Bergen, New Netherland
Bergen was a part of the 17th century province of New Netherland, in the area in northeastern New Jersey along the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers that would become contemporary Hudson and Bergen Counties. Though it only existed as an independent municipality from 1661, with the founding of a village at Bergen Square, Bergen began as a factorij at Communipaw circa 1615 and was first settled in 1630 as Pavonia; these early settlements were along the banks of the North River across from New Amsterdam, under whose jurisdiction they fell. Explored to The Narrows by Giovanni da Verrazzano, sailing on French expedition in 1524, the area was visited by Spanish and English seafarers during the next century, it was again visited in 1609 by the Englishman Henry Hudson, commissioned by the Dutch East India Company to find a navigable passage to Asia. During this journey his ship, the Halve Maen, laid anchor at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove, Weehawken Cove, other places along the river which now bears his name.
At the time of his exploration the shoreline was different from today, consisting of huge tidal marshes and oyster beds Several other expeditions to the coast of North America were made between 1610 and 1614. At the time the existing population were bands of seasonally migrational Algonquian people, the Lenape; the area that would become Bergen was the territory of Unami, or Turtle Clan, called the Hackensack Indians and the Tappan. While the Hackensack tended to camp on the tidal lands, the Tappan moved in the highlands. Other related peoples circulated in the region: the Acquackanonk, the Manhattan, the Raritan, the Haverstraw, the Rockaway, the Wecquaesgeek; some were called Delaware Indians. Their larger communities were palisaded villages where they practiced companion planting to supplement foraging and fishing. Shellfishing in the vast oyster beds spread throughout the entire estuary was essential to their diet; the trapping of beaver and rodents for pelts played a crucial role in their interaction with the Swannukens or Salt Water People, who procured the land from them through "purchases" that were misconstrued by both parties.
A basic misconception was that while Europeans thought they were buying land in perpetuity, the Lenape believed they were entering into defense alliances with farming and fishing rights. The Tappan and Hackensack had early and frequent contact with the settlers, their sagamore, negotiated many agreements and treaties with them. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was founded to exploit trade in the Western Hemisphere, by 1625 had established a colony at New Amsterdam. In the hope of encouraging settlement the company, in 1629, started to offer vast land grants and the feudal title of patroon. In 1630, Michael Pauw, a burgermeester of Amsterdam and a director of the company, purchased two tracts from the native population at Hopoghan Hackingh and at Ashasimus, though the patroonship included the entire peninsula between the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, his holdings on Staten Eylandt, it was given the Latinized form of Pavonia. It is said it was sold to him by the Manhattans after they had retreated there after the sale of their home island to Peter Minuit some years before.
A small hut and ferry landing were built at Arresick, called Powles Hoek, but Pauw failed to fulfill the other conditions set forth by the company, was required to sell his interests back to it. In 1633, the WIC commissioned a house to be built for an appointed superintendent, Jan Everts Bout, at Communipaw. Another homestead was built at Ahasimus by his replacement, Hendrick Van Vorst, in 1634. Abraham Isaac Planck received a land patent for Paulus Hook on May 1, 1638. In 1640, David Pietersen de Vries bought from the Tappan a tract of about 500 acres and established Vriessendael, about an hour's walk north of Communipaw. In 1643, was leased by Aert Van Putten, where he built North America's first brewery; these homesteads grew into small agricultural, communities as the land around them was sold or leased and "bouweries" and "plantages" were developed. Trade between the indigenous and settling populations consisted of wampum, European manufactured goods, beaver pelts. Though the settlements were small, they were strategic trading posts with a good harbor and foothold on the west bank of what had been named the Noort Rivier.
