of 1815. During the "pre-March" period, the conservative Austrian Empire moved further away from ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, restricted freedom of the press, limited many university activities, banned fraternities. Conflicts between debtors and creditors in agricultural production as well as over land use rights in parts of Hungary led to conflicts that erupted into violence. Conflict over organized religion was pervasive in pre-1848 Europe.
Tension came both between members of different confessions. These conflicts were mixed with conflict with the state. Important for the revolutionaries were state conflicts including the armed forces and collection of taxes; as 1848 approached, the revolutions the Empire crushed to maintain longstanding conservative minister Klemens Wenzel von Metternich's Concert of Europe left the empire nearly bankrupt and in continual need of soldiers. Draft commissions led to brawls between civilians. All of this further agitated the peasantry. Despite lack of freedom of the press and association, there was a flourishing liberal German culture among students and those educated either in Josephine schools or German universities, they published newspapers discussing education and language. These middle class liberals understood and accepted that forced labor is not efficient, that the Empire should adopt a wage labor system; the question was. Notable liberal clubs of the time in Vienna included the Legal-Political Reading Club and Concordia Society.
They, like the Lower Austrian Manufacturers' Association were part of a culture that criticized Metternich's government from the city's coffeehouses and stages, but prior to 1848 their demands had not extended to constitutionalism or freedom of assembly, let alone republicanism. They had advocated relaxed censorship, freedom of religion, economic freedoms, above all, a more competent administration, they were opposed to the universal franchise. More to the left was a impoverished intelligentsia. Educational opportunities in 1840s Austria had far outstripped employment opportunities for the educated. In 1846 there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles; the economic crisis of 1845-47 was marked by food shortages throughout the continent. At the end of February 1848, demonstrations broke out in Paris. Louis Philippe of France abdicated the throne. After news broke of the February victories in Paris, uprisings occurred throughout Europe, including in Vienna, where the Diet of Lower Austria in March demanded the resignation of Prince Metternich, the conservative State Chancellor and Foreign Minister.
With no forces rallying to Metternich's defense, nor word from Ferdinand I of Austria to the contrary, he resigned on 13 March. Metternich fled to London, Ferdinand appointed new, nominally liberal, ministers. By November, the Austrian Empire saw several short-lived liberal governments under five successive Ministers-President of Austria: Count Kolowrat, Count Ficquelmont, Baron Pillersdorf, Baron Doblhoff-Dier and Baron Wessenberg; the established order collapsed because of the weakness of the Austrian armies. Field Marshal Joseph Radetzky was unable to keep his soldiers fighting Venetian and Milanese insurgents in Lombardy-Venetia, had to, order the remaining troops to evacuate. Social and political conflict as well as inter and intra confessional hostility momentarily subsided as much of the continent rejoiced in the liberal victories. Mass political organizations and public participation in government became widespread. However, liberal ministers were unable to establish central authority.
Provisional governments in Venice and Milan expressed a desire to be part of an Italian confederacy of states. A new Hungarian government in Pest announced its intentions to break away from the Empire and elect Ferdinand its King, a Polish National Committee announced the same for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria; the victory of the party of movement was looked at as an opportunity for lower classes to renew old conflicts with greater anger and energy. Several tax boycotts and attempted murders of tax collectors occurred in Vienna. Assaults against soldiers were common, including against Radetzky's troops retreating from Milan; the archbishop of Vienna was forced to flee, in Graz, the convent of the Jesuits was destroyed. The demands of nationalism and its co
Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg
Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg was a German count and prince of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg in the Holy Roman Empire. He was a clergyman who became bishop of Strasbourg, was involved in European politics after the Thirty Years' War, he worked for the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and Louis XIV of France at the same time, was arrested and tried for treason for convincing the Elector to fight on the opposite side of a war from the Empire. Wilhelm was a younger son of Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg and Anna Maria of Hohenzollern-Hechingen, his father died in the Thirty Years' War in 1635. Starting in 1637, Wilhelm attended the Gymnasium Tricoronatum with Franz Egon. There they met Maximilian Heinrich of Bavaria and formed friendships that would shape all their careers. Wilhelm went on to study in Louvain in 1643, after that to study theology in Rome in 1646. While there, he was made a favourable impression. In 1648, Wilhelm was made subdeacon in the cathedral chapter at Cologne, the following year joined Franz as a member of the Archbishop-Elector's privy council.
