A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, nicknamed der Großmütige, was a champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany. Philip was the son of Landgrave William II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, his father died when Philip was five years old, in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent on his behalf. The struggles over authority continued, however. To put an end to them, Philip was declared of age in 1518, his actual assumption of power beginning the following year; the power of the Estates had been broken by his mother. His education had been imperfect, his moral and religious training had been neglected. Despite all this, he developed as a statesman, soon began to take steps to increase his personal authority as a ruler; the first meeting of Philip of Hesse with Martin Luther took place in 1521, at the age of 17, at the Diet of Worms. There he was attracted by Luther's personality, though he had at first little interest in the religious elements of the gathering.
Philip embraced Protestantism in 1524 after a personal meeting with the theologian Philipp Melanchthon. He helped suppress the German Peasants' War by defeating Thomas Müntzer at the Battle of Frankenhausen. Philip refused to be drawn into the anti-Lutheran league of George, Duke of Saxony, in 1525. By his alliance with John, Elector of Saxony, concluded in Gotha on 27 February 1526, he showed that he was taking steps to organize a protective alliance of all Protestant princes and powers. At the same time, he united political motives with his religious policy; as early as the spring of 1526, he sought to prevent the election of the Catholic Archduke Ferdinand as Holy Roman Emperor. At the Diet of Speyer in the same year, Philip championed the Protestant cause, rendering it possible for Protestant preachers to propagate their views while the Diet was in session, like his followers disregarding ordinary Roman Catholic ecclesiastical usages. Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, Philip determined to organize the church there according to Protestant principles.
In this he was aided not only by his chancellor, the humanist Johann Feige, his chaplain, Adam Krafft, but by the ex-Franciscan François Lambert of Avignon, a staunch enemy of the faith he had left. While the radical policy of Lambert, embodied in the Homberg church order, was abandoned, at least in part, the monasteries and religious foundations were dissolved and their property was applied to charitable and scholastic purposes; the University of Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, like the University of Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theologians. Philip's father-in-law George, Duke of Saxony, the bishop of Würzburg, Konrad II von Thungen, the archbishop of Mainz, Albert III of Brandenburg, were active in agitating against the growth of the Reformation, their activities, along with other circumstances, including rumors of war, convinced Philip of the existence of a secret league among the Roman Catholic princes. His suspicions were confirmed to his own satisfaction by a forgery given him by an adventurer, employed in important missions by George of Saxony, one Otto von Pack.
After meeting with Elector John of Saxony in Weimar on 9 March 1528, it was agreed that the Protestant princes should take the offensive in order to protect their territories from invasion and capture. Both Luther and the elector's chancellor, Gregor Brück, though convinced of the existence of the conspiracy, counseled against acting on the offensive; the imperial authorities at Speyer now forbade all breach of the peace, after long negotiations, Philip succeeded in extorting the expenses for his armament from the dioceses of Würzburg and Mainz, the latter bishopric being compelled to recognize the validity of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Hessian and Saxon territory until the Holy Roman Emperor or a Christian council should decide to the contrary. Political conditions were nonetheless unfavorable to Philip, who might be charged with disturbing the peace of the empire, at the Second Diet of Speyer, in the spring of 1529, he was publicly ignored by Emperor Charles V. Nevertheless, he took an active part in uniting the Protestant representatives, as well as in preparing the celebrated Protestation at Speyer.
Before leaving the city he succeeded in forming, on 22 April 1529, a secret understanding between Saxony, Nuremberg and Ulm. Philip was anxious to prevent division over the subject of the Eucharist. Through him Huldrych Zwingli was invited to Germany, Philip thus prepared the way for the celebrated Marburg Colloquy. Although the attitude of the Wittenberg theologians frustrated his attempts to bring about harmonious relations, although the situation was further complicated by the position of Georg, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, who demanded a uniform confession and a uniform church order, Philip held that the differences between the followers of Martin Bucer and the followers of Luther in their sacramental theories admitted honest disagreement, that Holy Scripture could not resolve the differences definitively; the result was. His sympathy for the Reformers associated with Zwingli in Switzerland and Bucer in Strasburg was intensified by the anger of the emperor at receiving from Philip a statement of Protestant tenets composed by the ex-Franciscan Lambert, the landgrave's failure to secure any common action on the part of the Protestant powers regarding the approaching Turkish war.