Place naming in 17th century Europe was influenced by location in reference to other places, age, topography, or geographic features. Such was the case with Achter Kol. "Achter", meaning behind, "kol", meaning ridge or pass, can be translated as the "behind the ridge", in this case Bergen Neck. The appeal of Achter Kol would have been great: Close to Fort Amsterdam, the tidal flats were similar to those of Lowlands, while the riparian lands surrounding them were abundant with beavers, whose pelts represented the potential for great profit; the river valleys to the north would allow access to the interior. The term Achter Col was used by the New Netherlanders, the English colonials, to describe the entire region around Newark Bay and the waters that flow in and out of it
Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and English/British rule of New York from 1625 or 1626, until being torn down in 1790 after the American Revolution; the fort changed hands eight times in various battles including the Battle of Long Island in the American Revolution, when volleys were exchanged between the fort and British emplacements on Governor's Island. The construction of the fort marked the official founding date of New York City as recognized by the Seal of New York City. In October 1683 what would become the first session of the New York legislature convened at the fort. Guns at the fort formed the original battery; the fort's site is now occupied by the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House, which houses the George Gustav Heye Center, part of the National Museum of the American Indian. Fort Amsterdam was designed by chief engineer of the New Netherland colony. Seventeenth-century Dutch forts all followed a similar design.
Intended as a standard star-shaped fort, Fort Amsterdam had four sides with a bastion at each corner to better protect the walls. The fort was built of hard-packed earth or rubble because earthworks would absorb cannon fire without collapsing as stone walls might. Much of the construction was done by enslaved Africans held by the Dutch West India Company; the fort was constructed at the southern tip of Manhattan Island, at the junction of the East and North rivers. Building commenced in 1625 under the direction of Willem Verhulst, the second director of the New Netherland colony; the elevation of the site was somewhat higher than it is today. The fort stood on a hill that sloped down to Bowling Green. At the time, Manhattan was sparsely settled, as most of the Dutch West India Company operations were upriver along the Hudson in order to conduct trading operation for beaver pelts. According to John Romeyn Brodhead, while the fort was under construction, three Wechquaesgeek individuals traveled south from the area of present-day Westchester County to barter beaver skins.
When they reached the Kolck, a pond near what is now Chinatown, they were set upon by three farmhands, one of the two adults was killed. When the young boy, with them grew older, he took his revenge for the murder of his uncle, which act served as a pretext for Kieft's War; the fort was the nucleus of the New Amsterdam settlement and its mission was protecting New Netherland colony operations in the Hudson River against attack from the English and the French. Although its main function was military, it served as the center of trading activity, it contained a barracks, a church, a house for the West India Company director, a warehouse for the storage of company goods. Troops from the fort used the triangle between the Heerestraat and what came to be known as Whitehall Street for marching drills, it is sometimes asserted that around 1620, the Dutch East India Company contacted the English architect Inigo Jones asking him to design a fortification for the harbor. Jones responded in a letter with a plan for a star-shaped fortification made of stone and lime, surrounded by a moat, defended with cannon.
Jones advised the company against constructing a timber fort out of haste. The involvement of Jones cannot be corroborated with reliable documentary evidence. In autumn 1664, four English warships with several hundred soldiers onboard arrived in New Amsterdam’s harbor and demanded the Dutch surrender. Although Peter Stuyvesant at least outwardly prepared to fight, prominent city residents persuaded him to stand down, on September 8 he signed the colony over without any blood being shed in one of the skirmishes of the larger Second Anglo–Dutch War; the English renamed the fort Fort James, in honour of James II of England, New Amsterdam was renamed New York in recognition of James's title as Duke of York. In August 1673, the Dutch recaptured Manhattan; the Dutch attack was part of the bigger Third Anglo-Dutch War. The fort was renamed Fort Willem Hendrick in honor of William III of England, Stadtholder and Prince of Orange, New York was renamed New Orange. In 1674, the fort and New Orange were turned back over to the English in the Treaty of Westminster which ended the war.