In 1650, when their friend Maximilian inherited the role of Archbishop-Elector and Franz gained significant influence in the court. In 1651, Cardinal Mazarin stayed in Cologne as a safe haven during the Fronde. During that time, he got to know Franz and Wilhelm, to see the influence they had in Cologne and other lands within the Empire, he began to cultivate them as supporters of French aims within the Empire, supporting their interest in developing Rhineland defensive alliances. In 1656, the Cardinal gave Wilhelm control of the Abbey of St. Michel en Thiérache near Soissons; when Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, died in 1657, Mazarin asked Wilhelm to help him influence the selection of the next Emperor going so far as to suggest Louis XIV of France for the role. Maximilian and the Electors of Mainz and Trier sent Wilhelm to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, to see if he would be willing to be put forth as the next Emperor, but he declined. Wilhelm reported this result in person to the Cardinal and Louis XIV, let them know that the French king did not have a reasonable chance with the electors.
At this meeting, the Cardinal began negotiating with Wilhelm the fees and titles for him and his brother if they worked for French interests. The Cardinal instructed his lead negotiator in the Empire, Hugues de Lionne, to continue negotiating with the brothers for their support, indicating that the king would pay them eighteen thousand livres for ongoing dedicated work, regardless of the result of the election of the Emperor. Wilhelm insisted on a document spelling out the benefits offered, as he was concerned the French might leave him out to dry after he showed himself too opposed to the Habsburgs. On 4 June 1658, Lionne and Wilhelm signed an agreement detailing French support for the counts should they continue to work "for all the plans and interests of His Majesty in Germany". Following the coronation of Leopold I, Wilhelm and Franz contributed to the establishment of the League of the Rhine in August 1658; this was joined by the French as a further check against the new Habsburg Emperor.
The Habsburgs tried to offer the brothers prizes and titles if they would halt the League's formation, but they refused. In 1659, Cardinal Mazarin asked Maximilian and Johann Philipp von Schönborn, the Elector of Mainz, to oversee negotiations to end the Franco-Spanish War. Maximilian thereafter sent Wilhelm to the French court, to negotiations and to the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees. In 1661, Wilhelm spent months in Paris conveying the suit of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, who wished to marry Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans, Duchess of Montpensier. While she rejected the offer, she did enjoy spending time with Wilhelm, admiring his intelligence and his knowledge of foreign affairs. In 1664, Leopold elevated the territory of Fürstenberg-Heligenberg from a county to a principality, extended the title of Prince to Franz and Wilhelm, though their brother ruled the territory; this was done to try and draw the brothers closer to Habsburg Austria, but did not appear to change much. As the representative from Cologne, Wilhelm drove the negotiations in 1665 and 1666 to end the involvement of Bernhard von Galen, the Bishop of Münster, in the Second Anglo-Dutch War so that they would not overly restrict the authority of the Bishop of Münster to wage war in the future.
When Philip IV of Spain died in 1665, the great powers wondered how long his heir, the sickly Charles II, would last. Wilhelm was put to work by France to begin negotiations related to the succession in Spain and in the Spanish Netherlands. In the run up to the War of Devolution, Wilhelm carried funds to Maximilian to fund the build-up of an army for Cologne, he visited the Count Palatine of Neuburg, Philip Wilhelm, the Elector of Bavaria to persuade them not to allow Austrian forces to move through their lands to oppose French maneuvers in the Netherlands. On 8 January 1667, Wilhelm went to Vienna representing Cologne to sound out the Emperor's feelings about the succession splitting the Netherlands from Spain after the death of Charles. There he spent much time establishing relationships with various ministers at the court, he was offered titles and money to join the Habsburg side and work for the end of the League of the Rhine, but he demurred. He was sought by Petar Zrinski, who wished his help in a Hungarian revolution.
Wilhelm avoided being seen too with him. However, he did let Louis XIV know of the Hungari
Donaueschingen is a German town in the Black Forest in the southwest of the federal state of Baden-Württemberg in the Schwarzwald-Baar Kreis. It stands near the confluence of the two sources of the river Danube. Donaueschingen stands in a basin within low mountainous terrain, it is located about 13 km south of Villingen-Schwenningen, 24 km west of Tuttlingen, about 30 km north of the Swiss town of Schaffhausen. In 2015 the population was 21,750, making it the second largest town in the district of Schwarzwald-Baar, it is a regional rail hub. Donaueschingen lies in the Baar basin in the southern Black Forest at the confluence of the Brigach and Breg rivers— the two source tributaries of the Danube— from which the town gets its name; this is today considered the true source of the Danube. An enclosed karst spring on the castle grounds, the source of the "Donaubach", is known as the source of the Danube; the municipal area extends continuously from the granite and gneiss of the Black Forest through the Triassic formations of the Schwarzwald-Baar talus to the Swabian Alb, exhibits all strata of the southern German cuesta country.