Frederick William, Elector of Hesse
Frederick William I was, between 1847 and 1866, the last Prince-elector of Hesse-Kassel. He was born at Hanau, the son of Prince William William II, Elector of Hesse, Princess Augusta of Prussia, daughter of Frederick William II of Prussia. During the French occupation of Hesse-Kassel he stayed with his mother in Berlin; the relationship with his father was bad, because of his father's affair with Emilie Ortlöpp. Frederick was educated at Leipzig, he became co-regent on 30 September 1831, Prince-elector in 1847. Under influence of his minister Hans Daniel Ludwig Friedrich Hassenpflug he conducted a reactionary policy, which made him unpopular, he was forced to give in to the demands of the March Revolution, but reinstated Hassenpflug in 1850 after the revolution had been crushed. In the Austro-Prussian War he chose the side of Austria, his capital Kassel was occupied by Prussia, and, as a consequence of his refusal to negotiate, he was transferred as a prisoner to Stettin on 23 June. Hessen-Kassel was annexed by Prussia in the same year.
Frederick William never accepted the Prussian dominance over his territory. After the creation of the unified German Empire, he tried to regain his throne, he died at Prague in 1875. Because of his morganatic marriage, his sons were excluded from succession, he was succeeded, as titular Prince-elector of Hesse, by Prince Frederick William of Hesse, from the house of Hesse-Rumpenheim. Frederick William morganatically married on 26 June 1831 to Gertrude Falkenstein, daughter of Johann Gottfried Falkenstein and wife Magdalena Schulz. Gertrude Falkenstein was the former wife of Lt Karl Michael Lehmann, whom his father William II made her Her Illustrious Highness Countess of Schaumburg in and whom he made Princess of Hanau and to Horowitz in, they had nine children, some born before marriage, who were made princes of Hanau, granted the style of Serene Highness in 1862. Subsequently, the Prince-elector divorced Gertrud. Augusta Marie Gertrude, married 1849 Ferdinand Maximilian III Prince zu Isenburg-Büdingen in Wächtersbach.
They were the grandparents of Princess Sophie of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. Alexandrine, married 1851 Prince Felix zu Hohenlohe-Oehringen Frederich Wilhelm, married morganatically twice: 1856 Auguste Birnbaum. Moritz, married morganatically 1875 Anne von Lossberg. Karl, married 1882 Countess Hermine Grote. Heinrich, married morganatically Martha Riegel Philipp, married morganatically Albertine Hubatschek-Stauber. Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold in 1846
Donatus, Landgrave of Hesse
Donatus and Landgrave of Hesse is the eldest son and successor of German aristocrat Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse, his former wife, Princess Tatiana of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg. A great-grandson of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, he is named in part after Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, he is a great-great-great grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, through his paternal grandfather Philipp's mother Margaret, a granddaughter of Queen Victoria. His father Moritz was a third cousin of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. A trained economist, Donatus directs the Hessische Hausstiftung, a foundation established to curate and showcase the cultural heritage and history of the House of Hesse, a dynasty which ruled the Electorate of Hesse-Cassel until 1866, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine until 1918, whose male-line descendants include the Protestant leader Philip the Magnanimous, the Swedish king Frederick I, Russia's last tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, the exiled Spanish queen Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Britain's last viceroy of India, the assassinated Louis, Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
Donatus manages Prinz von Hessen, a winery specializing in production of varietal vintages on his 45 hectare vineyard. Prince Donatus' father became the head of the Hesse-Cassel line on the death of his own father, Landgrave Philip in 1980. Having been the adopted son and heir of his distant cousin, Prince of Hesse and by Rhine, the latter's death in 1968 as the last male of the Hesse-Darmstadt branch left Moritz head of the entire House of Hesse, to which Donatus is the successor. Donatus married Countess Floria Franziska Marie-Luisa Erika von Faber-Castell in a civil ceremony in Wiesbaden on 25 April 2003; the bride is a communications professional and a niece of Count Anton Wolfgang von Faber-Castell, chairman of the board of the famous Faber-Castell pen-and-pencil company headquartered near Nuremberg and scion of the eponymous family. The couple's religious wedding ceremony took place on 17 May 2003, attended by royalty and aristocrats. Held at the Johanneskirche and followed by a grand ball in the Green Salon, state room of the former Friedrichshof palace in Kronberg where Donatus's ancestress, the German Empress Frederick, lived in widowhood, more than 300 guests were present.