The English once returned the Fort James name. During this period, Thomas Dongan, 2nd Earl of Limerick, the royal governor of New York, convened the first legislature of New York in October 1683 for a meeting at the fort. Dongan was the first to establish batteries of cannon to the south of the fort. In 1689, following the Glorious Revolution, in which William and Mary acceded to the throne, German-born colonist Jacob Leisler seized the fort in what was called Leisler's Rebellion, he represented the common people against a group of wealthy leaders represented by Pieter Stuyvesant and others and enacted a government of direct popular representation. By some accounts, he acted to redistribute wealth to the poor. Leisler's rule ended in 1691, when British sovereign William's new governor reached New York; the fort had earlier been named for Willem. He became the sovereign of the English government by the overthrow of James in the Glorious Revolution; the fort was renamed Fort William Henry in honor of the new Protesta
History of Harlem
Founded in the 17th century as a Dutch outpost, Harlem developed into a farming village, a revolutionary battlefield, a resort town, a commuter town, a ghetto, a center of African-American culture. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area that would become Harlem was inhabited by the Manhattans, a native tribe, who along with other Native Americans, most Lenape occupied the area on a semi-nomadic basis; as many as several hundred farmed the Harlem flatlands. The first European settlement in the area was by siblings Hendrick and Rachel de Forest, Franco-Dutch immigrants in 1637. In 1639 Jochem Pietersen Kuyter established the homestead named Zedendaal, or Blessed Valley, stretched along the Harlem River from about the present 127th Street to 140th Street. Early European settlers were forced to flee to New Amsterdam in lower Manhattan whenever hostilities with the natives heated up, the native population decreased amidst conflict with the Dutch; the settlement was named Nieuw Haarlem, after the Dutch city of Haarlem, was formally incorporated in 1660 under leadership of Peter Stuyvesant.
The Indian trail to Harlem's lush bottomland meadows was rebuilt by black slaves of the Dutch West India Company, developed into the Boston Post Road. In 1664, the English took control of the New Netherland colony, English colonial Governor Richard Nicolls established the "Harlem Line" as the southern border patent line of the village of Nieuw Haarlem running northward between near modern East 74th Street, at the East River, West 129th Street, on the Hudson River; the British tried to change the name of the community to "Lancaster", but the name never stuck, settled down to the Anglicized Harlem. The Dutch took control of the area again for one year in 1673; the village grew slowly until the middle 18th century, it became a resort of sorts for the rich of New York City. Only the Morris-Jumel Mansion survives from this period. Harlem played an important role in the American Revolution; the British had established their base of operations in lower Manhattan, George Washington fortified the area around Harlem to oppose them.
From Harlem, he could control the land routes to the north, as well as traffic on the Harlem River. The New York Provincial Congress met in White Plains, as did the convention drafting the constitution for New York State. On September 16, 1776, the Battle of Harlem Heights, sometimes referred to as the Battle of Harlem or Battle of Harlem Plain, was fought in western Harlem around the Hollow Way, with conflicts on Morningside Heights to the south and Harlem Heights to the north; the American troops were outnumbered, 5000 to 2000, were ill-equipped compared to their opponents, but outflanked the British and forced them to retreat to the area around what is now West 106th Street. It was Washington's first American victory; that year, the British would avenge this defeat by chasing Washington and his troops north turning back and burning Harlem to the ground. Rebuilding took decades, infrastructure was improved much more than was happening in New York City proper; the village remained rural through the early 19th century and, though the "grid system" of streets, designed downtown, was formally extended to Harlem in 1811, it does not seem that anybody expected it would mean much.
The 1811 report that accompanied the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 noted that it was "improbable that the grounds north of the Harlem Flat will be covered with houses."Though undeveloped, the area was not poor. Harlem was "a synonym for elegant living through a good part of the nineteenth century." The village remained farmland estates, such as Van Keulen's Hook, orig. Otterspoor, bordered north of the Mill Creek, which flowed into Harlem Lake, to the farm of Morris Randall, northwest on the Harlem River, westward to the Peter Benson, or Mill Farm; this former bowery was subdivided into twenty-two equal plots, of about 6 to 8 acres each, of which portions owned by Abraham Storm, including thirty-one acres were sold by Storm's widow Catherine in 1795 to James Roosevelt. This branch of the Roosevelt family subsequently moved to the town of Hyde Park, but several of Roosevelt's children remain interred in Harlem; as late as 1820, the community had dwindled to 91 families, a church, a school, a library.
Wealthy farmers, known as "patroons", maintained these country estates on the heights overlooking the Hudson River. Service connecting the outlays of Harlem with the rest of the City of New York was done via steamboat on the East River, an hour-and-a-half passage, sometimes interrupted when the river froze in winter, or else by stagecoach along the Boston Post Road, which descended from McGown's Pass and skirted the salt marshes around 110th Street, to pass through Harlem; the New York and Harlem Railroad was incorporated in 1831 to better link the city with Harlem and Westchester County, starting at a depot at East 23rd Street, extending 127 miles north to a railroad junction in Columbia County at Chatham, New York by 1851. Charles Henry Hall, a wealthy lawyer and land speculator, recognized the changes that this railroad would make possible in Harlem and began a successful program of infrastructure development, building out streets, gas lines, sewer lines, other facilities needed for urban life.