The heights decrease from 1,020 metres in the Black Forest to about 660 metres on the Baar plateau increase to above the 900 metres mark again at the Swabian Alb. A model showing the extraordinary geological setting of the city and its surrounding region is located in the park opposite the train station; the town is less than an hour's drive from both Switzerland and France. Donaueschingen is first recorded as Esginga in 889. In 1283, Rudolph von Habsburg granted the principality of Baar and Donaueschingen to Heinrich von Fürstenberg; the right to brew beer was connected with this grant. This is the source of the Royal Fürstenberg Brewery. In 1488, possession was passed to the Count of Fürstenberg-Baar. From the 18th Century it was the residence of the Princes of Fürstenberg. In 1806, Donaueschingen came under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Baden and was granted township in 1810. A large part of the town was destroyed by fire in 1908. Donaueschingen has a tradition as a military garrison. S. Air Force operated a contingency hospital there.
The hospital never received casualties on a large scale from military operations. Though the Princes of Fürstenberg were nominally mediatised and deposed as absolute ruler of the principality, they still own huge property in their former lands, including their palace with the surrounding parks and gardens; the Schlosspark which used to be public and the only park accessible to the citizens of the town since 1806 became off-limits again. The Princes of Fürstenberg were the owners of an important manuscript of the Nibelungenlied until they sold it in 2001; the ancestral brewery has been sold. The results of the 2014 local elections are as follows: The town's economy consists of nearly 1,000 various enterprises, of which 24 are medium-sized employing 2,200 people; the most important industries are machine assembly, injection moulding, magnetics and shoe manufacturing. Donaueschingen station is a regional rail hub, it sits on the Schwarzwaldbahn line from Offenburg to Konstanz and it is the start of the Höllentalbahn from Donaueschingen to Freiburg im Breisgau.
Both of these lines are uniquely constructed. Donaueschingen is the starting point for the Donautalbahn and the Bregtalbahn which run to Ulm and Bräunlingen respectively; the town is part of the Schwarzwald-Baar public transport system. The town is on a spur of the A 81 to Stuttgart. Three Federal Highways cross each other near Donaueschingen: the B 27 from Stuttgart to Schaffhausen; the long-distance Danube Cycle Trail follows the course of the Danube. It is one of the longest bicycle trails in Europe; the town has four secondary schools: the Fürstenberg-Gymnasium and the Wirtschaftsgymnasium, one Realschule, one Hauptschule. There are four elementary schools associated with these schools: Eichendorffschule, Erich-Kästner-Schule, Grundschule Pfohren, the Grundschule Wolterdingen. There are two special-needs schools: the Karl-Wacker-Schule. There are two professional training schools: the Donaueschingen Commercial School and the Business and Home Economics Schools. There is the Nursing College and the College for Agriculture.
The Academy for Further Education and Personal Development is located in the former district hospital. The Donaueschingen Festival for contemporary music, founded in 1921 and one of the world's oldest festivals for new music, takes place every year in October. Guest composers have included Paul Hindemith, Arnold Schoenberg, Pierre Boulez, Elliott Carter, John Cage, György Ligeti. Donaueschingen is home to the Museum Art. Plus, a contemporary art museum established in 1941. Donaueschingen has partnerships with the following cities: Kaminoyama, Japan * Saverne, France Vác, Hungary Anselm Kiefer, German painter and sculptor Homepage for Donaueschingen Information about the Donaueschingen region Sport in Donaueschingen
Fürstenberg Castle (Hüfingen)
Fürstenberg Castle is a castle in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the Fürstenberg hill near the town of Hüfingen; the castle was first mentioned in a deed of 1175 as a possession of the House of Zähringen, which became extinct with the death of Duke Berthold V. Around 1250, his heir Count Henry of Urach made it his residence and thereafter was the first to call himself a Count of Fürstenberg; the castle was devastated in the Thirty Years' War, it was never rebuilt