Among them was Caroline, Princess of Hanover, the heiress presumptive of Monaco. Landgrave Donatus and his wife have a daughter and two sons, Princess Paulina and Hereditary Prince Moritz and Prince August. Founded in 1928, the Foundation of the House of Hesse is the successor institution of a family trust, established in 1830, confiscated by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866, re-established after partial restitution in 1878; the foundation manages the family fortunes including forests, agricultural estates, hotels and an art collection. The latter is shown at Fasanerie Palace in Eichenzell, Hesse, a former summer palace of the Prince Abbots of Fulda, taken over by the Landgraves of Hesse after the secularization and mediatisation of the Prince-bishopric of Fulda in 1803. Schlosshotel Kronberg and Grandhotel Hessischer Hof in Frankfurt are hotels, the Weingut Prinz von Hessen a winery in Johannisberg, purchased in 1957, while Schloß Wolfsgarten south of Frankfurt am Main and Panker estate are used as private seats of the family.
Other castles have been sold, such as Schloss Philippsruhe in Hanau, Schloss Rumpenheim in Offenbach am Main and Tarasp Castle in Switzerland
Prussia was a prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia on the southeast coast of the Baltic Sea. It was de facto dissolved by an emergency decree transferring powers of the Prussian government to German Chancellor Franz von Papen in 1932 and de jure by an Allied decree in 1947. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organised and effective army. Prussia, with its capital in Königsberg and from 1701 in Berlin, decisively shaped the history of Germany. In 1871, German states united to create the German Empire under Prussian leadership. In November 1918, the monarchies were abolished and the nobility lost its political power during the German Revolution of 1918–19; the Kingdom of Prussia was thus abolished in favour of a republic—the Free State of Prussia, a state of Germany from 1918 until 1933. From 1933, Prussia lost its independence as a result of the Prussian coup, when the Nazi regime was establishing its Gleichschaltung laws in pursuit of a unitary state.
With the end of the Nazi regime, in 1945, the division of Germany into allied-occupation zones and the separation of its territories east of the Oder–Neisse line, which were incorporated into Poland and the Soviet Union, the State of Prussia ceased to exist de facto. Prussia existed de jure until its formal abolition by the Allied Control Council Enactment No. 46 of 25 February 1947. The name Prussia derives from the Old Prussians. In 1308, the Teutonic Knights conquered the region of Pomerelia with Gdańsk, their monastic state was Germanised through immigration from central and western Germany, and, in the south, it was Polonised by settlers from Masovia. The Second Peace of Thorn split Prussia into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, the eastern part, from 1525 called the Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657; the union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia entered the ranks of the great powers shortly after becoming a kingdom, exercised most influence in the 18th and 19th centuries.
During the 18th century it had a major say in many international affairs under the reign of Frederick the Great. During the 19th century, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck united the German principalities into a "Lesser Germany", which excluded the Austrian Empire. At the Congress of Vienna, which redrew the map of Europe following Napoleon's defeat, Prussia acquired rich new territories, including the coal-rich Ruhr; the country grew in influence economically and politically, became the core of the North German Confederation in 1867, of the German Empire in 1871. The Kingdom of Prussia was now so large and so dominant in the new Germany that Junkers and other Prussian élites identified more and more as Germans and less as Prussians; the Kingdom ended in 1918 along with other German monarchies that collapsed as a result of the German Revolution. In the Weimar Republic, the Free State of Prussia lost nearly all of its legal and political importance following the 1932 coup led by Franz von Papen. Subsequently, it was dismantled into Nazi German Gaue in 1935.
Some Prussian ministries were kept and Hermann Göring remained in his role as Minister President of Prussia until the end of World War II. Former eastern territories of Germany that made up a significant part of Prussia lost the majority of their German population after 1945 as the People's Republic of Poland and the Soviet Union both absorbed these territories and had most of its German inhabitants expelled by 1950. Prussia, deemed a bearer of militarism and reaction by the Allies, was abolished by an Allied declaration in 1947; the international status of the former eastern territories of Germany was disputed until the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in 1990, while its return to Germany remains a topic among far right politicians, the Federation of Expellees and various political revisionists. The term Prussian has been used outside Germany, to emphasise professionalism, aggressiveness and conservatism of the Junker class of landed aristocrats in the East who dominated first Prussia and the German Empire.
The main coat of arms of Prussia, as well as the flag of Prussia, depicted a black eagle on a white background. The black and white national colours were used by the Teutonic Knights and by the Hohenzollern dynasty; the Teutonic Order wore a white coat embroidered with a black cross with gold insert and black imperial eagle. The combination of the black and white colours with the white and red Hanseatic colours of the free cities Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck, as well as of Brandenburg, resulted in the black-white-red commercial flag of the North German Confederation, which became the flag of the German Empire in 1871. Suum cuique, the motto of the Order of the Black Eagle created by King Frederick I in 1701, was associated with the whole of Prussia; the Iron Cross, a military decoration created by King Frederick William III in 1813, was commonly associated with the country. The region populated by Baltic Old Prussians who were Christianised, became a favoured location for immigration by Germans, as well as Poles and Lithuanians along the border regions.