Piers were built, enabling
New Netherland settlements
New Netherland was the 17th century colonial province of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands on the northeastern coast of North America. The claimed territory was the land from the Delmarva Peninsula to southern Cape Cod; the settled areas are now part of the Mid-Atlantic states of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, with small outposts in Connecticut and Pennsylvania. Its capital of New Amsterdam was located at the southern tip of the island of Manhattan on the Upper New York Bay; the region was explored in 1609 by Henry Hudson on an expedition for the Dutch East India Company. It was surveyed and charted, was given its name in 1614; the Dutch named the three main rivers of the province the Zuyd Rivier, the Noort Rivier, the Versche Rivier. They intended to use them to gain access to the interior, the indigenous population, the lucrative fur trade. International law required discovery and settlement to perfect a territorial claim. Large scale settlement was rejected in favor of a formula, working in Asia of establishing factories.
This period is sometimes referred to as the Dutch Golden Age, despite on-going wars on the European continent, it was difficult to recruit people to leave the economic boom and cultural vibrancy of Europe. Mismanagement and under-funding by the Dutch West India Company hindered early settlement, as well as misunderstandings and armed conflict with Indians. Liberalization of trade, a degree of self-rule, the loss of Dutch Brazil led to exponential growth in the 1650s. Transfers of power from the Netherlands to England were peaceful in the province, the last one formalized in 1674; the first of two Forts Nassau was built in Mahican territory during the first decade, where commerce could be conducted with Indians, factorijen went up at Schenectady, Esopus, Communipaw, Totoket and elsewhere. Trapper Jan Rodrigues is believed to have been the first non-Indian to winter on the island of Manhattan in 1611; the States General of the Dutch Republic awarded the newly formed Dutch West India Company a trade monopoly for the region in 1621, New Netherland became a province of the Dutch Republic in 1624.
The South River was chosen as the site of the capital because the colonists felt that it had the best climate. However, summer humidity and winter freezing made the North River more appealing. A number of ships brought settlers to the New World, at first to Noten Island and soon after to the tip of Manhattan, the colonists began construction of Fort Amsterdam, around which the colony began to grow. Small groups of the early arrivals were dispersed to Fort Orange, to Fort Wilhelmus, or to Kievets Hoek, but those who went to Fort Wilhelmus and Kievets Hoek were recalled. Among those who made the crossing were 11 Africans as company-owned slaves. In 1629, the Dutch West India Company introduced the Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, a series of inducements known as the patroon system. Invested members could receive vast land patents and manorial rights, somewhat reminiscent of a feudal lord, if they were willing to fulfill certain conditions, including transporting and settling at least 50 persons.
A number of attempts were made. Pavonia, across the river from New Amsterdam, was returned to the company and became a company-managed holding. In 1640, company policy was changed to allow land purchases by individuals in good standing. Another patroon patent was Zwaanendael Colony, the first Dutch colonial settlement on the Zuyd Rivier, but it was plundered soon after its founding in 1631. After 1638, settlement was in New Sweden, these were brought under New Netherland control in 1655 when Fort Casimir was built. In 1663, Pieter Corneliszoon Plockhoy attempted to create a utopian settlement in the region, but it expired under English rule; the Dutch established a short-lived factorij trading post at Kievits Hoek in present-day Old Saybrook, Connecticut shortly after constructing their first settlement on the island of Manhattan. They abandoned it soon after, however, in order to focus on the trading post at Fort Goede Hoop on the Connecticut River, completed in 1633; the Dutch had a trading post and possible fort at the mouth of the Branford River in Branford, which still contains a wharf called "Dutch Wharf."
Soon after, settlers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony formed the Connecticut Colony in 1639, the New Haven Colony soon followed. Petrus Stuyvesant attempted to prevent further competition for the area and agreed to a border 50 miles west of the river in the Treaty of Hartford; this did some not stem the flow of New Englanders to Long Island and the mainland along Long Island Sound, however. The port called. New Amsterdam was the capital of the province and received its municipal charter in 1652. A municipal charter was granted to Beverwijck in 1652, which had grown from a trading post to a bustling town in the midst of Rensselaerswyck. In 1657, the homesteads scattered along the west bank of the Hudson Valley in Esopus country were required to build a garrison that became the province's third largest town of Wiltwijk. Colonial settlers spread throughout the region after the final transfer of power to
Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171, it is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, the largest that functions as a town. The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England, it is 40 to 50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005; the town is named after a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom. The town of Greenwich was settled in 1640. One of the founders was Elizabeth Fones Winthrop, daughter-in-law of John Winthrop and Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. What is now called Greenwich Point was known for much of the area's early history as "Elizabeth's Neck" in recognition of Elizabeth Fones and their 1640 purchase of the Point and much of the area now known as Old Greenwich.
Greenwich was declared a township by the General Assembly in Hartford on May 11, 1665. During the American Revolution, General Israel Putnam made a daring escape from the British on February 26, 1779. Although British forces pillaged the town, Putnam was able to warn Stamford. In 1974, Gulliver's Restaurant and Bar, on the border of Greenwich and Port Chester, killing 24 young people. In 1983, the Mianus River Bridge, which carries traffic on Interstate 95 over an estuary, resulting in the death of three people. For many years, Greenwich Point, was open only to their guests. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there; the lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches in 2001. These beaches include Greenwich Point Park, Island Beach, Great Captain Island, Byram Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 67.2 square miles, of which 47.8 square miles is land and 19.4 square miles, or 28.88%, is water.
In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound. If you travel far enough east from Greenwich, you hit Long Island at its extremity. Therefore, Greenwich is in a geographically exceptional position, being in a sense surrounded by New York; the Census Bureau recognizes seven CDPs within the town: Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside, a "Greenwich" CDP covering a portion of town. The USPS lists separate zip codes for Greenwich, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside. Additionally, Greenwich is further divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. Longtime residents have a fierce loyalty and superior opinion of their particular neighborhood; the Hispanic population is concentrated in the southwestern corner of the town. In 2011, numerous neighborhoods were voted by the Business Insider as being the richest neighborhoods in America.
Byram, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, Riverside each have their own ZIP Codes and with the exception of Byram, each has a Metro North station. American Lane is separated by Interstate 684 from the entire rest of Connecticut and can be reached only from New York State. Round Hill, with an elevation of more than 550 feet, was a lookout point for the Continental Army during the American Revolution; the Manhattan skyline is visible from the top of the hill. Bush-Holley House Putnam Cottage Calf Island, a 29-acre island about 3,000 feet from the Byram shore in Greenwich, is open for visitors, although as of the summer of 2006 it was getting few of them. More than half of the island is a bird sanctuary off-limits to members of the public without permission to visit; the island is available for overnight stays for those with permits, otherwise the east side is open from dawn till dusk. Great Captain Island is off the coast of Greenwich, is the southernmost point in Connecticut. There is a Coast Guard lighthouse on this island, as well as a designated area as a bird sanctuary.
The lighthouse is a Skeletal Tower. Island Beach or "Little Captain Island" once was the venue for the town's annual Island Beach Day. Ventriloquist Paul Winchell and his dummy, Jerry Mahoney, once came for a show, on another occasion the National Guard let adults and children fire machine guns into the water, according to an article in the Greenwich Time. Island Beach has changed over the decades; the bathhouse once on the island's eastern shore is gone, erosion is eating away at the beaches themselves. Greenwich experiences a humid continental climate. During winter storms, it is common for the area north of the Merritt Parkway to receive heavier snowfall than the area closer to the coast, due to the moderating influence of Long Island Sound; as of the census of 2000, there were 61,101 people, 23,230 households, 16,237 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,277.6 people per square mile. There were 24,511 housing units at an average density of 512.5 per square mile. As of the census of 2013, the racial makeup of the town was 80.90%
Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions
The Charter of Freedoms and Exemptions, sometimes referred to as the Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, is a document written by the Dutch West India Company in an effort to settle its colony of New Netherland in North America through the establishment of feudal patroonships purchased and supplied by members of the West India Company. Its 31 articles establish ground rules and expectations of the patroons and inhabitants of the new colonies, it was ratified by the Dutch States-General on June 7, 1629. The economic situation of the colony of New Netherland in the late 1620s could be considered a good showing for a colony only newly started in a wilderness; the first settlement was built in 1613 out of necessity, but soon after, forts were built. At the time of the charter, the oldest settlement was only 16 years old, but this slow success was hardly sufficient to create much excitement among the directors of the West India Company. The principal objective of this organization was to go after the spoils of war, which promised rich harvests in the captured fleets of the Spanish, with colonization being only a secondary consideration.