Before its abolition, the territory of the Kingdom of Prussia included the provinces of West Prussia.
Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse
Henry I of Hesse "the Child" was the first Landgrave of Hesse. He was Duke of Brabant and Sophie of Thuringia. In 1247, as Heinrich Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia, died without issue, conflict arose about the future of Thuringia and Hesse; the succession was disputed between Heinrich Raspe's nephew and his niece: Sophie was the daughter of Heinrich Raspe's brother Ludwig IV and claimed the territories on behalf of her son Henry, while Henry the Illustrious, margrave of Meissen, was the son of Heinrich Raspe's sister Jutta. Another competitor were the Archbishops of Mainz, who could claim Hesse was a fiefdom of the archbishop and now, after the extinction of the Ludowingians, demanded its return to them. Sophia, supported by the Hessian nobility, succeeded in retaining Hesse against her cousin, who in 1264 accepted the division of the Ludowingian inheritance: Henry of Meissen received Thuringia, while Sophia's son Heinrich would inherit Hesse. In the following year, the Archbishop Werner II von Eppenstein acceded to this outcome in the Treaty of Langsdorf, accepting Henry as his liege-man and Landgrave of Hesse.
At this time, the landgraviate of Hesse consisted of the region between Wolfhagen, Eschwege, Alsfeld, Grünberg and Biedenkopf. In the same year, Henry acquired a part of the county of Gleiberg with Gießen from the Counts palatine of Tübingen; the landgraviate was centred on the towns of Kassel, where Henry took up his residence since 1277, Marburg, where his grandmother Saint Elisabeth was buried and where Henry built the Castle Marburg. Henry again got into conflict with the Archbishop, about the possession of Naumburg. On behalf of the Archbishop, Henry was outlawed in 1274 by King Rudolf I of Habsburg, but after Henry had supported Rudolph in the war against Otakar II of Bohemia and had helped to conquer Vienna 1276, Rudolph reinstated Henry. In 1290 Henry defeated the Archbishop in the battle of Fritzlar and could henceforth maintain his territory. Though Henry never relinquished his own claim on Brabant, he supported his nephew John of Brabant against Guelders and Luxembourg in the Limburg succession war.
On 12 May 1292, Henry was made a Reichsfürst by King Adolf of Nassau, freeing Hesse of the supremacy of the Archbishop of Mainz. Henry was bestowed with the Boyneburg, strengthening his position in Hesse. By skillful diplomacy he gained the cities of Sooden-Allendorf, Witzenhausen, Grebenstein, Staufenberg and Reinhardswald. In 1263 Henry had married Adelheid of Brunswick, daughter of Duke Otto of Brunswick, who bore him four daughters and the sons Henry and Otto. After Adelheid's death in 1274, Henry had married Mechthild, daughter of Dietrich VI, Count of Cleves, who bore him another four daughters and the sons John and Louis. In 1292 internal conflict arose about the question of Henry's successor. Mechthild of Cleves demanded on her sons receiving a share of the heritage, while Henry and Otto, Henry's sons by his first wife, insisted on excluding their stepbrothers from the inheritance; this led to civil war lasting throughout the rest of Henry's lifetime. Henry died in Marburg during the conflict, was buried there in St. Elisabeth's Church, which became the gravesite of the succeeding Landgraves for several more centuries.
After his death, the inheritance was divided between Otto, who received Upper Hesse around Marburg, John, who received Lower Hesse, centred on Kassel. John's younger brother Ludwig had entered the clergy and became bishop of Münster in 1310. First marriage to Adelheid, daughter of Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Sophia, married 1276 to Count Otto I of Waldeck. Henry the Younger, married in 1290 to Agnes of Bavaria, Margravine of Brandenburg-Stendal. Matilda, married to: 1283 Count Gottfried of Ziegenhain. Adelheid, married 1284 to Count Bertold VII of Henneberg-Schleusingen. Elisabeth, married c. 1287 to Count Johann of Sayn. an unnamed son. Otto. Second marriage to Mechthild of Cleves, John. Elisabeth, married to 1290 Duke William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Agnes, married to Burgrave John I of Nuremberg. Louis, Bishop of Münster in 1310-57. Elisabeth, married in 1299 to Count Albert II of Gorizia. Katharina, married to Count Otto IV of Orlamünde. Jutta, married 1311 to Duke Otto of Braunschweig-Göttingen.
Wikisource: Allgemeine Deutsch Biographie "Heinrich I." Family Tree of Landgraves of Hesse