Noting that the capture of the silver fleet in 1628 left the company proceeds of $115,000,000, that the next year sundry privateers brought in a bounty of over $18,000,000, it was hardly surprising that so little attention was paid to the settlements in the Hudson River Valley. Those were "get rich quick" days for large corporations, the slow and tedious procedure of colonizing and cultivating new countries found little favor in the eyes of the men at the helm; the realization that greater inducements had to be offered to increase the development of the colony led the West India Company to the creation of the so-called "patroon system". In 1629, the West India Company issued its charter of "Freedoms and Exemptions" by which it was declared that any member of the Company who could bring to and settle 50 persons over the age of 15 in New Netherland, should receive a liberal grant of land to hold as patroon, or lord, with the exception, per Article III, of the island of Manhattan; this land could have a frontage of 16 miles if on one side of a river, or 8 miles if situated on both sides.
The patroon would be chief magistrate on his land, but disputes of more than 50 guilders could be appealed to the Director and his Council in New Amsterdam. The tenants would be free from all taxation for 10 years, but during this period they would not be allowed to change from one estate to another nor to move from the country to the town. At least one quarter of the 50 inhabitants would have to be settled within the first year of the land grant, with the rest being settled within three years following that; the patroons would have full liberty to purchase goods in New Netherland, New England, New France, with the exception of furs. But the trader would have to pay an export tax of five per cent in New Amsterdam before goods could be shipped to Europe; the fur trade remained a monopoly of the Company. The weaving of cloth was prohibited in order to supply the looms in Holland with their needed raw supplies; the patroon would be responsible for the expenses in erecting barns and other structures and preparing land for farming in addition to supplying the initial farming tools and livestock.
However, each tenant would be due to pay a stipulated rent in addition to a percentage of that which they produced. Additionally, no farmer could sell any good without first offering it to patroon; the patroon bore responsibility of hiring a minister and schoolmaster, as well as financing the respective structures when they became needed. Once the patroonship became a profitable enterprise, the patroon was expected to share net profits with the tenants. There are some notable aspects of the charter, while aiming to make the West India Company wealthy and successful, offered great incentives to the patroons and respect to the indigenous peoples. For example, Article XXVI states that the patroon "must satisfy the Indians of that place for the land" implying that the land must be bought from the local Indians, not just taken. Article VI states that the patroon "shall forever own and possess and hold from the Company as a perpetual fief of inheritance, all the land lying within the aforesaid limits", which made the patroonship a fiefdom.
It shall be seen that one patroonship would last well into the 19th century. Additionally, the Company agreed to protect the patroonships from attack, supply the patroonship—for free—"with as many blacks as it can... for longer time than it shall see fit". The earliest venture to explore New Netherland for future colonization by a potential patroon was upon notification to the Directors on January 13, 1629 that Samuel Godyn, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Samuel Blommaert had sent Gillis Houset and Jacob Jansz Cuyper to determine satisfactory locations for settlement; this took place before the Charter was ratified, but was done in agreement with a draft of the Charter from March 28, 1628. Upon ratification of the charter on June 7, 1629, Michael Pauw informed the Directors of his intention to settle along the "Sickenames River", a stream east of the Connecticut River. On June 19, Samuel Godyn declared his intention to settle "the bay of the South River", the current day Delaware Bay, naming the settlement Zwaanendael.
After the settlement had been in existence for only a short while, the colonists—32 in number—were murdered by the local Indians. Godyn sold his holdings back to the West India Company. Patroonships were not limited to the area of the northeastern United States. On October 15, Michael Pauw made his intention known to settle the islands of Fer